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An increased incidence of CHD has been noted in twin gestations and in infants conceived using assisted reproductive technologies. However, CHD in these populations remains understudied and the mechanisms underlying these phenomena remain unclear. We present the case of twins conceived via in vitro fertilisation both with Tetralogy of Fallot and additional cardiac and extracardiac malformations.
Trait-specific characterization of rice landraces has significant potential for germplasm management, varietal identification and mining of novel gene/allele for various traits. In the current study, we have characterized 98 unique rice landraces collected from coastal regions of India, affected by submergence and salinity, based on Sub1 and Saltol quantitative trait loci (QTL) linked microsatellite markers. Among these genotypes, four genotypes (IC536558, IC536559, IC536604 and IC536604-1) collected from Kerala and two genotypes (AC34902 and IC324589) collected from West Bengal were identified with tolerance to submergence and salinity stress. A high level of genetic diversity of He = 0.349 and 0.529 at Sub1 and Saltol QTL region was detected by QTL-linked microsatellite markers, respectively. At Sub1 region one genotype, AC34902, was detected with maximum allelic similarity with FR13A, a known submergence tolerant variety. Besides, five genotypes (IC211188-1, IC536604-1, IC536604, IC536558 and IC536559) showed comparatively close genetic relationship with the salt tolerant variety FL478 for Saltol QTL and were clustered together in the neighbour joining dendrogram. Considering the haplotype structure, five genotypes (IC203801, IC203778, IC324584, IC413608 and IC413638) were identified which did not contain any common allele similar to FR13A but were still tolerant to submergence. These individuals need further characterization for identification of new alleles responsible for their tolerance.
Cancer-related drowsiness (CRD) is a distressing symptom in advanced cancer patients (ACP). The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and factors associated with severity of CRD. We also evaluated the screening performance of Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale-drowsiness (ESAS-D) item against the Epworth Sedation Scale (ESS).
We prospectively assessed 180 consecutive ACP at a tertiary cancer hospital. Patients were surveyed using ESAS, ESS, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Insomnia Severity Index, and Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale.
Ninety of 150 evaluable patients had clinically significant CRD (ESS); median (interquartile ratio): ESS. 11 (7–14); ESAS-D. 5 (2–6); Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. 8 (5–11); Insomnia Severity Index. 13 (5–19); Stop Bang Scoring 3 (2–4), and Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale-D 6 (3–10). ESAS-D was associated with ESAS (r, p) sleep (0.38, <0.0001); pain (0.3, <0.0001); fatigue (0.51, <0.0001); depression (0.39, <0.0001); anxiety (0.44, <0.0001); shortness of breath (0.32, <0.0001); anorexia (0.36, <0.0001), feeling of well-being [(0.41, <0.0001), ESS (0.24, 0.001), and opioid daily dose (0.19, 0.01). Multivariate-analysis showed ESAS-D was associated with fatigue (odds ratio [OR] = 9.08, p < 0.0001), anxiety (3.0, p = 0.009); feeling of well-being (OR = 2.27, p = 0.04), and insomnia (OR = 2.35; p = 0.036). Insomnia (OR = 2.35; p = 0.036) cutoff score ≥3 (of 10) resulted in a sensitivity of 81% and 32% and specificity of 70% and 44% in the training and validation samples, respectively.
Significance of results
Clinically significant CRD is frequent and seen in 50% of ACP. CRD was associated with severity of insomnia, fatigue, anxiety, and worse feeling of well-being. An ESAS-D score of ≥3 is likely to identify most of the ACP with significant CRD.
The meteoroid ablation is an important source of upper atmosphere metal atoms. Many meteoroids ablate between 70 - 110 km and form an ionized plasma trail which is detected by radar technique. It is also known that the ablation heights of the meteors depend on various factors such as velocity, mass, and its composition, etc. The meteor ablation height provides new opportunities to gather information on the neutral atmosphere in the Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere (MLT) region. In this study, we analysed the 11 years of meteor radar data (2005 - 2015), i.e., descending phase of solar cycle 23, and ascending phase of solar cycle 24, detected by all sky meteor radar at Thumba. We found that the solar activity influences the meteor ablation height, here, during the solar maxima meteor peak detection height rise to few hundred meters higher altitudes. We also examined the long term pattern of the meteor count rate which shows a decreasing trend and has good agreement with the sunspot number (SSN).
