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To present our data evaluating the feasibility of simultaneous cochlear implantation with resection of acoustic neuroma.
This paper describes a case series of eight adult patients with a radiologically suspected acoustic neuroma, treated at a tertiary referral centre in Newcastle, Australia, between 2012 and 2015. Patients underwent cochlear implantation concurrently with removal of an acoustic neuroma. The approach was translabyrinthine, with facial nerve monitoring and electrically evoked auditory brainstem response testing. Standard post-implant rehabilitation was employed, with three and six months’ follow-up data collected. The main outcome measures were: hearing, subjective benefit of implant, operative complications and tumour recurrence.
Eight patients underwent simultaneous cochlear implantation with resection of acoustic neuroma over a 3-year period, and had 25–63 months’ follow up. There were no major complications. All patients except one gained usable hearing and were daily implant users.
Simultaneous cochlear implantation with resection of acoustic neuroma has been shown to be a safe treatment option, which will be applicable in a wide range of clinical scenarios as the indications for cochlear implantation continue to expand.
Unit cohesion may protect service member mental health by mitigating effects of combat exposure; however, questions remain about the origins of potential stress-buffering effects. We examined buffering effects associated with two forms of unit cohesion (peer-oriented horizontal cohesion and subordinate-leader vertical cohesion) defined as either individual-level or aggregated unit-level variables.
Longitudinal survey data from US Army soldiers who deployed to Afghanistan in 2012 were analyzed using mixed-effects regression. Models evaluated individual- and unit-level interaction effects of combat exposure and cohesion during deployment on symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and suicidal ideation reported at 3 months post-deployment (model n's = 6684 to 6826). Given the small effective sample size (k = 89), the significance of unit-level interactions was evaluated at a 90% confidence level.
At the individual-level, buffering effects of horizontal cohesion were found for PTSD symptoms [B = −0.11, 95% CI (−0.18 to −0.04), p < 0.01] and depressive symptoms [B = −0.06, 95% CI (−0.10 to −0.01), p < 0.05]; while a buffering effect of vertical cohesion was observed for PTSD symptoms only [B = −0.03, 95% CI (−0.06 to −0.0001), p < 0.05]. At the unit-level, buffering effects of horizontal (but not vertical) cohesion were observed for PTSD symptoms [B = −0.91, 90% CI (−1.70 to −0.11), p = 0.06], depressive symptoms [B = −0.83, 90% CI (−1.24 to −0.41), p < 0.01], and suicidal ideation [B = −0.32, 90% CI (−0.62 to −0.01), p = 0.08].
Policies and interventions that enhance horizontal cohesion may protect combat-exposed units against post-deployment mental health problems. Efforts to support individual soldiers who report low levels of horizontal or vertical cohesion may also yield mental health benefits.
A Late Ordovician brachiopod fauna from the Black River quadrangle (D-1 1:63,360 scale) of east-central Alaska comprises taxa typical of the Late Ordovician brachiopod fauna in the pericratonic epeiric seas of Laurentia, including Hesperorthis pyramidalis (Twenhofel, 1928), Plaesiomys occidentalis (Okulitch, 1943), Eoplectodonta sp., Holtehdalina sp., Leptaena sp., Brevilamnulella minuta n. sp., Tcherskidium tenuicostatum n. sp., Rhynchotrema iowense Wang, 1949, and Whitfieldella sp. The presence of Plaesiomys occidentalis and Tcherskidium tenuicostata n. sp. indicates a latest Katian age by correlation with similar species in the Mackenzie Mountains, southern Manitoba, Anticosti Island, the American midcontinent, Kolyma, and Siberia. Cluster analysis based on 20 well-studied late Katian brachiopod faunas from various regions within Laurentia and elsewhere in other tectonic plates suggests that the small brachiopod faunule from Alaska has the strongest paleobiogeographic affinity with Laurentia, confirming that the Black River quadrangle of Alaska was part of Laurentia during the Late Ordovician.
Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), constitute a major clinical component of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). There is a growing interest in BPSD as they are responsible for a large share of the suffering of patients and caregivers, and they strongly determine the patient’s lifestyle and management. Better detection and understanding of these symptoms is essential to provide appropriate management. This article is a consensus produced by the behavioral group of the European Alzheimer’s Disease Consortium (EADC). The aim of this article is to present clinical description and biological correlates of the major behavioral and psychological symptomatology in AD. BPSD is not a unitary concept. Instead, it should be divided into several symptoms or more likely: groups of symptoms, each possibly reflecting a different prevalence, course over time, biological correlate and psychosocial determinants. There is some clinical evidence for clusters within groups of BPSD. Biological studies indicate that patients with AD and BPSD are associated with variations in the pathological features (atrophy, brain perfusion/metabolism, histopathology) when compared to people with AD without BPSD. An individually tailored approach taking all these aspects into account is warranted as it may offer more, and better, pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment opportunities.
There is wide acknowledgement that apathy is an important behavioural syndrome in Alzheimer’s disease and in various neuropsychiatric disorders. In light of recent research and the renewed interest in the correlates and impacts of apathy, and in its treatments, it is important to develop criteria for apathy that will be widely accepted, have clear operational steps, and that will be easily applied in practice and research settings. Meeting these needs is the focus of the task force work reported here.
The task force includes members of the Association Française de Psychiatrie Biologique, the European Psychiatric Association, the European Alzheimer’s Disease Consortium and experts from Europe, Australia and North America. An advanced draft was discussed at the consensus meeting (during the EPA conference in April 7th 2008) and a final agreement reached concerning operational definitions and hierarchy of the criteria.
Apathy is defined as a disorder of motivation that persists over time and should meet the following requirements. Firstly, the core feature of apathy, diminished motivation, must be present for at least four weeks; secondly two of the three dimensions of apathy (reduced goal-directed behaviour, goal-directed cognitive activity, and emotions) must also be present; thirdly there should be identifiable functional impairments attributable to the apathy. Finally, exclusion criteria are specified to exclude symptoms and states that mimic apathy.
5-methoxypsoralen (5-MOP) stimulates pineal melatonin secretion, and a decrease in dark phase melatonin levels has been described in major depression. As exogenous melatonin has shown synchronizer properties, authors hypothesized that giving 5-MOP would have antidepressant properties.
Twenty-six inpatients meeting the criteria of major depressive disorders were enrolled in a four-week, double blind trial of 5-MOP versus amitriptyline. Clinical improvement was identical in both treatment groups but biological changes were different in each group: 5-MOP patients showed an early nocturnal surge of melatonin levels that was maintained at the fourth treatment week, while melatonin levels remained unchanged in patients treated with amitriptyline.
Internally displaced persons (IDPs) reach almost 6% of Georgia's total population. They were uprooted by the military conflicts in Abkhazia and South Ossetia in the 1990s and the brief but intensive war with Russia in 2008.
To examine the patterns of mental disorders and functional disability among conflict-affected populations in Georgia.
The study used a cross-sectional household survey design with multi-stage random sampling IDPs and “returnees” (IDPs who have returned to their original villages). Disorders of PTSD, depression, anxiety, and their co-morbidity, were measured, along with functional disability. A range of questions on exposure to violent and traumatic events and demographic and socio-economic characteristics were included. Descriptive and multivariate regression analyses were used.
Of 3600 respondents, 24% were recorded with PTSD, 14% with depression, 11% with anxiety. 30% of all respondents had ≥1 condition and 6% had all 3. Factors significantly associated with the mental disorders and their comorbidity included greater frequency of exposure to traumatic events, female gender, older age, displacement status, low levels of neighbourhood support, poor community conditions, and a bad economic situation. PTSD mediated the influence of traumatic events on outcomes of depression and anxiety. All 3 disorders significant influenced functional disability.
The study provides the most comprehensive data on mental health problems among conflict-affected populations in Georgia. It highlights the persisting burden of poor mental health and the associated characteristics, and the significant impact of mental disorders on functional disability. It calls for greater access to needs-driven mental health services.
