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Major depressive disorder (MDD) is moderately heritable, however genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for MDD, as well as for related continuous outcomes, have not shown consistent results. Attempts to elucidate the genetic basis of MDD may be hindered by heterogeneity in diagnosis. The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale provides a widely used tool for measuring depressive symptoms clustered in four different domains which can be combined together into a total score but also can be analysed as separate symptom domains.
We performed a meta-analysis of GWAS of the CES-D symptom clusters. We recruited 12 cohorts with the 20- or 10-item CES-D scale (32 528 persons).
One single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs713224, located near the brain-expressed melatonin receptor (MTNR1A) gene, was associated with the somatic complaints domain of depression symptoms, with borderline genome-wide significance (pdiscovery = 3.82 × 10−8). The SNP was analysed in an additional five cohorts comprising the replication sample (6813 persons). However, the association was not consistent among the replication sample (pdiscovery+replication = 1.10 × 10−6) with evidence of heterogeneity.
Despite the effort to harmonize the phenotypes across cohorts and participants, our study is still underpowered to detect consistent association for depression, even by means of symptom classification. On the contrary, the SNP-based heritability and co-heritability estimation results suggest that a very minor part of the variation could be captured by GWAS, explaining the reason of sparse findings.
Community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus infections are a public health concern, yet little is known about infections that do not present to hospital. We identified community-onset S. aureus infections via specimens submitted to a community-based pathology service. Referring doctors confirmed eligibility and described infection site, severity and treatment. Isolates were characterized on antibiotic resistance, PFGE, MLST/SCCmec, and Panton–Valentine leukocidin (PVL), representing 106 community-onset infections; 34 non-multiresistant methicillin-resistant S. aureus (nmMRSA) (resistant to <3 non-β-lactam antibiotics), 15 multiply antibiotic-resistant MRSA (mMRSA) and 57 methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA). Most (93%) were skin and soft tissue infections. PVL genes were carried by 42% of nmMRSA isolates [95% confidence interval (CI) 26–61] and 15% of MSSA (95% CI 8–28). PVL was associated with infections of the trunk, head or neck (56·4% vs. 24·3%, P = 0·005) in younger patients (23 vs. 52 years, P < 0·001), and with boils or abscesses (OR 8·67, 95% CI 2·9–26·2), suggesting underlying differences in exposure and/or pathogenesis.
To access the fermentative response of equine caecal microbial population to nitrogen availability, an in vitro study was conducted using caecal contents provided with adequate energy sources and nitrogen as limiting nutrient. Two nitrogen (N) sources were provided, protein (casein) and non-protein (urea). Caecal fluid, taken from three cannulated horses receiving a hay–concentrate diet, was mixed with a N-free buffer–mineral solution. The influence of four N levels (3.7, 6.3, 12.5 or 25 mg of N in casein or urea) was studied using the gas production technique. Total volatile fatty acids (VFA), NH3-N and gas production were measured after a 24-h incubation period. Microbial biomass was estimated using adenine and guanine bases as internal markers, and ATP production was estimated stoichiometrically. Microbial growth efficiency (YATP) and gas efficiency (Egas) were estimated. Fermentation with casein as the sole N source was generally characterized by lower total VFA, NH3-N, total gas production and higher acetate : propionate (A : P) ratio and YATP than with urea. Results herein presented indicate that, under these in vitro conditions, caecal microbial population does in fact use urea N, but less efficiently than casein in terms of microbial growth.
Habitat use of Manta alfredi and M. birostris was assessed at 20 localities in the Indian and Pacific Oceans based upon 3328 photographic observations. Geographical relationships of the two species were scored as either microallopatry, microparapatry or microsympatry at each locality. Our study revealed a mosaic habitat occupancy by the two species within their macrosympatric range.
This review compares and contrasts postharvest food losses (PHLs) and waste in developed countries (especially the USA and the UK) with those in less developed countries (LDCs), especially the case of cereals in sub-Saharan Africa. Reducing food losses offers an important way of increasing food availability without requiring additional production resources, and in LDCs it can contribute to rural development and poverty reduction by improving agribusiness livelihoods. The critical factors governing PHLs and food waste are mostly after the farm gate in developed countries but before the farm gate in LDCs. In the foreseeable future (e.g. up to 2030), the main drivers for reducing PHLs differ: in the developed world, they include consumer education campaigns, carefully targeted taxation and private and public sector partnerships sharing the responsibility for loss reduction. The LDCs’ drivers include more widespread education of farmers in the causes of PHLs; better infrastructure to connect smallholders to markets; more effective value chains that provide sufficient financial incentives at the producer level; opportunities to adopt collective marketing and better technologies supported by access to microcredit; and the public and private sectors sharing the investment costs and risks in market-orientated interventions.
