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Identifying the transmission sources and reservoirs of Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) is a long-standing question for pneumococcal epidemiology, transmission dynamics, and vaccine policy. Here we use serotype to identify SP transmission and examine acquisitions (in the same household, local community, and county, or of unidentified origin) in a longitudinal cohort of children and adults from the Navajo Nation and the White Mountain Apache American Indian Tribes. We found that adults acquire SP relatively more in the household than other age groups, and children 2–8 years old typically acquire in their own or surrounding communities. Age-specific transmission probability matrices show that transmissions within household were mostly seen from older to younger siblings. Outside the household, children most often transmit to other children in the same age group, showing age-assortative mixing behavior. We find toddlers and older children to be most involved in SP transmission and acquisition, indicating their role as key drivers of SP epidemiology. Although infants have high carriage prevalence, they do not play a central role in transmission of SP compared with toddlers and older children. Our results are relevant to inform alternative pneumococcal conjugate vaccine dosing strategies and analytic efforts to inform optimization of vaccine programs, as well as assessing the transmission dynamics of pathogens transmitted by close contact in general.
Childhood adversity predicts adolescent suicidal ideation but there are few studies examining whether the risk of childhood adversity extends to suicidal ideation in midlife. We hypothesized that childhood adversity predicts midlife suicidal ideation and this is partially mediated by adolescent internalizing disorders, externalizing disorders and adult exposure to life events and interpersonal difficulties.
At 45 years, 9377 women and men from the UK 1958 British Birth Cohort Study participated in a clinical survey. Childhood adversity was prospectively assessed at the ages of 7, 11 and 16 years. Suicidal ideation at midlife was assessed by the depressive ideas subscale of the Revised Clinical Interview Schedule. Internalizing and externalizing disorders were measured by the Rutter scales at 16 years. Life events, periods of unemployment, partnership separations and alcohol dependence were measured through adulthood.
Illness in the household, paternal absence, institutional care, parental divorce and retrospective reports of parental physical and sexual abuse predicted suicidal ideation at 45 years. Three or more childhood adversities were associated with suicidal ideation at 45 years [odds ratio (OR) 4.31, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.67–6.94]. Psychological distress at 16 years partially mediated the associations of physical abuse (OR 3.41, 95% CI 2.29–5.75), sexual abuse (OR 4.99, 95% CI 2.90–11.16) with suicidal ideation. Adult life events partially mediated the association of parental divorce (OR 6.34, 95% CI −7.16 to 36.75) and physical (OR 9.59, 95% CI 4.97–27.88) and sexual abuse (OR 6.59, 95% CI 2.40–38.36) with suicidal ideation at 45 years.
Adversity in childhood predicts suicidal ideation in midlife, partially mediated by adolescent internalizing and externalizing disorders, adult life events and interpersonal difficulties. Understanding the pathways from adversity to suicidal ideation can inform suicide prevention and the targeting of preventive interventions.
We have analyzed a sample of 1150 type ab, and 550 type c RR Lyrae stars found in 24 of 94 bulge fields of the MACHO database. These fields cover a range in Galactocentric distances from 0.3 to 1.6 kpc. In combination with the data on the outer bulge fields of Alard (1997) and Wesselink (1987), here we present the surface density distribution of bulge RR Lyrae between 0.3 and 3 kpc.
The MACHO microlensing experiment's time-sampled photometry database contains blue and red lightcurves for nearly 9 million stars in the central bar region of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). We have identified known LMC Planetary Nebulae (PN) in the database and find one, Jacoby 5, to be variable. We additionally present data on the “parent populations” of LMC PN, and discuss the star formation history of the LMC bar.
We present the first results of the analysis of 22 Blazhko stars. We find: 1) Blazhko RRab stars that are nearly pure amplitude modulators; 2) Blazhko RRab stars that have both amplitude and phase modulation; 3) A Blazhko RRab star that has an abrupt period change; 4) Proof of the Blazhko effect in RRc stars. Our data show the character of the amplitude and phase modulations of the light curves over the Blazhko cycles far better than has been previously possible.
We present the preliminary results of a frequency analysis of 1457 fundamental mode RR Lyrae (RR0) stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) from MACHO Project photometry. We find the same classes of pulsational behavior as were found in our earlier survey of first overtone RR Lyrae (RR1) stars. Variables whose prewhitened power spectra contain one or two peaks close to the main frequency component in the original power spectra are commonly known as Blazhko-type variables. The present analysis shows the overall frequency of Blazhko-type stars in the total RR0 population analysed to date to be ≈ 10%. This is lower than the often cited Galactic field/globular rate of 20-30% (Szeidl, 1988).
