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To investigate the association between eating habits and weight status in adolescents in Finland.
The Finnish Health in Teens (Fin-HIT) study is a cohort study conducted in adolescents attending third to sixth grade in 496 schools in forty-four municipalities in Southern, Middle and Northern Finland in 2011–2014.
Analyses included 10 569 adolescents from the Fin-HIT study aged 9–14 years (5005 boys and 5564 girls). Adolescents were categorized by their eating habits: healthy eaters (44·1 %; n 4661), unhealthy eaters (12·3 %; n 1298), and fruit and vegetable avoiders (43·6 %; n 4610); and they were grouped into weight status: underweight (11·1 %), normal weight (73·6 %) and excess weight (15·3 %).
We found an increased risk of underweight in fruit and vegetable avoiders (OR = 1·28; 95 % CI 1·12, 1·46). An irregular breakfast pattern showed an inverse association with underweight (OR = 0·70; 95 % CI 0·59, 0·84) and an increased risk of excess weight (OR = 1·56; 95 % CI 1·37, 1·77) compared with a regular breakfast pattern. An irregular dinner pattern was inversely associated with underweight (OR = 0·83; 95 % CI 0·69, 0·99) compared with a regular dinner pattern.
Avoiding fruits and vegetables and following irregular breakfast and dinner patterns were associated with underweight and excess weight in adolescents.
In patients with psychotic disorders, the effects of psychological post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) treatment on symptoms of psychosis, depression and social functioning are largely unknown
In a single-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) 155 outpatients in treatment for psychosis (61.3% schizophrenic disorder, 29% schizoaffective disorder) were randomized to eight sessions prolonged exposure (PE; n = 53) or eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) (n = 55), or a waiting-list condition (WL, n = 47) for treatment of their co-morbid PTSD. Measures were performed on (1) psychosis: severity of delusions (PSYRATS-DRS), paranoid thoughts (GPTS), auditory verbal hallucinations (PSYRATS-AHRS), and remission from psychotic disorder (SCI-SR-PANSS); (2) depression (BDI-II); (3) social functioning (PSP). Outcomes were compared at baseline, post-treatment, 6-month follow-up and over all data points.
Both PE and EMDR were significantly associated with less severe paranoid thoughts post-treatment and at 6-month follow-up, and with more patients remitting from schizophrenia, at post-treatment (PE and EMDR) and over time (PE). Moreover, PE was significantly associated with a greater reduction of depression at post-treatment and at 6-month follow-up. Auditory verbal hallucinations and social functioning remained unchanged.
In patients with chronic psychotic disorders PE and EMDR not only reduced PTSD symptoms, but also paranoid thoughts. Importantly, in PE and EMDR more patients accomplished the status of their psychotic disorder in remission. Clinically, these effects are highly relevant and provide empirical support to the notion that delivering PTSD treatment to patients with psychotic disorders and PTSD deserves increasing recognition and acceptance among clinicians.
Objectives: Visuospatial processing deficits have been reported in Huntington’s disease (HD). To date, no study has examined associations between visuospatial cognition and posterior brain findings in HD. Methods: We compared 119 premanifest (55> and 64<10.8 years to expected disease onset) and 104 early symptomatic (59 stage-1 and 45 stage-2) gene carriers, with 110 controls on visual search and mental rotation performance at baseline and 12 months. In the disease groups, we also examined associations between task performance and disease severity, functional capacity and structural brain measures. Results: Cross-sectionally, there were strong differences between all disease groups and controls on visual search, and between diagnosed groups and controls on mental rotation accuracy. Only the premanifest participants close to onset took longer than controls to respond correctly to mental rotation. Visual search negatively correlated with disease burden and motor symptoms in diagnosed individuals, and positively correlated with functional capacity. Mental rotation (“same”) was negatively correlated with motor symptoms in stage-2 individuals, and positively correlated with functional capacity. Visual search and mental rotation were associated with parieto-occipital (pre-/cuneus, calcarine, lingual) and temporal (posterior fusiform) volume and cortical thickness. Longitudinally, visual search deteriorated over 12 months in stage-2 individuals, with no evidence of declines in mental rotation. Conclusions: Our findings provide evidence linking early visuospatial deficits to functioning and posterior cortical dysfunction in HD. The findings are important since large research efforts have focused on fronto-striatal mediated cognitive changes, with little attention given to aspects of cognition outside of these areas. (JINS, 2016, 22, 595–608)
