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Gender equity is imperative to the attainment of healthy lives and wellbeing of all, and promoting gender equity in leadership in the health sector is an important part of this endeavour. This empirical research examines gender and leadership in the health sector, pooling learning from three complementary data sources: literature review, quantitative analysis of gender and leadership positions in global health organisations and qualitative life histories with health workers in Cambodia, Kenya and Zimbabwe. The findings highlight gender biases in leadership in global health, with women underrepresented. Gender roles, relations, norms and expectations shape progression and leadership at multiple levels. Increasing women's leadership within global health is an opportunity to further health system resilience and system responsiveness. We conclude with an agenda and tangible next steps of action for promoting women's leadership in health as a means to promote the global goals of achieving gender equity.
Because of unforeseen difficulties, Dr Sinzi, President of the Commission, was not able to prepare this Report. It was then too late for asking the Directors of the almanac offices and the other Members of the Commission for informations. This Report is therefore based on the material just available, and it must be apologized for some lack from which it necessarily suffers. If possible, any omitted facts which appear to be serious, may be included in the Report for the following triennium.
The period of this Report includes 1984 January 1, the date which was probably the most drastic caesura in the history of astronomical almanacs. It seemed, therefore, appropriate to concentrate here to the general aspects rather than to describe the works going on at the particular almanac offices. It is, however, hoped that the past years with their developments and changes will be followed by a period of consolidation and continuity. This would be also of great benefit for the users of the almanacs who still need some time for getting accustomed to so many innovations.
The stability to proton radiation of GaN metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) diodes fabricated using the novel gate dielectric Sc2O3 was investigated. The MOS diodes were fabricated by depositing the dielectric with molecular beam epitaxy onto MOCVD-grown GaN on sapphire. The stability of GaN Schottky diodes was also investigated for comparison. Current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V), were employed to monitor any change in the electrical characteristics of the diodes. Preliminary testing indicates that the GaN-based diodes are in fact affected by proton irradiation, but only at fairly high doses. Doses equivalent to 10 years in low earth orbit, ~5x109cm-2, produce a decrease in the reverse breakdown field in both Schottky and MOS diodes. However, even after irradiation, the GaN MOS diodes showed twice the reverse breakdown voltage of non-irradiated Schottky diodes. Further, while the Schottky diodes showed reduced forward breakdown voltage, the MOS diodes showed no change in forward breakdown. These results suggest that the oxide/GaN interface is stable and is not being damaged by the radiation. The change in reverse breakdown is most likely due to generation of damage in the GaN resulting in the formation of shallow donors.
Dislocations extending through channel regions of NMOSFETs with submicron gate lengths have been observed. Additionally, arrays of dislocations in the field regions of IC's have also been observed and found to be generating from the corners of the first n+ region during subsequent high temperature process.
A cross-sectional field study was performed to evaluate infection in dogs and cats living on farms with Mycobacterium bovis-infected cattle. The purpose was to determine pet infection status and assess their risk to farm families and/or tuberculosis-free livestock. Data and specimens were collected from 18 cats and five dogs from nine participating farms. ELISA testing for M. bovis and M. avium was conducted. Fifty-one biological samples were cultured; all were negative for M. bovis, although other Mycobacterium species were recovered. No radiographic, serological or skin test evidence of mycobacterial infection was found. These negative results may be due to the low level of M. bovis infection in the cattle and the limited duration of exposure of pets to infected cattle residing on the same farm. No evidence was found to indicate that pets residing on M. bovis-infected Michigan cattle farms pose a risk to humans or M. bovis-free livestock; however, precautionary advice for farm owners was provided.
Fifty-nine psychotic patients with acute onset of illness, who had been interviewed about their experience of stressful life events before the episode, were followed up for an average of 42 months. Thirty patients (51%) had experienced a stressful life event in the 3 months immediately before onset (EV +), 29 had not (EV −).
In patients with an RDC diagnosis of affective disorder or unspecified functional psychosis, the presence of stressful life events was associated subsequently with milder symptom severity, less time spent in hospital, more treatment for depressive symptoms and less for psychotic symptoms. In schizophrenia, differences were less apparent, but patients with event associated episodes had less need of anti-psychotic maintenance medication over the follow-up period and tended to have spent more time in complete remission. EV + schizophrenic subjects also had higher morbid risk for schizophrenia in their first degree relatives, and tended to be female and to have less typical symptoms than EV − schizophrenic patients.
In an investigation of the timing and precursors of social decline in schizophrenia and affective psychosis, 195 subjects from the Camberwell Collaborative Psychosis Study were currently of lower social class than were their fathers. A comparison between father's occupation and proband's best premorbid occupational level indicated underachievement confined to DSM–III schizophrenia, there being no such effect in affective psychosis. Decline in social status following onset of psychosis, analysed by comparing best premorbid occupation with current occupation, was marked in both schizophrenia and affective psychosis, indicating a non-specific effect. Schizophrenic patients who failed to achieve their fathers' social status had poorer educational qualifications than those who equalled or bettered their paternal social class, despite similar premorbid IQ (NART) scores and age at onset of psychosis. These results indicate that schizophrenia may be manifest before the onset of psychosis, and lend weight to the notion of a developmental origin to this disorder.
Samples of pig feed, infested to various known amounts with Acarus siro L., were scanned using an NIR analyser. Visual inspection of the spectra of infested feed did not indicate the presence of mites, but principal components derived from these spectra were correlated with the number of mites. Examination of the spectrum of Ringer solution, and of principal components for both infested feed samples and for mites scanned in isolation, indicated that in infested samples mite haemolymph caused the absorbance maximum for water to be shifted towards the visible end of the spectrum. Simpler calibration models, of the type used by current commercial NIR analysers, were developed which were able to detect and quantify economically significant levels of mites in infested pig feed.
In three experiments, ryegrass and lucerne were ensiled for 100 days in test-tube silos containing about 100 g of crop either without additive or after the addition of paraformaldehyde or formalin to provide 0·1–0.4% of the fresh crop weight as formaldehyde (HCHO). When applied as prills containing 82% HCHO, paraformaldehyde was as effective as formalin in restricting fermentation and preventing extensive protein breakdown at comparable HCHO application rates. The lower solubility of paraformaldehyde containing 98 % HCHO as powder or prills made these forms less effective than formalin in restricting fermentation. Paraformaldehydecontaining 98% HCHO was, however, effective even at the lowest rate of application, in preventing clostridial-type fermentations when these were present in silages made from untreated crops.This was in contrast to formalin which promoted such fermentation at low rates of application.
The principal objective to date in packaging dried forages into wafers, cobs or pellets has been to improve handling and storage. Over 80% of the dried forage produced in the UK is still used as a component in pig and poultry rations, for which a milled and pelleted product is the most suitable. However there is evidence that the different forms of package are not of the same nutritive value to ruminants. With the increasing interest in the use of dried forages for ruminant feeding it is important to examine packaging in these dual rôles, as both mechanical and nutritional treatments.
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