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OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: To use a systematic and iterative process to develop and refine toolkits to support dissemination and implementation (D&I) research. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Participants included research staff from the Dissemination and Implementation Research Core (DIRC), a research methods core from the Institute of Clinical and Translational Science at Washington University in St. Louis, other D&I experts from the University, and national experts from the D&I field. This project used education design research methodology and a systematic and iterative process involving several phases. The first phase (preliminary research and initial development) consisted of analysis of the educational problem and its context, and led to the development of toolkit prototypes and plans for their implementation. In the second phase (development and formative evaluation), toolkits were iteratively evaluated with emphasis on content validity and consistency and effectiveness as perceived by the users. Finally, in the summative evaluation, the toolkits were evaluated based on their use as intended. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Our team identified the target audience as DIRC customers and investigators from disciplines across the University, and found that resources for beginners to D&I were lacking. The team developed 8 toolkits: (1) Introduction to D&I; (2) How to develop D&I Aims; (3) D&I Designs; (4) Implementation Outcomes; (5) Implementation Organizational Measures; (6) Assessing Barriers and Facilitators; (7) D&I Designs; and (8) Guideline research. These prototypes were iteratively revised for content validity and consistency. Finally, each toolkit was evaluated by two national experts in D&I science, and further refined. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This systematic and cyclical process led to the development of 8 toolkits to support researchers in D&I science, which are now available on the DIRC Web site. This set the stage for development of new toolkits as additional needs are identified.
The Working Party has developed some practical hints and tips for those developing integrated risk management (IRM) plans for UK defined benefit pension schemes in the context of the requirements of the Pensions Regulator. Four case studies are presented to illustrate its conclusions, which are encapsulated in the ten commandments for effective IRM. IRM is the consideration of investment, funding and covenant issues, and how these interact. Its purpose should be to aid decision making and so should have a clear outcome in mind. It should be a continuous process and should form part of everyday trustee governance – it is not simply a one-off exercise. Whilst most Trustees and advisors consider funding issues when setting their investment strategy and vice versa, fewer fully integrate covenant into their decision-making process. However, covenant underpins all risk taken in a pension scheme and so needs to form a regular part of trustee discussions and analysis by advisors.
This study evaluates the radiocarbon dating of ceramic samples from Tupiguarani sites in Brazil, a settlement type dating up to 3000 cal BP. In this work, residues from ceramic samples from four archaeological sites in Rio de Janeiro (Morro Grande, Serrano, Barba Couto, and Bananeiras) were analyzed. In order to identify the most suitable sample preparation protocols, the humic fraction was isolated from the bulk material at the Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit (ORAU), whereas the acid-base-acid (ABA) residue fraction method was applied at the Radiocarbon Laboratory of the Fluminense Federal University (LAC-UFF). The dating results were compared to the current knowledge about the occupational periods of the sites. For the Morro Grande site, the results of humic and ABA residue fractions show a difference of more than 1500 yr. For the Serrano site, the 14C ages obtained from the two pretreatments are identical, and as with the Barba Couto and Bananeiras sites, indicate an occupation during the Brazilian colonial period of the 16th century AD and are compatible with the archaeological data.
This paper covers three different methods of matching radiocarbon dates to the ‘wiggles’ of the calibration curve in those situations where the age difference between the 14C dates is known. These methods are most often applied to tree-ring sequences. The simplest approach is to use a classical Chi-squared fit of the 14C data to the 14C curve. This gives the calendar date where the data fit best and allows tests of how good the fit is. The only drawback of this method is that it is difficult to ascertain the uncertainty in the date found in this way. An extension of this technique uses a Monte-Carlo simulation to sample possible 14C concentrations consistent with the measurement made and for each of these possibilities performs a Chi-squared fit. This method yields a distribution of values in the calendrical time-scale, from which the overall dating uncertainty can be derived. A third, rather different approach, based on Bayesian statistics, calculates the relative likelihood of each possible calendar year fit. This can then be used to calculate a range of most likely dates in a similar way to the probability method of 14C calibration. The theories underlying all three methods are discussed in this paper and a comparison made for the fitting of specific model sequences. All three methods are found to give consistent results and the application of any one of them depends on the nature of the scientific question being addressed.
