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Populations of Critically Endangered White-rumped Gyps bengalensis and Slender-billed G. tenuirostris Vultures in Nepal declined rapidly during the 2000s, almost certainly because of the effects of the use in livestock of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac, which is nephrotoxic to Gyps vultures. In 2006, veterinary use of diclofenac was banned in Nepal and this was followed by the gradual implementation, over most of the geographical range of the two vulture species in Nepal, of a Vulture Safe Zone (VSZ) programme to advocate vulture conservation, raise awareness about diclofenac, provide vultures with NSAID-free food and encourage the veterinary use in livestock of a vulture-safe alternative NSAID (meloxicam). We report the results of long-term monitoring of vulture populations in Nepal before and after this programme was implemented, by means of road transects. Piecewise regression analysis of the count data indicated that a rapid decline of the White-rumped Vulture population from 2002 up to about 2013 gave way to a partial recovery between about 2013 and 2018. More limited data for the Slender-billed Vulture indicated that a rapid decline also gave way to partial recovery from about 2012 onwards. The rates at which populations were increasing in the 2010s exceeded the upper end of the range of increase rates expected in a closed population under optimal conditions. The possibility that immigration from India is contributing to the changes cannot be excluded. We present evidence from open and undercover pharmacy surveys that the VSZ programme had apparently become effective in reducing the availability of diclofenac in a large part of the range of these species in Nepal by about 2011. Hence, community-based advocacy and awareness-raising actions, and possibly also provisioning of safe food, may have made an important contribution to vulture conservation by augmenting the effects of changes in the regulation of toxic veterinary drugs.
An investigation for search of correlation between the daily observations of mean magnetic field and daily flare count number in different class is studied here. The daily observations for mean magnetic field presented here are taken by Wilcox Solar observatory and daily flare count in different X-ray class is provided by National Centers For Environmental Information.
Crab Pulsar (PSR B0531+21) is known to emit pulsed emission in all bands of the electromagnetic spectrum. It also emits giant radio pulses (GRPs) frequently, which are roughly a hundred to million times brighter than the normal pulses. We aim to study whether there is a significant X-ray enhancement correlated with the occurrence of GRPs, using simultaneous observations with the ASTROSAT, the Giant Meterwave Radio telescope (1300 MHz) and the Ooty Radio telescope (325 MHz). This required determination of fixed pipeline offsets between different instruments. We find the offset between ASTROSAT and GMRT to be −30.181 ± 0.095 ms and that between ASTROSAT and ORT to be −18.4 ± 0.2 ms. Our preliminary results with 1300 MHz data also show a break in pulse intensity distribution at ~ 33 Jy in the main pulse and ~ 28 Jy in the inter-pulse.
A regional, multistate investigation into a June–August 2013 cyclosporiasis outbreak was conducted in Nebraska, Iowa, and neighbouring states. Cases were confirmed on the basis of laboratory and clinical findings. Of 227 cases in Iowa (n = 140) and Nebraska (n = 87) residents, 162 (71%) reported dining at chain A/B restaurants – 96% reported house salad consumption. A case-control study identified chain A/B house salad as the most likely vehicle. Traceback was conducted to ascertain production lot codes of bagged salad mix (iceberg and romaine lettuce, red cabbage, and carrots) served as house salad in implicated restaurants. A single production lot code of salad mix supplied by both a common producer and distributor was linked to the majority of confirmed cases in persons reporting regional chain A/B exposure. The salad mix linked to illnesses contained imported romaine lettuce from two separate single-grower fields-of-origin and ⩾1 additional field from another grower.
To explore the treatment outcomes of patients treated with re-irradiation for recurrent or second primary head and neck cancer.
An analysis was performed of 79 head and neck cancer patients who underwent re-irradiation for second primaries or recurrent disease from January 1999 to December 2011.
Median time from previous radiation to re-irradiation for second primary or recurrence was 53.6 months (range, 2.7–454.7 months). Median age at diagnosis of first primary was 54 years. Median re-irradiation dose was 45 Gy (range, 45–60 Gy). Acute grade 3 or worse toxicity was seen in 30 per cent of patients. Median progression-free survival for recurrent disease was 15.0 months (95 per cent confidence interval, 8.33–21.66). The following factors had a statistically significant, positive impact on progression-free survival: patient age of less than 50 years (median progression-free survival was 29.43, vs 13.9 months for those aged 50 years or older; p = 0.004) and disease-free interval of 2 years or more (median progression-free survival was 51.66, vs 13.9 months for those with less than 2 years disease-free interval).