The incidence rate of Blazhko-type variability in the LMC appears to be about three times higher in RR0 stars than in RR1 stars. This puts important constraints on possible models of the Blazhko effect.
We present the first massive frequency analysis of the 1200 first overtone RR Lyrae stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud observed in the first 4.3 yr of the MACHO project. Besides the many new double-mode variables, we also discovered stars with closely spaced frequencies. These variables are most probably nonradial pulsators.
X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was used to image 40 histological cross-sections of bovine ovaries (n=19), focusing on structures including: antral follicles at different stages of growth or atresia, corpora lutea at three stages of development (II–IV), and capillaries, arterioles, and other blood vessels. This method identified three key trace elements [iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), and selenium (Se)] within the ovarian tissue which appeared to be localized to specific structures. Owing to minimal preprocessing of the ovaries, important high-resolution information regarding the spatial distribution of these elements was obtained with elemental trends and colocalizations of Fe and Zn apparent, as well as the infrequent appearance of Se surrounding the antrum of large follicles, as previously reported. The ability to use synchrotron radiation to measure trace element distributions in bovine ovaries at such high resolution and over such large areas could have a significant impact on understanding the mechanisms of ovarian development. This research is intended to form a baseline study of healthy ovaries which can later be extended to disease states, thereby improving our current understanding of infertility and endocrine diseases involving the ovary.
To report a case of meningioma arising from the nervus intermedius.
This paper comprises a case report, literature review, and discussion regarding the presentation of a nervus intermedius meningioma, comparing and contrasting this to other relevant neoplasms of the internal auditory canal and cerebellopontine angle.
Tumours of the cerebellopontine angle include vestibular schwannomas, facial schwannomas and, more rarely, nervus intermedius schwannomas. The nervus intermedius is a division of the facial nerve at the cerebellopontine angle, with parasympathetic and afferent somatic components. Our patient presented with progressive hearing loss. An ipsilateral internal auditory canal mass at the fundus, as indicated by magnetic resonance imaging and electroneuronography, was suggestive of vestibular schwannoma. Intra-operative dissection revealed a nervus intermedius tumour. Histological evaluation indicated a meningioma rather than a schwannoma.
This is the first reported case of meningioma involving the nervus intermedius. The implications this pathology may have on surgical approach, facial nerve outcomes, and the need for improved pre-operative imaging and intra-operative monitoring are discussed. A review of the current literature on nervus intermedius tumour is provided.
The objective of this study was to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of a culture method and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for detection of two Campylobacter species: C. jejuni and C. coli. Data were collected during a 3-year survey of UK broiler flocks, and consisted of parallel sampling of caeca from 436 batches of birds by both PCR and culture. Batches were stratified by season (summer/non-summer) and whether they were the first depopulation of the flock, resulting in four sub-populations. A Bayesian approach in the absence of a gold standard was adopted, and the sensitivity and specificity of the PCR and culture for each Campylobacter subtype was estimated, along with the true C. jejuni and C. coli prevalence in each sub-population. Results indicated that the sensitivity of the culture method was higher than that of PCR in detecting both species when the samples were derived from populations infected with at most one species of Campylobacter. However, from a mixed population, the sensitivity of culture for detecting both C. jejuni or C. coli is reduced while PCR is potentially able to detect both species, although the total probability of correctly identifying at least one species by PCR is similar to that of the culture method.
The influence of feeds containing varying dietary cation–anion differences (DCADs) with and without supplements of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) on urine pH and excretion of macro minerals was determined in fistulated crossbred steers (mean live weight 315 ± 45 kg). A basal forage diet comprising lucerne hay and wheat chaff was used, to which varying quantities of MgCl2 or K2CO3 were added to achieve four levels of DCAD: −300, 50, 150 or 250 mEq/kg dry matter (DM). Steers were allocated to one of six treatments, one treatment for each diet and a further treatment for both the 50 and 150 mEq/kg DCAD diets, which were supplemented with 25(OH)D at a rate of 3 mg/steer per day. Urine pH from steers offered the diets comprising DCADs of 50, 150 and 250 mEq/kg ranging from 8.3 to 8.8. In treatments not containing 25(OH)D with DCADs of 50 to 250 mEq/kg, there were no significant differences in urine pH or Ca excretion. However, steers offered the diet with a DCAD of −300 mEq/kg DM produced urine with a significantly lower pH (6.5 to 7.5). Daily output of Ca in urine was also significantly higher from steers given this diet. Supplementation with 25(OH)D significantly increased urinary Ca excretion from steers offered diets of DCADs 50 and 150 mEq/kg DM. Estimates of daily urinary Ca excretion, calculated using the ratio of creatinine to Ca in ‘spot’ urine samples, were less variable than those based on total collection (residual mean square of 0.54 and 0.63, respectively).