We examined the effect of biopesticides used alone, mixed with other biopesticides, or in conjunction with an imidacloprid against wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) in spring wheat Triticum aestivum Linnaeus (Poaceae) (variety: Duclair). The study was conducted at Ledger and Valier, Montana, United States of America in 2015 and 2016. Ten biopesticides (spinosad, azadirachtin, pyrethrin, Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo-Crivelli) Vuillemin (Fungi: Clavicipitaceae) GHA (Mycotrol), B. bassiana ANT-03 (BioCeres), Chromobacterium subtsugae Martin et al. (Bacteria: Neisseriaceae), Burkholderia Yabuuchi et al. (Burkholderiaceae) species, Metarhizium brunneum Petch (Fungi: Clavicipitaceae) ESC1 (MbESC1), and M. brunneum F52 (MetF52) as microsclerotial and corn grit-based granules) were tested in addition to thimet and imidacloprid. Treatment efficacy was based on plant stand protection, wireworm populations, and yield. In 2015, there was considerable variation between sites in treatment efficacy. Mycotrol, BioCeres, MetF52+spinosad, and MetF52+imidacloprid applications protected seedlings from wireworm damage better than the control at Ledger, while only MetF52 at Valier. Wireworm populations were significantly higher with Mycotrol, spinosad, MetF52+spinosad, MbESC1 (25 g/L), and MetF52 treatments, compared with control, at 14 and 28 days post application at Ledger, but without effect at Valier, 2015. We found significantly higher yield in plots treated with imidacloprid+MetF52 and Mycotrol+azadirachtin (Xpulse) compared with control at Ledger. In 2016, no significant treatment effects were observed at either site. In summary, this study provides insight on what treatments should be explored in more detail despite variable results.
Background: Cubital tunnel syndrome is the second most frequent upper extremity entrapment neuropathy. Various surgical approaches have been described in the literature for Ulnar nerve decompression, ranging from open In-situ decompression to endoscopic Ulnar nerve release. In this technical note we describe a new endoscopic approach for Ulnar nerve decompression. Methods: Four cadavers, a total of eight fresh arms were dissected using our new endoscopic technique. The technique involves a 2.5cm skin incision placed 2.5cm distal to the medial epicondyle, and perpendicular to the long nerve axis. Early identification of motor branches was achieved using this skin incision. Under endoscopic view using 30 degree rigid scope Ulnar nerves were decompressed Results: Early identification of motor branches was achieved using distally placed skin incision in all eight arms. Conclusions: The safety of identifying Ulnar nerve motor branches in the early steps of the procedure, and the avoidance of scar formation over the elbow joint are the proposed advantages of this approach. More clinical studies needed to validate this outcome.
Our recent studies based on a large sample of K giants with Hipparcos parallaxes and spectroscopic analysis resulted more than a dozen new Li-rich K giants including few super Li-rich ones. Most of the Li-rich K giants including the new ones appear to occur at the luminosity bump in the HR diagram. However, one can’t rule out the possibility of overlap with the clump region where core He-burning K giants reside post He-flash at the tip of RGB. It is important to distinguish field K giants of clump from the bump region in the HR diagram to understand clues for Li production in K giants. In this poster, we explore whether GAIA parallaxes improve to disentangle clump from bump region, more precisely.
) be a Cohen–Macaulay local ring of dimension d and let I ⊆ J be two
-primary ideals with I a reduction of J. For i = 0,. . .,d, let eiJ(A) (eiI(A)) be the ith Hilbert coefficient of J (I), respectively. We call the number ci(I, J) = eiJ(A) − eiI(A) the ith relative Hilbert coefficient of J with respect to I. If GI(A) is Cohen–Macaulay, then ci(I, J) satisfy various constraints. We also show that vanishing of some ci(I, J) has strong implications on depth GJn(A) for n ≫ 0.
Background: The Supreme Court of Canada (SCC) recently rendered a decision striking down the Criminal Code absolute prohibition on providing assisted dying. End of life decisions are commonly encountered by neurosurgeons due to the nature of their practice. Neurosurgeons will be faced with patients requesting PAD in the near future. Methods: The recent SCC ruling heralds a change that will radically alter a most basic tenet that has historically guided physicians and surgeons. A subcommittee of the Canadian Neurosurgical Society (CNSS) was formed to generate a position statement to reflect the interests of both neurosurgeons and their patients. Results: Fundamental issues regarding the implementation of PAD identified include:
Clarity of legislation
The creation of an independent, third party referral service
Effective safeguards and oversight of the entire process
-The right to “conscientious objection” on the part of hysicians who do not wish to be involved in PAD
Conclusions: The CNSS urges clarity in legislation regarding PAD and strict oversight in its implementation to reduce potential harm. We also support the creation of an independent, third party referral service which would serve to respect the conscience of those health care providers who do not wish to actively participate in PAD.