We recently found that, in mice, independently of orosensory input, sucrose consumption is sufficient to condition the development of spout preferences and dopamine release in the ventral striatum.
To clarify if the appetitive behavioral and dopaminergic responses to the postingestive effects of calorie-containing sugars reflect preabsorptive or postabsorptive events.
To understand if endovenous injection of glucose is sufficient to condition spout preferences and dopamine release.
Measurements of the behavioural, metabolic and neurochemical effects of the administration of glucose solutions, enterically, and in the jugular (JV) or hepatic-portal (HPV) veins of rats.
High concentration glucose solutions administered in the JV were sufficient to condition spout preferences in a two-bottle behavioral task. Additionally, a low concentration glucose solution conditioned robust behavioral responses when administered in the HPV, but not the JV. Finally, using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry we found that, in accordance to behavioral findings, a low concentration glucose solution caused an increase of spontaneous dopamine release events in the nucleus accumbens shell when administered in the HPV, but not the JV.
The postabsorptive effects of glucose are sufficient to mimic the behavioral and dopaminergic responses that result from sugar consumption. Furthermore, glycemia levels in the HPV contribute more significantly for this effect than systemic glycemia, arguing for the participation of an intra-abdominal visceral sensor for glucose.
Depression is present in 35% of adolescents who commit suicide. It is crucial that we identify which of these depressed adolescents are at greatest suicide risk. Suicide attempts are strongly associated with suicide risk, and therefore commonly used as a proxy measure. Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is often seen as being less serious than suicide attempts.
To determine which clinical and psychosocial factors in depressed adolescents at baseline predict both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-injury over 28 weeks follow-up.
Adolescents with major depressive disorder (n = 164) taking part in the Adolescent Depression Antidepressants and Psychotherapy Trial were evaluated. Clinical symptoms, family and friendship functioning, suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-injury were recorded at baseline.
Suicidal and non-suicidal self-harm were measured during 28 weeks follow-up.
High suicidality, non-suicidal self-injury and poor family function at entry were significant independent predictors of suicide attempts occurring over 28 weeks follow-up. NSSI was the strongest predictor of suicide attempts (adjusted OR = 3.2, p = 0.006). NSSI over follow-up was independently predicted by non-suicidal self-injury (adjusted OR = 20, p < 0.0005), increased hopelessness, anxiety disorder, and being younger and female at entry.
Deficits in emotional processes are often observed by clinicians in anorexia nervosa and may have an impact on social functioning. Recognition of emotion was mostly investigated using visual stimuli as faces of emotional scenes. Only one study (Kucharska-Pietura et al., 2004) demonstrated impairments in emotional prosody using positive and negative valenced stimuli. However, this study did not provide a highlight for the identification of emotional bias (for example, to recognize an intense fear in a friendly voice). The aim of this study is to better understand the recognition of emotional prosody in anorexia nervosa using a wide range of positive, negative and neutral stimuli (Belin et al., 2008). In order to test emotion recognition biases in emotional prosody, we exposed 15 patients with anorexia nervosa and 15 healthy controls (HCs) to emotional vocal tasks asking them to rate emotional intensity on visual analog scales. In addition, we assessed clinical symptomatology and cognitive functioning for all participants. We showed that patients with anorexia nervosa provided higher intensity ratings on the non-target scales (e.g., surprise scale for fear stimuli) than HCs for sadness, fear and neutral voices. Furthermore, with the exception of neutral vocal stimuli, they provided the same intensity ratings on the target scales as the HCs. These findings suggested a bias in the processing of emotional prosody and may impact the social functioning of patients with anorexia nervosa. The bias may result from a sensorial deficit or a high-order cognitive dysfunction and have to be investigated in future studies.
Intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator (IVtPA) is a proven treatment for acute ischemic stroke; however, diabetes mellitus (DM) and previous cerebral infarction (PCI) were considered relative contraindications for thrombolysis within the 3–4.5 h period.
The study aimed to determine the safety and efficacy of IVtPA among diabetic patients with PCI presenting with acute ischemic stroke.
