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Symptoms of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) have been described in
neuropsychiatric syndromes associated with streptococcal infections. It
is proposed that antibodies raised against streptococcal proteins
cross-react with neuronal proteins (antigens) in the brain, particularly
in the basal ganglia, which is a brain region implicated in OCD
To test the hypothesis that post-streptococcal autoimmunity, directed
against neuronal antigens, may contribute to the pathogenesis of OCD in
Ninety-six participants with OCD were tested for the presence of
anti-streptolysin-O titres (ASOT) and the presence of anti-basal ganglia
antibodies (ABGA) in a cross-sectional study. The ABGA were tested for
with western blots using three recombinant antigens; aldolase C, enolase
and pyruvate kinase. The findings were compared with those in a control
group of individuals with depression (n = 33) and
schizophrenia (n = 17).
Positivity for ABGA was observed in 19/96 (19.8%) participants with OCD
compared with 2/50 (4%) of controls (Fisher's exact test
P = 0.012). The majority of positive OCD sera (13/19)
had antibodies against the enolase antigen. No clinical variables were
associated with ABGA positivity. Positivity for ASOT was not associated
with ABGA positivity nor found at an increased incidence in participants
with OCD compared with controls.
These findings support the hypothesis that central nervous system
autoimmunity may have an aetiological role in some adults with OCD.
Further study is required to examine whether the antibodies concerned are
pathogenic and whether exposure to streptococcal infection in vulnerable
individuals is a risk factor for the development of OCD.
In this paper an attempt was made to impose different degrees of rapid solidification by spraying on diverse substrates of varying thermal properties. Substrates such as Copper, Aluminum, Stainless steel, Low alloy steel substrates were used to alter the imposed cooling rate and thereby the amount of residual α phase. A start powder of 3 wt % Alumina-titania powder was used for spraying to a thickness of 250 μm on the different substrates specified. In all cases the rapidly solidified phases show nanocrystalline sizes with the most rapidly solidified metastable γ phase showing finer grain size of less than 25 nm. The surface roughness of the substrate and the coating were characterized by Atomic force microscopy. In contrary to the Alumina-13 wt % titania, coupons of Alumina-3 wt % titania had shown poor indentation fracture toughness with increased amount of residual α phase. Coupons of stainless steel and low alloy steel had shown the lowest fracture toughness when tested by Vickers type indentation at loads of 3 N and 5 N. In contrast to these results the interfacial toughness when measured by Rockwell indentation technique at loads of 150 N was found to be dependent on the elastic modulus of the substrate more than the coating hardness. The interfacial toughness was found to be lower for softer material such as aluminum and copper than stainless steel and low alloy steel.
We study the impact of a minimum consumption requirement on the rate of
economic growth and the evolution of wealth distribution. The requirement
introduces a positive dependence between the intertemporal elasticity of
substitution and household wealth. This dependence implies a transition
phase during which the growth rate of per-capita quantities rise toward
their steady-state values and the distributions of wealth, consumption, and
permanent income become more unequal. We calibrate the minimum consumption
requirement to match estimates available for a sample of Indian villagers
and find that these transitional effects are quantitatively significant and
depend importantly on the economy's steady-state growth rate.
In this study, we investigated the frequency of co-existence of
cysticercosis (CC) in
Japanese encephalitis (JE) cases with special emphasis on its role in predicting
the final clinical
outcome. Amongst the 163 confirmed cases of JE, 37·42% (61/163)
co-existent CC. This
was confirmed by antibody detection in the CSF of 45 cases, CT scan of
in 6 cases
and at autopsy in 3 cases. In 2 cases confirmation was possible by CT scan
well as at
autopsy, in 4, CSF antibody levels and CT scan were suggestive of CC while
CSF antibodies and autopsy were suggestive of CC. The co-occurrence of
Cysticercus cellulosae in
the brain emerged as a prognosticator of poor outcome in JE cases
Neurological complications following turbinate surgery are relatively rare. We present here an unusual complication of unilateral partial oculomotor and trigeminal nerve palsy after bilateral inferior turbinectomies. The probable aetiological mechanism is discussed.
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