An efficient and robust method to measure vitamin D (25-hydroxy vitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) and 25-hydroxy vitamin D2 in dried blood spots (DBS) has been developed and applied in the pan-European multi-centre, internet-based, personalised nutrition intervention study Food4Me. The method includes calibration with blood containing endogenous 25(OH)D3, spotted as DBS and corrected for haematocrit content. The methodology was validated following international standards. The performance characteristics did not reach those of the current gold standard liquid chromatography-MS/MS in plasma for all parameters, but were found to be very suitable for status-level determination under field conditions. DBS sample quality was very high, and 3778 measurements of 25(OH)D3 were obtained from 1465 participants. The study centre and the season within the study centre were very good predictors of 25(OH)D3 levels (P<0·001 for each case). Seasonal effects were modelled by fitting a sine function with a minimum 25(OH)D3 level on 20 January and a maximum on 21 July. The seasonal amplitude varied from centre to centre. The largest difference between winter and summer levels was found in Germany and the smallest in Poland. The model was cross-validated to determine the consistency of the predictions and the performance of the DBS method. The Pearson’s correlation between the measured values and the predicted values was r 0·65, and the sd of their differences was 21·2 nmol/l. This includes the analytical variation and the biological variation within subjects. Overall, DBS obtained by unsupervised sampling of the participants at home was a viable methodology for obtaining vitamin D status information in a large nutritional study.
Depressive symptoms are prominent psychopathological features of Huntington's disease (HD), making a negative impact on social functioning and well-being.
We compared the frequencies of a history of depression, previous suicide attempts and current subthreshold depression between 61 early-stage HD participants and 40 matched controls. The HD group was then split based on the overall HD group's median Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-depression score into a group of 30 non-depressed participants (mean 0.8, s.d. = 0.7) and a group of 31 participants with subthreshold depressive symptoms (mean 7.3, s.d. = 3.5) to explore the neuroanatomy underlying subthreshold depressive symptoms in HD using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI).
Frequencies of history of depression, previous suicide attempts or current subthreshold depressive symptoms were higher in HD than in controls. The severity of current depressive symptoms was also higher in HD, but not associated with the severity of HD motor signs or disease burden. Compared with the non-depressed HD group DTI revealed lower fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the frontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, insula and cerebellum of the HD group with subthreshold depressive symptoms. In contrast, VBM measures were similar in both HD groups. A history of depression, the severity of HD motor signs or disease burden did not correlate with FA values of these regions.
Current subthreshold depressive symptoms in early HD are associated with microstructural changes – without concomitant brain volume loss – in brain regions known to be involved in major depressive disorder, but not those typically associated with HD pathology.
The effect of the diffusion of monatomic hydrogen into InGaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells has been investigated using photoluminescence (PL) and Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS). The structures were grown by molecular beam epitaxy and hydrogenated with a remote plasma. For In0.2Ga0.8AlxGA1-xAs quantum wells, hydrogenation significant increases the integrated PL intensity from bound excitons at 77 K. The enhancement of the PL is ascribed to removal of nonradiative recombination centers by hydrogen passivation of defects either at the heterojunction interface or within the epilayers. This PL enhancement (and defect passivation) increases as the Al concentration in the AlGaAs layers increases from 0 to 33 at%. A 50% increase of PL intensity is observed for InGaAs/GaAs. For 33 at%, the increase is a factor of 9. We also diffused deuterium into these InGaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells. The enhancement of the PL by deuteration was similar to that by hydrogenation. The isotopie substitution permits the determination of the depth distribution of deuterium in the multilayered structure by SIMS. SIMS results support the conclusion that more defects are passivated in the higher Al concentration samples.
GexSi1-x layers (0 ≤ × ≤ 1), with thicknesses ranging from 0.1 to 1.2 µm, were grown on Si(100) and Si(lll) by chemical vapor deposition (APCVD, LP/RTCVD) and liquid phase epitaxy (LPE), respectively. A NanoTest 500 machine served for nanoindentation measurements to evaluate the hardness and elastic moduli. The GeSi layers show strong alloy hardening with an increase varying proportional to x(l-x) as reported for III-V and H-VI-semiconductors. Maximum hardness is close to x = 0.45 at one and a half of the silicon hardness. For binary alloys such as Ge-Si, which show complete solid solubility, the elastic moduli are generally assumed to vary linearly with composition. In contrast to that we found for the indentation modulus E/(l-v2) a positive deviation of 30 % from linear interpolation (Vegard’s law), proportional to x(l-x). The increase in the elastic constants is explained by the structural properties of the Ge-Si alloy.