Studies which evaluated the outcome of IVtPA in terms of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH), functional outcome in modified Rankin scale, and death among diabetic patients with PCI presenting with acute ischemic stroke within the 3–4.5 h period were systematically searched until July 2019. Screening and eligibility criteria were applied. Risk of bias was evaluated using the Newcastle–Ottawa Scale. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to compare measures of treatment effect. Mantel–Haenszel method and random-effects model were also employed.
Four registry-based studies with a total of 44,572 patients were included for quantitative synthesis. Giving IVtPA among DM+/PCI+ patients did not result in significantly increased rate of sICH (OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.88, 1.36) compared to No DM+/PCI+ patients. However, there was significantly higher mortality (OR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.60, 2.06) in the DM+/PCI+ group. Conversely, among those who survived, the DM+/PCI+ patients were more functionally independent at 3 months (OR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.61, 0.94).
Limited evidence suggests that thrombolysis in DM+/PCI+ patients does not result in significantly higher incidence of sICH and may improve functional independence. However, the significantly higher mortality in this group warrants an assessment of the individualized risk–benefit ratio in the use of IVtPA.
Extreme weather conditions such as cold stress influence the productivity and survivability of beef cattle raised on pasture. The objective of this study was to identify and evaluate the extent of the impact of genotype by environment interaction due to cold stress on birth weight (BW) and weaning weight (WW) in a composite beef cattle population. The effect of cold stress was modelled as the accumulation of total cold load (TCL) calculated using the Comprehensive Climate Index units, considering three TCL classes defined based on temperature: less than −5°C (TCL5), −15°C (TCL15) and −25°C (TCL25). A total of 4221 and 4217 records for BW and WW, respectively, were used from a composite beef cattle population (50% Red Angus, 25% Charolais and 25% Tarentaise) between 2002 and 2015. For both BW and WW, a univariate model (ignoring cold stress) and a reaction norm model were implemented. As cold load increased, the direct heritability slightly increased in both BW and WW for TCL5 class; however, this heritability remained consistent across the cold load of TCL25 class. In contrast, the maternal heritability of BW was constant with cold load increase in all TCL classes, although a slight increase of maternal heritability was observed for TCL5 and TCL15. The direct and maternal genetic correlation for BW and maternal genetic correlation for WW across different cold loads between all TCL classes were high (r > 0.99), whereas the lowest direct genetic correlations observed for WW were 0.88 for TCL5 and 0.85 for TCL15. The Spearman rank correlation between the estimated breeding value of top bulls (n = 79) using univariate and reaction norm models across TCL classes showed some re-ranking in direct and maternal effects for both BW and WW particularly for TCL5 and TCL15. In general, cold stress did not have a big impact on direct and maternal genetic effects of BW and WW.
Deficits in emotional processes are often observed by clinicians in anorexia nervosa and may have an impact on social functioning. Recognition of emotion was mostly investigated using visual stimuli as faces of emotional scenes. Only one study (Kucharska-Pietura et al., 2004) demonstrated impairments in emotional prosody using positive and negative valenced stimuli. However, this study did not provide a highlight for the identification of emotional bias (for example, to recognize an intense fear in a friendly voice). The aim of this study is to better understand the recognition of emotional prosody in anorexia nervosa using a wide range of positive, negative and neutral stimuli (Belin et al., 2008).
In order to test emotion recognition biases in emotional prosody, we exposed 15 patients with anorexia nervosa and 15 healthy controls (HCs) to emotional vocal tasks asking them to rate emotional intensity on visual analog scales. In addition, we assessed clinical symptomatology and cognitive functioning for all participants.
We showed that patients with anorexia nervosa provided higher intensity ratings on the non-target scales (e.g., surprise scale for fear stimuli) than HCs for sadness, fear and neutral voices. Furthermore, with the exception of neutral vocal stimuli, they provided the same intensity ratings on the target scales as the HCs.
These findings suggested a bias in the processing of emotional prosody and may impact the social functioning of patients with anorexia nervosa. The bias may result from a sensorial deficit or a high-order cognitive dysfunction and have to be investigated in future studies.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.