The reproductive activity of feral male mice on an island of the sub-Antarctic Kerguelen archipelago was influenced by biological factors depending on periods within the breeding season. After having controlled host reproductive activity indices for body size, i.e. age, and body condition effects, Syphacia obvelata prevalence did not vary with host reproductive status or age either during the beginning or the middle–end of the reproductive season. Considering the beginning of the breeding season, worm abundance was more pronounced in males the year following a strong winter crash of the population than in years when high over wintering survival occurred. During the middle–end of the breeding season, males with the highest reproductive status were more infected than males with a lower reproductive status in years when oldest individuals dominated the population. It is suggested that this situation was due to an endocrine related increased host susceptibility partly influenced by a change in the age structure of the population, and that an increase in worm transmission was not directly related to male activity concurrent with reproductive status, nor to population density.