New radiocarbon calibration curves, IntCal04 and Marine04, have been constructed and internationally ratified to replace the terrestrial and marine components of IntCal98. The new calibration data sets extend an additional 2000 yr, from 0–26 cal kyr BP (Before Present, 0 cal BP = AD 1950), and provide much higher resolution, greater precision, and more detailed structure than IntCal98. For the Marine04 curve, dendrochronologically-dated tree-ring samples, converted with a box diffusion model to marine mixed-layer ages, cover the period from 0–10.5 cal kyr BP. Beyond 10.5 cal kyr BP, high-resolution marine data become available from foraminifera in varved sediments and U/Th-dated corals. The marine records are corrected with site-specific 14C reservoir age information to provide a single global marine mixed-layer calibration from 10.5–26.0 cal kyr BP. A substantial enhancement relative to IntCal98 is the introduction of a random walk model, which takes into account the uncertainty in both the calendar age and the 14C age to calculate the underlying calibration curve (Buck and Blackwell, this issue). The marine data sets and calibration curve for marine samples from the surface mixed layer (Marine04) are discussed here. The tree-ring data sets, sources of uncertainty, and regional offsets are presented in detail in a companion paper by Reimer et al. (this issue).
We have AMS dated samples of Pacific rat (Rattus exulans) bone “collagen” and filtered gelatin samples from the prehistoric site of Shag River Mouth, New Zealand. The age of occupation of this site has previously been determined based on 50 radiocarbon measurements. The site dates to the late Archaic phase of southern New Zealand prehistory (about 650–500 BP; 14th–15th century AD). The results of rat bones which we have dated produce a range in ages, from about 980–480 BP, a difference we attribute to a combination of effects. Pretreatment appears to be an important variable, with results showing differences in 14C age between the progressive “collagen” and filtered gelatin chemical treatment stages. Amino acid profiles suggest there is a proteinaceous but non-collagenous contaminant which is removed by the more rigorous pretreatment. Stable isotopes vary between pretreatments, supporting the removal of a contaminant, or contaminants. Variation in δ15N values imply a range in uptake of dietary protein, and might suggest a potential influence from the local aquatic environment or the consumption of marine-derived protein. Rats are opportunistic, omnivorous mammals, and, therefore, obtain carbon from a variety of reservoirs and so we ought to expect that in environments where there is a variety of reservoirs, these will be exploited. Taken together, the results show that rat bone AMS 14C determinations vary in comparison with the established age of the site, but are in notably better agreement with non-collagenous data than in previously published determinations (Anderson 1996).
Chemical and isotopic analyses have been made of pigment samples from two separate rock art sites in Argentina. The purpose of the study has been to establish the feasibility of extracting carbonaceous material from the samples which will permit reliable radiocarbon dates for the time of painting. The two sites, Catamarca and Rio Negro, present quite different problems. Most of the paper is concerned with Catamarca, and here we have shown that the paint pigments contain very little or no organic binder; but they do contain calcium oxalate derived from local cacti, and calcium carbonate derived probably from local plant ash. We describe a method to purify carbon extracted from the calcium oxalate, and present the dates obtained on both components. We show that, though rare, natural deposits containing both calcium oxalate and calcite do occur, but that they are very distinct in both 13C and 14C compositions; and we argue that they are very unlikely to contaminate the pigments to such an extent that the 14C dates are altered. For the Rio Negro site we show that the ground for the paint pigments contains carbon derived from fires burnt inside the cave, and discuss how analytical methods provide information to develop a strategy for extracting material, from both ground and pigment, for more reliable dating.
The radiocarbon calibration curve IntCal04 extends back to 26 cal kyr B P. While several high-resolution records exist beyond this limit, these data sets exhibit discrepancies of up to several millennia. As a result, no calibration curve for the time range 26–50 cal kyr BP can be recommended as yet, but in this paper the IntCal04 working group compares the available data sets and offers a discussion of the information that they hold.
The IntCal04 and Marine04 radiocarbon calibration curves have been updated from 12 cal kBP (cal kBP is here defined as thousands of calibrated years before AD 1950), and extended to 50 cal kBP, utilizing newly available data sets that meet the IntCal Working Group criteria for pristine corals and other carbonates and for quantification of uncertainty in both the 14C and calendar timescales as established in 2002. No change was made to the curves from 0–12 cal kBP. The curves were constructed using a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) implementation of the random walk model used for IntCal04 and Marine04. The new curves were ratified at the 20th International Radiocarbon Conference in June 2009 and are available in the Supplemental Material at www.radiocarbon.org.