Understanding of biological impact of proteome profile on meat quality is vital for developing different approaches to improve meat quality. Present study was conducted to unravel the differences in biochemical, ultrastructural and proteome profile of longissimus dorsi muscle between buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) of different age groups (young v. old). Higher (P<0.05) myofibrillar and total protein extractability, muscle fibre diameter, and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values was observed in old buffalo meat relative to meat from young buffaloes. Scanning electron microscopy photographs revealed reduced fibre size with increased inter-myofibrillar space in young compared with old buffalo meat. Transmission electron microscopy results revealed longer sarcomeres in young buffalo meat relative to meat from old buffaloes. Proteomic characterization using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) found 93 differentially expressed proteins between old and young buffalo meat. Proteome analysis using 2DE revealed 191 and 95 differentially expressed protein spots after 6 days of ageing in young and old buffalo meat, respectively. The matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of flight/time-of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) analysis of selected gel spots helped in identifying molecular markers of tenderness mainly consisting of structural proteins. Protein biomarkers identified in the present study have the potential to differentiate meat from young and old buffaloes and pave the way for optimizing strategies for improved buffalo meat quality.
In this paper, a compact, dual-band patch antenna is proposed over Minkowski fractal defected ground structure (DGS) for bandwidth enhancement of global positioning system (GPS) applications. The proposed design combines the truncated dual L-shaped slits cut on diagonal corners of radiating patch and fractal defect on the metallic ground plane. This concept shifts the frequencies to lower bands with improvement in antenna radiation properties. By deploying symmetrical and asymmetrical boundaries to the structure for the fractal DGS on metallic ground plane, improvement in bandwidth and gain are obtained. Compact antenna size is achieved for dual-band GPS frequencies of L1 (1.575 GHz) and L2 (1.227 GHz). The measured results for antenna prototype are (1.2–1.245 GHz): L2 band and (1.51–1.59 GHz): L1 band for 10 dB return loss bandwidth with better pattern radiation. Gain value with and without DGS is observed for compact antenna overall volume of 0.32λ0 × 0.32λ0 × 0.024λ0.
Climate risk assessment in cropping is generally undertaken in a top-down approach using climate records while critical farmer experience is often not accounted for. In the present study, set in south India, farmer experience of climate risk is integrated in a bottom-up participatory approach with climate data analysis. Crop calendars are used as a boundary object to identify and rank climate and weather risks faced by smallhold farmers. A semi-structured survey was conducted with experienced farmers whose income is predominantly from farming. Interviews were based on a crop calendar to indicate the timing of key weather and climate risks. The simple definition of risk as consequence × likelihood was used to establish the impact on yield as consequence and chance of occurrence in a 10-year period as likelihood. Farmers’ risk experience matches well with climate records and risk analysis. Farmers’ rankings of ‘good’ and ‘poor’ seasons also matched up well with their independently reported yield data. On average, a ‘good’ season yield was 1·5–1·65 times higher than a ‘poor’ season. The main risks for paddy rice were excess rains at harvesting and flowering and deficit rains at transplanting. For cotton, farmers identified excess rain at harvest, delayed rains at sowing and excess rain at flowering stages as events that impacted crop yield and quality. The risk assessment elicited from farmers complements climate analysis and provides some indication of thresholds for studies on climate change and seasonal forecasts. The methods and analysis presented in the present study provide an experiential bottom-up perspective and a methodology on farming in a risky rainfed climate. The methods developed in the present study provide a model for end-user engagement by meteorological agencies that strive to better target their climate information delivery.
A novel tri-band asymmetric slot with defective ground structure (DGS) microstrip antenna for dual circular polarization (CP) is proposed. By placing a slot with 45° across diagonally at the center of the patch, excites resonant bands with narrow bandwidth and dual CP operation. The main design challenge is to introduce optimized defected element of circular dumbbell shape to enhance the impedance bandwidth with frequency shift operation at all bands. DGS enabled antenna is practically fabricated and simulated. Antenna is compact in size and shows a good quality of CP at two resonant bands and linearly polarized at one band. Structure displays the impedance bandwidth of 8% (2.26–2.45 GHz), 5.45% (3.41–3.6 GHz) and 3.07% (5.12–5.28 GHz). The design also shows 40 and 11 MHz, 3-dB axial ratio bandwidth at lower and middle bands, respectively. Simulated gain for each band is 4.72, 6.2 and 4 dB. Performance of antenna with and without DGS is also studied and compared. This single probe feed proposed antenna remains consistent with good radiation patterns and sufficient antenna gain over the operating bands. Excellent agreement was obtained between measurements and simulations.
Obesity is a growing problem in India, the dietary determinants of which have been studied using an ‘individual food/nutrient’ approach. Examining dietary patterns may provide more coherent findings, but few studies in developing countries have adopted this approach. The present study aimed to identify dietary patterns in an Indian population and assess their relationship with anthropometric risk factors.
