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The co-occurrence of hepatic cystic echinococcosis (CE) and alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is extremely rare. Here, we present the clinical manifestations and treatment outcomes of three cases with co-occurring CE and AE in the liver. Computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging and 18FFluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography-CT were used for preoperative diagnosis. Specimens were taken intraoperatively and sent for pathological studies to confirm the coexistence of CE and AE by laminated membrane, daughter cysts or germinal layer and infiltration structure. Albendazole was prescribed after operation for 12 months. All patients were completely recovered and showed no recurrence at last follow-up. Therefore, surgical intervention and postoperative application of albendazole are recommended for patients with concurrence of hepatic AE and CE.
We aimed to quantitatively gauge local public health workers’ perceptions toward disaster recovery role expectations among jurisdictions in New Jersey and Maryland affected by Hurricane Sandy.
An online survey was made available in 2014 to all employees in 8 Maryland and New Jersey local health departments whose jurisdictions had been impacted by Hurricane Sandy in October 2012. The survey included perceptions of their actual disaster recovery involvement across 3 phases: days to weeks, weeks to months, and months to years. The survey also queried about their perceptions about future involvement and future available support.
Sixty-four percent of the 1047 potential staff responded to the survey (n=669). Across the 3 phases, 72% to 74% of the pre-Hurricane Sandy hires knew their roles in disaster recovery, 73% to 75% indicated confidence in their assigned roles (self-efficacy), and 58% to 63% indicated that their participation made a difference (response efficacy). Of the respondents who did not think it likely that they would be asked to participate in future disaster recovery efforts (n=70), 39% indicated a willingness to participate.
The marked gaps identified in local public health workers’ awareness of, sense of efficacy toward, and willingness to participate in disaster recovery efforts after Hurricane Sandy represent a significant infrastructural concern of policy and programmatic relevance. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:371–377)
Choi, Jiang, and Shenkar (2015) offer an interesting and new perspective on the relationship between local governance and firm performance in China. This commentary focuses first on how we conceive of the nature of China's capitalism and then examines what that suggests about their metrics and findings.
Co-infections of cystic echinococcosis (CE) and HIV/AIDS is rare. We report four CE cases that were HIV positive. Three out of the four patients underwent a surgical operation to remove the hydatid cysts in their livers. The operation confirmed that in two of the cases their cysts had ruptured. These patients were given 3 months of albendazole after the operation. Follow-up showed they were remarkably improved in term of their health, although they were still HIV antibody positive 6 months after surgical treatment. Interestingly, the treatment remarkably increased their CD4+ cell population. We showed that surgery is suitable for treating hepatic cystic echinococcosis with HIV/AIDS co-infection.
Longitudinal studies reporting the association between cannabis use and developing depression provide mixed results. The objective of this study was to establish the extent to which different patterns of use of cannabis are associated with the development of depression using meta-analysis of longitudinal studies.
Peer-reviewed publications reporting the risk of developing depression in cannabis users were located using searches of EMBASE, Medline, PsychINFO and ISI Web of Science. Only longitudinal studies that controlled for depression at baseline were included. Data on several study characteristics, including measures of cannabis use, measures of depression and control variables, were extracted. Odds ratios (ORs) were extracted by age and length of follow-up.
After screening for 4764 articles, 57 articles were selected for full-text review, of which 14 were included in the quantitative analysis (total number of subjects = 76058). The OR for cannabis users developing depression compared with controls was 1.17 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05–1.30]. The OR for heavy cannabis users developing depression was 1.62 (95% CI 1.21–2.16), compared with non-users or light users. Meta-regression revealed no significant differences in effect based on age of subjects and marginal difference in effect based on length of follow-up in the individual studies. There was large heterogeneity in the number and type of control variables in the different studies.
Cannabis use, and particularly heavy cannabis use, may be associated with an increased risk for developing depressive disorders. There is need for further longitudinal exploration of the association between cannabis use and developing depression, particularly taking into account cumulative exposure to cannabis and potentially significant confounding factors.