Re-irradiation of second primaries or recurrences of head and neck cancers with moderate radiation doses yields acceptable progression-free survival and morbidity rates.
Monitoring the glacier mass balance of summer-accumulation-type Himalayan glaciers is critical to not only assess the impact of climate change on the volume of such glaciers but also predict the downstream water availability and the global sea-level change in future. To better understand the change in meteorological parameters related to glacier mass balance and runoff in a glacierized basin and to assess the highly heterogeneous glacier responses to climate change in the Nepal Himalaya and nearby ranges, the Cryosphere Monitoring Project (CMP) carries out meteorological observations in Langtang Valley and mass-balance measurements on Yala Glacier, a debris-free glacier in the same valley. A negative annual mass balance of –0.89m w.e. and the rising equilibrium-line altitude of Yala Glacier indicate a continuation of a secular trend toward more negative mass balances. Lower temperature lapse rate during the monsoon, the effect of convective precipitation associated with mesoscale thermal circulation in the local precipitation and the occurrence of distinct diurnal cycles of temperature and precipitation at different stations in the valley are other conclusions of this comprehensive scientific study initiated by CMP which aims to yield multi-year glaciological, hydrological and meteorological observations in the glacierized Langtang River basin.
Deriving glacier outlines from satellite data has become increasingly popular in the past decade. In particular when glacier outlines are used as a base for change assessment, it is important to know how accurate they are. Calculating the accuracy correctly is challenging, as appropriate reference data (e.g. from higher-resolution sensors) are seldom available. Moreover, after the required manual correction of the raw outlines (e.g. for debris cover), such a comparison would only reveal the accuracy of the analyst rather than of the algorithm applied. Here we compare outlines for clean and debris-covered glaciers, as derived from single and multiple digitizing by different or the same analysts on very high- (1 m) and medium-resolution (30 m) remote-sensing data, against each other and to glacier outlines derived from automated classification of Landsat Thematic Mapper data. Results show a high variability in the interpretation of debris-covered glacier parts, largely independent of the spatial resolution (area differences were up to 30%), and an overall good agreement for clean ice with sufficient contrast to the surrounding terrain (differences ∼5%). The differences of the automatically derived outlines from a reference value are as small as the standard deviation of the manual digitizations from several analysts. Based on these results, we conclude that automated mapping of clean ice is preferable to manual digitization and recommend using the latter method only for required corrections of incorrectly mapped glacier parts (e.g. debris cover, shadow).
Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK, EC 18.104.22.168) is an essential regulatory enzyme of glycolysis in helminths in contrast to its role in gluconeogenesis in their host. Previously we have reported that phytochemicals from Flemingia vestita (Family: Fabaceae), genistein in particular, have vermifugal action and are known to affect carbohydrate metabolism in the cestode, Raillietina echinobothrida. In order to determine the functional differences of PEPCK from the parasite and its avian host (Gallus domesticus), we purified the parasite enzyme apparently to homogeneity, and characterized it. The native PEPCK is a monomer with a subunit molecular weight of 65 kDa. The purified enzyme displayed standard Michaelis-Menten kinetics with Km value of 42·52 μM for its substrate PEP. The Ki for the competitive inhibitors GTP, GMP, ITP and IMP for the carboxylation reaction were determined and discussed. In order to identify putative modulators from plant sources, phytochemicals from F. vestita and Stephania glabra were tested on the purified PEPCK, which resulted in alteration of its activity. From our results, we hypothesize that PEPCK may be a potential target site for anthelmintic action.
The generation of 1–5 MeV protons from the interaction of a 3 ps TW CO2 laser pulse with a gas target with a peak density around the critical plasma density has been studied by 2D particle-in-cell simulations. The proton acceleration in the preformed plasma with a symmetric, linearly ramped density distribution occurs via formation of sheath of the hot electrons on the back surface of the target. The maximum energy of the hot electrons and, hence, net acceleration of protons is mainly defined by Forward Raman scattering instability in the underdense part of the plasma. Forward directed ion beams from a debris free gaseous target can find an application as a high-brightness ion source-injector to a conventional accelerator operating up to kHz pulse repetition frequency.
To propose radiofrequency coblation as a potential treatment modality for mild to moderate epistaxis in patients with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia.