Myxosporean parasites are significant parasites of fishes not only for their apparent high diversity but also for their potential impact on fish health and/or marketability. Regardless, our knowledge of most myxosporeans, especially those found in elasmobranch hosts, is superficial. A study of multivalvulidan diversity in a range of elasmobranchs from Queensland, Western Australia and the Northern Territory (Australia) was conducted to address this knowledge gap. Specimens were collected from a total of 3 orders, 9 families and 31 species of elasmobranchs. Myxosporean infections referable to the genus Kudoa were discovered in host muscle and characterized morphologically and genetically. Both small subunit (SSU) and large subunit (LSU) rDNA sequences were used in molecular phylogenetic analyses. Kudoa spp. infected 27 of the 31 species of elasmobranchs examined, representing new records of this parasite genus in 26, of the 27, host species. Kudoids were observed in all 3 orders, and 7 out of the 9 families of elasmobranchs investigated. This paper reports the first 2 multivalvulidan species to be formally described from elasmobranchs, Kudoa hemiscylli n.sp. characterized from Hemiscyllium ocellatum (and 8 other host species) and Kudoa carcharhini n. sp. characterized from Carcharhinus cautus (and 2 other host species). Phylogenetic analyses revealed that kudoids from elasmobranchs form a separate lineage to those of teleosts, but are anchored within the overall kudoid clade.
Gentamicin-resistant Escherichia coli isolated at different periods from patients in two hospitals were tested for resistance to the aminoglycoside antibiotic apramycin. Twenty-four of 93 (26%) gentamicin-resistant isolates collected from the Royal Liverpool Hospital between 1981 and 1990 were resistant to apramycin. Thirteen isolates were highly resistant to apramycin (minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) ≥ 1024 μg/ml). were also resistant to gentamicin, netilmicin and tobramycin, and hybridized with a DNA probe derived from the aminoglycoside acetyltransferase (3)IV (AAC(3)IV) gene. The proportion of gentamicinresistant isolates which had high level resistance to apramycin increased from 7% in 1981–5 to 24% in 1986–90.
Twelve gentamicin-resistant E. coli from Guy's and St Thomas's Hospital isolated between 1977 and 1980 were also tested for resistance to apramycin. For five of these isolates the MICs of apramycin was 32–256 μg/ml. None was shown to have a conjugative plasmid carrying resistance to apramycin and only one hybridized with the DNA probe for the AAC(3)IV enzyme.
An outbreak of salmonellosis in calves was monitored for persistence of Salmonella typhimurium excretion in faeces and the effect of treatment with apramycin. Prior to treatment apramycin-resistant Escherichia coli were present but all S. typhimurium isolates were sensitive. Following the treatment of six calves with apramycin, apramycin-resistant S. typhimurium were isolated from two treated calves and one untreated calf. Plasmid profiles of E. coli and S. typhimurium were compared and plasmids conferring resistance to apramycin and several other antibiotics were transferred by conjugation in vitro from calf E. coli and S. typhimurium isolates to E. coli K-12 and from E. coli to S. typhimurium. The plasmids conjugated with high frequency in vitro from E. coli to S. typhimurium, and hybridized to a DNA probe specific for the gene encoding aminoglycoside acetyltransferase 3-IV (AAC(3)-IV) which confers resistance to apramycin, gentamicin, netilmicin and tobramycin.
An outbreak of food intoxication involving over 265 cases in western United States occurred in October 1991. Staphylococcus intermedius was implicated as the aetiologic agent. Representative outbreak isolates (five clinical and ten from foods) produced type A enterotoxin. DNA fragments generated by four restriction endonucleases and analysed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) provided definitive evidence that all isolates from nine different counties in California and Nevada were derived from a single strain. The PFGE pattern of these outbreak isolates was distinct from those of a heterogeneous collection of seven S. intermedius strains of veterinary origin and five unrelated S. aureus laboratory strains. The data show a significant PFGE pattern heterogeneity not only among members of different Staphylococcus species but also within members of the same species and even the same enterotoxin type. The results indicate that PFGE is a valuable strain-specific discriminator for the epidemiological characterization of S. intermedius. To our knowledge, this represents the first documented foodborne outbreak caused by S. intermedius. These findings suggest that the presence of S. intermedius and other species such as S. hyicus in food should be reason for concern.
Escherichia coli serotype O147:K89:K88a,c was found to be associated with outbreaks of diarrhoea in preweaner pigs of up to 4 weeks of age on a pig unit. Resistance to apramycin, gentamicin, netilmicin, tobramycin and other antibiotics was associated with conjugative plasmids of approximately 62 kb. The presence of a gene which encoded for the aminoglycoside acetyltransferase enzyme AAC(3)IV was confirmed by DNA hybridization.
Samples collected during the following 12 months revealed widespread dissemination of these resistance plasmids in non-serotypable, non-haemolytic E. coli throughout the farm. Apramycin-resistant E. coli were also isolated from a stockman and it appeared from plasmid profile analysis and antibiotic sensitivity testing that the human isolates carried the same plasmid as that carried by the porcine E. coli. Klebsiella pneumoniae, with a slightly smaller conjugative plasmid and similar resistance pattern, was isolated from the stockman's wife.