The purpose of this study was to determine the aetiology of acute diarrhoea and improve knowledge of gastrointestinal pathogens in China. Faecal specimens from 1526 outpatients with diarrhoea were collected from 20 hospitals in Henan province and the prevalence of seven bacterial and five viral diarrhoeagenic pathogens were determined. Bacterial pathogens were recovered from 279/1526 (18·3%) stool specimens and viral pathogens were detected in 178/1526 (11·7%) stool specimens. The top five pathogenic species were diarrhoeagenic E. coli (n = 140, 9·2%), rotavirus (n = 79, 5·2%), Shigella spp. (n = 69, 4·5%), Salmonella spp. (n = 66, 4·3%) and norovirus (n = 56, 3·7%). The prevalence of pathogens showed correlation with age, season and clinical symptoms. Several dominant serotypes were identified in Shigella and Salmonella isolates, and high prevalence of multiple drug-resistant isolates was observed in both species. This important information will have a significant effect on public health policy development and resource prioritization practices.
We prepared hybrid aluminum oxide (Al2O3)/polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) composites with tunable lamellae, produced through a two-step synthetic method: fabrication of inorganic scaffolds via ice-templating, followed by organic infiltration polymerization as a substitute for the sublimed ice. The final lamellar hybrid products show anisotropic physical properties. The thermal conductivity in both principal directions was determined for three different samples as a function of temperature (∼3 K–300 K). Typical room temperature thermal conductivities are in the range of 0.5–2.5 W/(m K), depending on the composition and direction. Across the lamellae, the thermal conductivity is well modeled by a linear series of thermal resistors, and along the lamellae it is well represented by parallel thermal resistors of continuous slabs of PMMA and ∼200-μm long slabs of Al2O3, joined by PMMA. From the thermal conductivity perspective, the Al2O3/PMMA composite is a nacre mimic.
High quality epitaxial Sil−xGex/Si (x = 0.09 to 0.27) samples were studied with polarized Raman scattering technique. The LO (longitudinal optical) -TO (transversal optical) phonon mode splitting due to the tetragonal strain imposed by the lattice mismatch between Sil−xGex and Si was observed for the first time in such structures. In contrast to the case of uniaxial stress, the biaxial stress induces a larger strain frequency shift for the LO mode than for the TO mode. The phonon strain shift coefficient for the LO mode was found to be 1010 cm−1, which is larger than most of the values reported in the literatures, and almost composition independent throughout the range of x≤0.27. We argue that the smaller LO strain shift coefficients indicate that the Sil−xGex films used in previous work were partially relaxed.
The Cu-based film catalysts with various additive metals have been successfully prepared by the electroless plating on ZnO nanorods/stainless steel substrates. The microstructure features of the Cu-based films are highly porous and composed of plate-type grains. The addition of zirconium, aluminum, and iron into Cu-based film catalyst can improve the activity and the stability of the film catalysts. The catalytic durability of the Cu-based film catalysts has also been improved by addition of Zr, Al, and Fe into Cu-based films. This is attributed to the formation of the stable ZrO2, Al2O3, and Fe2O3 nanoparticles with good dispersion in the films.
We evaluate the probe forming capability of a JEOL 2200FS transmission electron microscope equipped with a spherical aberration (Cs) probe corrector. The achievement of a real space sub-Angstrom (0.1 nm) probe for scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) imaging is demonstrated by acquisition and modeling of high-angle annular dark-field STEM images. We show that by optimizing the illumination system, large probe currents and large collection angles for electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) can be combined to yield EELS fine structure data spatially resolved to the atomic scale. We demonstrate the probe forming flexibility provided by the additional lenses in the probe corrector in several ways, including the formation of nanometer-sized parallel beams for nanoarea electron diffraction, and the formation of focused probes for convergent beam electron diffraction with a range of convergence angles. The different probes that can be formed using the probe corrected STEM opens up new applications for electron microscopy and diffraction.
More than 70 species of Paleozoic articulate brachiopods with color patterns have been reported in the literature (see Blodgett et al., 1983, table 1; Table 1). The majority of them are Devonian terebratuloid brachiopods. Twenty-two Permian brachiopod species were previously described as retaining color patterns. Most of them belong to Dielasma and have radial to subradial color patterns. Here we report a smooth spiriferid, Martinia? sp., with well-preserved radial color bands from Late Permian rocks of South China.
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