Case reports and review of the world literature concerning coblation and other treatment modalities for epistaxis in patients with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia.
Effective epistaxis control was achieved in four out of five cases of hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia. In the fifth case, we struggled to achieve haemostasis due to disease severity.
Radiofrequency coblation is a novel technique, which was found to be a safe, effective, quick and well tolerated treatment option for epistaxis management in patients with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia.
Experiments demonstrate the ~77× amplification of 0.5 to 3.5-ps pulses of seed light by interaction with Langmuir waves in a low density (1.2 × 1019 cm−3) plasma produced by a 1-ns, 230-J, 1054-nm pump beam with 1.2 × 1014 W/cm2 intensity. The waves are strongly damped (kλD = 0.38, Te = 244 eV) and grow over a ~ 1 mm length, similar to what is experienced by scattered light when it interacts with crossing beams as it exits an ignition target. The amplification reduces when the seed intensity increases above ~1 × 1011 W/cm2, indicating that saturation of the plasma waves on the electron kinetic time scale (<0.5 ps) limits the scatter to ~1% of the available pump energy. The observations are in agreement with 2D PIC simulations in this case.
On-farm participatory varietal selection (PVS) trials are often of two types: mother trials (with all of the entries) and baby trials (each having one, or very few of the entries from the mother trials). We conducted PVS trials on 17 wheat varieties in 12 villages of four districts of Bangladesh over three years but the data were highly unbalanced. Both quantitative and qualitative traits were measured in the on-farm trials. The factors in the trials were both fixed effects (varieties and districts) and random (years and farmers). We used the residual or restricted maximum likelihood (REML) analysis for the mixed model for quantitative traits. For qualitative data on farmers' perceptions, logistic regression procedures were used that are equally applicable to balanced and unbalanced data sets. The REML analysis provided adjusted mean values for quantitative traits for all the varieties, for the mother and baby trials separately, using the data from all years and all locations. It identified varieties BAW 1006 and BAW 1008 that yielded 19–30% more than the control Kanchan and also had a higher 1000-grain weight, were at least as early to flower and had a high overall ranking by farmers in the mother trials. The logistic regression analysis of perception data agreed with the results of the REML analysis as these varieties were most preferred by farmers for grain yield, earlier maturity and better chapatti making quality. The less labour-intensive method of recording qualitative perceptions can usefully replace actual yield measurements, particularly when validated by other participatory measures such as intended and actual adoption. In 2005, BAW 1006 was released as BARI Gom 23 or Bijoy and BAW 1008 as BARI Gom 24 or Prodip for the whole of Bangladesh. The validity of the results of the REML analysis was confirmed by the high early adoption trends of the identified varieties. Since REML is an effective analysis for unbalanced PVS trial data using a mixed model, its wider use by researchers would increase the value of the PVS process.
Sulfur nanoparticles were synthesized from hazardous H2S gas by desulfurization based on liquid redox process . The use of novel biodegradable iron chelates, in particular, FeCl3-malic acid chelate system has been extensively studied in various aqueous surfactant systems of Tween 80, SDS, CTAB for catalytic oxidation of H2S gas at ambient conditions of temperature, pressure and neutral pH. The structural features of sulfur nanoparticles have been characterized by XRD, TEM, and DLS measurements. XRD analysis indicates the presence of Metal-sulfur (JCPDS-08247). TEM analysis shows that the morphology of sulfur nanoparticles synthesized in aqueous surfactant system of Tween 80 is nearly uniform in size of 12nm average particle size, in SDS surfactant system shows 15nm average particle size, where as sulfur nanoparticles synthesized in CTAB shows average particle size of 7nm. The DLS result shows the mono-dispersity of the sulfur nanoparticles in the aqueous surfactant systems. The described process serves mainly two objectives; (a) waste utilization for preparation of commercially important nano-sulfur product and (b) reduction in environmental pollution. 1. G. Nagal, Chem. Eng. 104, 125 (1997).