We describe an X-ray polarimeter which will be flown on the SPECTRUM-X-Gamma mission. The instrument exploits three distinct physical processes to measure polarization: Bragg reflection from a graphite crystal, Thomson scattering from a metallic lithium target, and photoemission from a Cesium Iodide photocathode. These three processes allow polarization measurements over an energy band of 0.3 keV to 12 keV. The polarimeter will make possible sensitive measurements of several hundred known X-ray sources. X-ray polarization measurements will allow us to constrain the geometry of gas flow in X-ray binaries, identify nonthermal emission in supernova remnants, test current models for X-ray emission in radio pulsars, determine the radiation mechanisms in active galactic nuclei, and search for inertial frame dragging (Lense-Thirring effect) around the putative black hole in Cygnus X-1.
The Chauvet-Pont d'Arc Cave is one of the most important sites for the study of the earliest manifestations and development of prehistoric art at the beginning of the Upper Paleolithic. Different dating techniques have been performed thus far (AMS 14C, U/Th TIMS, 36Cl dating) to model the chronological framework of this decorated cave. The cave yielded several large charcoal fragments, which enabled the opportunity for obtaining multiple dates; thus, a First Radiocarbon Intercomparison Program (FIP) was initiated in 2004 using three charcoal pieces. The FIP demonstrated that those cross-dated samples belonged to a time period associated with the first human occupation. One of the statistical interests of an intercomparison program is to reduce the uncertainty on the sample age; thus, to further assess the accuracy of the chronological framework, the Second Intercomparison Program (SIP) involving 10 international 14C laboratories was carried out on two pieces of charcoal found inside two hearth structures of the Galerie des Mégacéros. Each laboratory used its own pretreatment and AMS facilities. In total, 21 and 22 measurements were performed, respectively, which yielded consistent results averaging ∼32 ka BP. Two strategies have currently been developed to identify statistical outliers and to deal with them; both lead to quasi-identical calibrated combined densities. Finally, the new results were compared with those of the FIP, leading to the important conclusion that five different samples from at least three different hearth structures give really tightened temporal densities, associated with one short human occupation in the Galerie des Mégacéros.
Surveying and declaring disease freedom in wildlife is difficult because information on population size and spatial distribution is often inadequate. We describe and demonstrate a novel spatial model of wildlife disease-surveillance data for predicting the probability of freedom of bovine tuberculosis (caused by Mycobacterium bovis) in New Zealand, in which the introduced brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) is the primary wildlife reservoir. Using parameters governing home-range size, probability of capture, probability of infection and spatial relative risks of infection we employed survey data on reservoir hosts and spillover sentinels to make inference on the probability of eradication. Our analysis revealed high sensitivity of model predictions to parameter values, which demonstrated important differences in the information contained in survey data of host-reservoir and spillover-sentinel species. The modelling can increase cost efficiency by reducing the likelihood of prematurely declaring success due to insufficient control, and avoiding unnecessary costs due to excessive control and monitoring.
Due to the limited amount of structural information that can be obtained using traditional techniques of solid state physics (e.g., x-ray or neutron diffraction), the structure of oxide glasses has remained a controversial topic since the introduction of the “random network theory” in 1932. While there are several experimental methods that can provide detailed information about the local structural properties of glasses (e.g., NMR, EXAFS, optical absorption, Mössbauer absorption, and EPR spectroscopy), very little information is available regarding the distribution of intermediate size (∼10–500 Å) structural units.
Solid-State Amorphization (SSA) of crystalline interfaces is observed in the Ni/Ti multilayer system. The amorphization reaction nucleates at location(s) of crystallographic disorder, i.e. the multilayer interfaces. Microstructural analyses reveal the sputter-deposited growth structure to be epitaxial with semi-coherent interfaces. Strain energy originating from interface lattice distortions varies as a function of the multilayer repeat spacing. Therefore, the interfacial energy effects the onset conditions for SSA. Differential thermal analysis is used to measure the critical temperature Tc, to the nucleation of the SSA, which is found to vary with the Ni/Ti multilayer pair spacing.