We examined cognitive predictors of speech and articulation rate in 50 individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) and 23 healthy controls. We measured speech and articulation rate from audio-recordings of participants reading aloud and talking extemporaneously on a topic of their choice (i.e., self-generated speech). Articulation rate was calculated for each speech sample by removing lexically irrelevant vocalizations and pauses of >200 ms. Speech rate was similarly calculated including pauses. Concurrently, the Minimal Assessment of Cognitive Function in Multiple Sclerosis (MACFIMS) battery, as well as standardized tests of sentence intelligibility and syllable repetition were administered. Analysis of variance showed that MS patients were slower on three of the four rate measures. Greater variance in rate measures was accounted for by cognitive variables for the MS group than controls. An information processing speed composite, as measured by the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) and the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT), was the strongest predictor among cognitive tests. A composite of memory tests related to self-generated speech, above and beyond information processing speed, but not to oral reading. Self-generated speech, in this study, was not found to relate more strongly to cognitive tests than simple reading. Implications for further research are discussed. (JINS, 2012, 18, 1–8)
The Gemini Observatories primarily operate a multi-instrument queue, with observers selecting observations that are best suited to weather and seeing conditions. The Target of Opportunity (ToO) observing mode is intended to allow observation of targets that cannot be specified in advance but which have a well defined external trigger such as distant supernovae or Gamma Ray bursts. In addition, the instrument and configuration best suited to observe the ToO may depend on properties of the event, such as brightness and redshift which again are impossible to know in advance. Queue observing naturally lends itself to Target of Opportunity (ToO) support since the time required to switch between programs and instruments is very short, and the staff observer is trained to operate all the available instruments and modes. Gemini Observatory has supported pre-approved ToO programs since beginning queue operations, and has implemented a rapid (less than 15 minutes response time) ToO mode since 2005. ToOs comprise a significant fraction of the queue (20–25% of the highest ranking band) nowadays. We discuss the ToO procedures, the statistics of rapid ToOs observing at Gemini North Observatory, the science related to GRBs and supernovae that this important mode has enabled.
We have investigated the performance of a class of heterocycles, 5,10-dihetera- 5,10-dihydroindeno[3,2b]indenes, as hole transport agents in simple double heterostructure organic light-emitting diodes with tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq). The best of these materials, 5,10-dihydroindolo[3,2b]indole, yields devices with luminance and lifetimes comparable to those obtained using N,N′-di-(3-methylphenyl)-N,N′- diphenyl-4,4′-diaminobiphenyl (TPD) as a hole transporting material.
During 2001–2002 we investigated current contamination of soils in several places in the Chornobyl zone. We have measured the content of alpha emitting isotopes Pu, 241Am, 154,155Eu, 90Sr, and 137Cs in layers of soil up to the depth of 30 cm. By including the two mechanisms of migration: convection and diffusion in our model, we were able to estimate the ecological and effective half-lives of self-purification processes for these layers of soil. Effective half-lives vary from 20 to 400 years dependent upon the type of soil and the isotopes.
Previous studies have documented that smoking during pregnancy (SDP) is associated with offspring externalizing problems, even when measured covariates were used to control for possible confounds. However, the association may be because of nonmeasured environmental and genetic factors that increase risk for offspring externalizing problems. The current project used the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and their children, ages 4–10 years, to explore the relations between SDP and offspring conduct problems (CPs), oppositional defiant problems (ODPs), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity problems (ADHPs) using methodological and statistical controls for confounds. When offspring were compared to their own siblings who differed in their exposure to prenatal nicotine, there was no effect of SDP on offspring CP and ODP. This suggests that SDP does not have a causal effect on offspring CP and ODP. There was a small association between SDP and ADHP, consistent with a causal effect of SDP, but the magnitude of the association was greatly reduced by methodological and statistical controls. Genetically informed analyses suggest that unmeasured environmental variables influencing both SDP and offspring externalizing behaviors account for the previously observed associations. That is, the current analyses imply that important unidentified environmental factors account for the association between SDP and offspring externalizing problems, not teratogenic effects of SDP.