Many public-sector breeding programmes do not use explicit techniques to orient their programmes close to their clients' needs. Participatory techniques can be used to achieve high client orientation but these techniques do not have to involve farmers making selections during the segregating generations. This particularly applies when a sound initial market survey has been made or the learning from a participatory varietal selection (PVS) programme provides feedback to scientists. However, some published results on selection by farmers in the segregating generations (collaborative selection) indicate that it can produce appropriate varieties more effectively than less collaborative research. There is also evidence, from the few cases reported in the literature, that it is cost-effective. Alternative, less collaborative, approaches are also effective. Consultative forms of farmer participation, i.e. where farmers evaluate material grown by scientists, to aid selection in the segregating generations are more widely applicable because they demand fewer resources than collaborative methods. For more time-consuming tasks, such as in the selection of aromatic rice in segregating material, the most appropriate from of participation is contractual i.e., farmers are paid for their work. Mainly using examples from our research in Nepal, we present the particular circumstances in which the involvement of farmers in selection in the segregating generations is desirable or essential. These include: the occurrence of market failure (where the usual mechanisms of supply and demand have failed so there is no incentive to breed new varieties) and supply can only be met by actively involving farmers in the breeding process; when there are cost advantages to involving farmers – this is determined by the particular resources available to the institute undertaking the plant breeding research; when grain quality is both important and determined by a complex set of factors that are difficult to measure in the laboratory; when the objective is to learn in more detail about farmers' selection criteria to better orient the breeding programme to client needs; and when the goal is to empower farmers.
In this paper we attempt to remove the dichotomy created by distinguishing between participatory and non-participatory breeding programmes by using the degree of client orientation as the basis for an analysis. Although all breeding programmes are implicitly client-oriented, we examine how participatory approaches explicitly increase the extent of client orientation. We briefly review the history of participatory plant breeding (PPB) and analyse the participatory techniques used at different stages of the breeding programme. In common with several other authors, we find that farmer involvement in selecting in the segregating generations may not be an essential component of PPB. However, in some circumstances such collaboration is required and is the subject of a second paper in this series. The purpose of all the techniques used in PPB programmes is to better meet the needs of clients. Thus, breeding programmes can be differentiated by their extent of client-orientation removing the dichotomy involved with the term participatory. We discuss four techniques in the suite of techniques that have been employed by PPB: identifying the target market or clients; using germplasm that can best meet the needs of target clients; matching the environments of the target clients; and product testing in the target market with target clients. Most attention is paid to the last of these four that is often referred to as participatory varietal selection (PVS) and how it is done varies with circumstances. Rice varieties from a client-oriented breeding programme in Nepal were tested in mother and baby trials in Bangladesh. The rapid acceptance of these varieties by farmers illustrates the power of the participatory trials system and the success of a highly client-oriented breeding approach.
Epitaxial films of strontium bismuth tantalate (SrBi2Ta2O9, SBT) and strontium bismuth niobate (SrBi2Nb2O9, SBN) were grown using solution deposition techniques on magnesium oxide (MgO) substrates buffered with a 100 nm layer of lanthanum manganate (LaMnO3, LMO). Film structure and texture analyses were carried out using x-ray diffraction. Theta-2theta diffraction patterns were consistent with a c-axis aligned structure for both the buffer layer and the solution deposited films. Theta-2 theta scans revealed (001)SBT, SBN //(001) LMO epitaxial relationships between the solution deposited films and the buffer layer. A pole figure about the SBT, SBN (115) reflection indicated a single in-plane epitaxy. Film quality was assessed using ω and φ scans. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (13C) was used to characterized the methoxy-ethoxide solutions used for the deposition of the SBN and SBT films.
The dielectric constant of a material is strongly dependent on both the polarizability and the density of the material through the Clausius Mossotti equation. While the atomic polarizability depends on the stoichiometry of the constituent atoms, the molecular polarizability is a function of the atoms’ short range bonding structure and hence can be strongly dependent on processing conditions. Since the density of the material also depends on the thermally activated diffusivity of atoms during processing, varying the processing temperatures has an effect on both the molecular polarizability and the density. The dielectric constant of Zr0.2Sn0.2Ti0.6O2 is shown to be a strong function of the substrate temperature during sputter deposition with the highest value ∼55 at 200 °C and lower values at both higher and lower process temperatures. We have investigated the bonding structure and density of the oxide dielectric deposited at a variety of substrate temperatures in order to elucidate the relative effects of each.
In situ sensors are an important tool for process control, optimization, and documentation, both in the laboratory and industrial environments. Their further application to deposition of CuInxGa1-xSe2 (CIGS) for photovoltaics is particularly important, as record device efficiencies produced in the laboratory have yet to be replicated in manufacturing. This paper provides an overview of the current state of the art of in situ diagnostics for devices based on coevaporated CIGS.