This paper concentrates on application of the so-called Discrete Dislocation Plasticity to high strain rate deformations. In particular the question is addressed if the DDP approach may capture the specific processes taking place at high strain rates. In particular the paper reports on tests of the validity of some approximations and provides some sample runs to show the applicability of the method. In assessing the results, one has to keep in mind two underpinning aspects: (1) the model is two-dimensional and (2) the results hold only in the regime where linear isotropic elasticity is valid. It was concluded that accelerations can not be neglected at very high strain rate deformations, both for the conventional and the relativistic case.
AlxGa1-xP layers (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.7), with thicknesses of ≤ 1 μm were grown on Si (100) wafers by metal-organic molecular beam epitaxy (MOMBE) at 450 °C. Transmission electron micrographs of the single crystal films revealed that the microstructure contains stacking faults and microtwins especially near the interface as well as both threading and misfit dislocations. Hardness and elastic modulus were measured using a Nanotest 500 indenter, which can probe the film properties without influence from the substrate.
The hardness H varies linearly according to (11.8 - 2.3x) GPa. The absence of alloy hardening is due to the fact that there is no difference in atomic size of Al and Ga. The indentation modulus E/(1-v 2) decreases monotonically from 136 GPa for GaP to 129 GPa for Al0.7Ga0.3P and bows only slightly (about 2 %) below the straight line of linear interpolation.
Being able to anticipate future needs for health services presents a challenge for health planners. Using existing population projections, two models are presented to estimate the demand for hospital beds in regions of Manitoba in 2020. The first, a current-use projection model, simply projects the average use for a recent three-year period into the future. The second, a 10-year trend analysis, uses Poisson regression to project future demand. The current-use projection suggests a substantial increase in the demand for hospital beds, while the trend analysis projects a decline. The last projections are consistent with ongoing increases in rates of day surgeries and declines in lengths of stay. The current-use projections need to be considered in the context of relatively low occupancy rates in rural hospitals and previous research on appropriateness of stays in acute care hospitals. If measures are taken to ensure more appropriate use of acute care hospital beds in the future, then the current-use projections of bed shortages are not a cause for concern.
The present longitudinal study investigated cascade effects linking the longitudinal trajectories of shyness and aggressiveness between age 4 and 23 and individual differences in this longitudinal relationship. Results demonstrated that there were cascade effects from shyness to adjacent measures of aggressiveness at three moments in time, and that the dynamics of these relationships changed over time. Children who were shy at age 6 became less aggressive at age 7 and the same effect was found between age 8 and age 10. From adolescence to early adulthood, the direction of the relationship changed and shy adolescents at age 17 became increasingly aggressive 5 years later. Interindividual differences were found in the latter cascade effect in that shyness at age 17 only predicted an increase in aggressiveness at age 23 for adolescents receiving low levels of support from their parents and for adolescents spending little time in part-time work. Together, findings suggest the importance of examining the development of normal variations in personality and personality disorders from a developmental perspective and taking into account person–environment interactions.
Because plants significantly affect radionuclides (RN) cycling and further dispersion into the biosphere, it is important to understand the biological factors influencing RN plant uptake, accumulation and redistribution. In this respect, mycorrhizal fungi are of particular interest. The effects of ecto-mycorrhizal (ECM) and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on the transport of uranium (U) or radiocaesium (Cs) were investigated both under pot and in vitro culture conditions. Results obtained in vitro demonstrated that AM hyphae can take up and translocate U and Cs towards roots, while this uptake and translocation were not perceptible using pot culture systems with soil. These contrasting results could be due to different experimental conditions, including the K level in the external solution and the bio-availability of Cs.
The in vitro studies also indicated that root colonisation by AM fungi might limit U and Cs root transport. Under pot culture conditions, they appeared to significantly reduce root to shoot translocation of U.
Under the same conditions, ECM transport of Cs was demonstrated, and appeared to be dependent on fungal species. A better estimation of the potential use of mycorrhizal fungi for the phytoremediation of
RN-contaminated areas is now available and will be further discussed.