FFQ data from the cross-sectional sib-pair Indian Migration Study (IMS; n 7067) were used to identify dietary patterns using principal component analysis. Mixed-effects logistic regression was used to examine associations with obesity and central obesity.
The IMS was conducted at four factory locations across India: Lucknow, Nagpur, Hyderabad and Bangalore.
The participants were rural-to-urban migrant and urban non-migrant factory workers, their rural and urban resident siblings, and their co-resident spouses.
Three dietary patterns were identified: ‘cereals–savoury foods’ (cooked grains, rice/rice-based dishes, snacks, condiments, soups, nuts), ‘fruit–veg–sweets–snacks’ (Western cereals, vegetables, fruit, fruit juices, cooked milk products, snacks, sugars, sweets) and ‘animal-food’ (red meat, poultry, fish/seafood, eggs). In adjusted analysis, positive graded associations were found between the ‘animal-food’ pattern and both anthropometric risk factors. Moderate intake of the ‘cereals–savoury foods’ pattern was associated with reduced odds of obesity and central obesity.
Distinct dietary patterns were identified in a large Indian sample, which were different from those identified in previous literature. A clear ‘plant food-based/animal food-based pattern’ dichotomy emerged, with the latter being associated with higher odds of anthropometric risk factors. Longitudinal studies are needed to further clarify this relationship in India.
This investigation introduces a new very simple and efficient approach for QCM sensor response amplification, developed for hydrolases activity determination. For this purpose, the QCM crystal surface was modified with nanoparticles loaded enzyme substrate. During the enzymatic substrate degradation, the heavier nanoparticles were also released from the sensitive layer together with the substrate degradation products. Nanoparticles removal resulted in QCM signal amplification due to the higher nanoparticles specific mass compared with the specific mass of the substrate.
The suggested concept was successfully applied for creating of simple biosensing platforms for trypsin and lipase activity determination in real time using respectively SiO2 nanoparticles loaded olive oil and Ag nanoparticles loaded gelatin as enzyme substrates. Up to 10 times amplification of the QCM signal was reached applying the proposed approach compared with the common one.
Public health and environmental protection concerns provoked by phenolic compounds pollution impose the development of sensitive, rapid and cost effective methods for in situ phenols monitoring. Given that biosensors based techniques could face these challenges, a variety of such devices was suggested and applied for phenolic compounds quantification. Their majority are based on the polyphenol oxidase (PPO) catalyzed phenols oxidation to catechol and then, to quinones, coupled with the registration of the quinones reduction current. Nevertheless, quinoid products polymerization involving electrode passivation corrupts the biosensors operational stability. Thus, to avoid this drawback, in this work is proposed another approach for phenolic compounds quantification based on the electrochemical detection of the oxygen depletion during PPO catalyzed catechol oxidation using a Clark type electrode with a disposable active enzyme membrane. The oxygen probe was modified in comparison to the commercial ones: its flat front allowed ensuring a good contact with the active enzyme membrane and the gold multicathode uniformly dislocated on the surface of the flat front permitted eliminating O2 diffusional constraints. The active enzyme membrane was prepared by drop-coating of a mixture of PPO and gelatin onto a gelatin-saturated cellulose filter. A linear calibration graph for catechol determination was obtained in the range up to 0.7 mM with a slope of 0.902 μA/mM, at pH 6.5 and ambient temperature. The steady-state response to catechol of the biosensor was reached in 120 s. The biosensor had an excellent reproducibility (RSD<3%) due to the reliable enzyme immobilization technique, allowing the preparation of active enzyme membranes with identical characteristics. The proposed biosensor provided stable response and free of interferences measurements since the unique possible electrochemical reaction is O2 reduction. Another biosensor advantage is associated with the use of disposable prefabricated active enzyme membranes.
The cytologic evaluation of exfoliative and fine needle aspiration material is one of the most widely used diagnostic modalities worldwide. Now thoroughly updated with new guidelines and references, and featuring more than 1000 high-quality color photomicrographs, Differential Diagnosis in Cytopathology remains the essential organ-based reference guide for practising and trainee pathologists and cytotechnologists. This new edition addresses a comprehensive variety of benign and malignant neoplastic conditions, utilizing a consistent structure with bullet-point text for quick access and assimilation. The full spectrum of infectious and inflammatory disorders are also presented in detail. The information is not limited to light microscopic findings but includes many other genetic, molecular, and immunologic diagnostic modalities, giving readers the diagnostic and clinical criteria needed when formulating a diagnosis and differential diagnosis. No other book focuses exclusively on essential diagnostic criteria, making this an essential text for pathologists, cytopathologists and cytotechnologists at all stages of their careers.