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Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), constitute a major clinical component of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). There is a growing interest in BPSD as they are responsible for a large share of the suffering of patients and caregivers, and they strongly determine the patient’s lifestyle and management. Better detection and understanding of these symptoms is essential to provide appropriate management. This article is a consensus produced by the behavioral group of the European Alzheimer’s Disease Consortium (EADC). The aim of this article is to present clinical description and biological correlates of the major behavioral and psychological symptomatology in AD. BPSD is not a unitary concept. Instead, it should be divided into several symptoms or more likely: groups of symptoms, each possibly reflecting a different prevalence, course over time, biological correlate and psychosocial determinants. There is some clinical evidence for clusters within groups of BPSD. Biological studies indicate that patients with AD and BPSD are associated with variations in the pathological features (atrophy, brain perfusion/metabolism, histopathology) when compared to people with AD without BPSD. An individually tailored approach taking all these aspects into account is warranted as it may offer more, and better, pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment opportunities.
Objective. It is widely known that the risk of suicide is higher in cases of major depressive disorders in comparison to the general population. The purpose of this study was to examine which psychopathologic symptoms during the index episode are predictors for an increased risk of suicide in the further course of major depression. Method. Mortality data were determined from a prospective study of 280 patients with major depression (DSM-III-R, single episode or recurrent) during a follow-up period of 5 years. The predictive power of different depressive symptoms including psychotic symptoms for suicide risk was investigated. Results. Patients who committed suicide (N = 16) during the follow-up period had reported significantly more often hypochondriacal preoccupations or delusions (but not delusions or preoccupations of impoverishment, guilt or sin), suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts as well as feelings of severe hopelessness during the index episode than still living patients or patients who had died from natural causes. Conclusion. These symptoms seem to be helpful early predictors for the risk of suicide during the further course of illness. This should be taken into account for suicide prevention in the course of major depression.
Evidence suggests a relationship between exposure to trauma and higher levels of symptoms and poorer functional outcomes in early psychotic patients (EPP). However, the impact of the age at the time of exposure to trauma in this association is as yet unknown.
To examine the potential differential impact of trauma, according to age at the time of exposure, on the level of functioning and on the psychopathological profile of EPP followed-up prospectively.
Two hundred and fifty-five EPP aged 18–35 were followed-up prospectively over 36 months. Patients who had faced at least one experience of abuse or neglect were classified according to age at the time of first exposure (early-trauma: before age 12; late-trauma: between age 12 and 16), and then compared with unexposed patients (non-trauma). The level of symptoms was assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. The Young Mania Rating Scale, and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale. The level of functioning was assessed with the global assessment of functioning.
Comparisons over the 3 years of treatment with non-trauma patients revealed that:
– late-trauma patients only showed more negative symptoms (P = 0.029) as compared to non-trauma patients.
The age at the time of exposure to trauma has a modulating effect on its impact on symptoms and functional outcome in EPP and it should be systematically examined in clinical and experimental settings.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The mechanism linking childhood trauma (CT) to the functional deficits observed in early psychosis (EP) patients is as yet unknown.
To examine the potential mediating effect of depressive symptoms in this well-established association.
Two hundred nine EP subjects aged 18-35 were assessed for functioning and psychopathology after 2, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 months of treatment. Patients were classified into early-trauma if they had faced at least one experience of abuse (physical, sexual, or emotional) or neglect (physical or emotional) before age 12, and late-trauma if the exposure had occurred between ages 12 and 16. Psychopathology was assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale. Functioning was measured with the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and the Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS). Mediation analyses were performed in order to study whether the relationship between CT and functioning was mediated by depressive symptoms.
When compared with nonexposed patients, early but not late trauma patients showed lower levels of GAF and SOFAS scores over all the time points, excepting after the first assessment. After 30 and 36 months, the effect of early trauma on functioning was completely mediated by depressive symptoms. No mediating effect of positive or negative symptoms was highlighted at those time points.
Mild depressive symptoms mediated the impact of early trauma on long-term functional outcome. Intensifying pharmacologic and/or psychotherapeutic treatment, focused on the depressive dimension, may help traumatized EP patients to improve their functioning.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
To describe and quantify the magnitude and distribution of stunting, wasting, anaemia, overweight and obesity by wealth, level of education and ethnicity in Ecuador.
We used nationally representative data from the 2012 Ecuadorian National Health and Nutrition Survey. We used the Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) as a proxy of wealth. The MPI identifies deprivations across three dimensions (health, education and standard of living). We defined education by years of schooling and ethnicity as a social construct, based on shared social, cultural and historical experiences, using Ecuadorian census categories.
Urban and rural Ecuador, including the Amazon rainforest and the Galapagos Islands.
Children aged <5 years (n 8580), adolescent women aged 11–19 years (n 4043) and adult women aged 20–49 years (n 15 203).
Among children <5 years, stunting and anaemia disproportionately affected low-wealth, low-education and indigenous groups. Among adolescent and adult women, higher rates of stunting, overweight and obesity were observed in the low-education and low-wealth groups. Stunting and short stature rates were higher in indigenous women, whereas overweight and obesity rates were higher in Afro-Ecuadorian women.
Malnutrition differs significantly across sociodemographic groups, disproportionately affecting those in the low wealth tertile and ethnic minorities. Rates of stunting remain high compared with other countries in the region with similar economic development. The effective implementation of double-duty actions with the potential to impact both sides of the double burden is urgently required.
Item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) queries about thoughts of death and self-harm, but not suicidality. Although it is sometimes used to assess suicide risk, most positive responses are not associated with suicidality. The PHQ-8, which omits Item 9, is thus increasingly used in research. We assessed equivalency of total score correlations and the diagnostic accuracy to detect major depression of the PHQ-8 and PHQ-9.
We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis. We fit bivariate random-effects models to assess diagnostic accuracy.
16 742 participants (2097 major depression cases) from 54 studies were included. The correlation between PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 scores was 0.996 (95% confidence interval 0.996 to 0.996). The standard cutoff score of 10 for the PHQ-9 maximized sensitivity + specificity for the PHQ-8 among studies that used a semi-structured diagnostic interview reference standard (N = 27). At cutoff 10, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive by 0.02 (−0.06 to 0.00) and more specific by 0.01 (0.00 to 0.01) among those studies (N = 27), with similar results for studies that used other types of interviews (N = 27). For all 54 primary studies combined, across all cutoffs, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive than the PHQ-9 by 0.00 to 0.05 (0.03 at cutoff 10), and specificity was within 0.01 for all cutoffs (0.00 to 0.01).
PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 total scores were similar. Sensitivity may be minimally reduced with the PHQ-8, but specificity is similar.
To examine score validity and reliability of a child version of the twenty-one-item Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (CTFEQ-R21) in a sample of Canadian children and adolescents and its relationship with BMI Z-score and food/taste preferences.
Children (n 158), sixty-three boys (mean age 11·5 (sd 1·6) years) and ninety-five girls (11·9 (sd 1·9) years).
Exploratory factor analysis revealed that the CTFEQ-R21 was best represented by four factors with item 17 removed (CFFEQ-R20), representing Cognitive Restraint (CR), Cognitive Uncontrolled Eating (UE 1), External Uncontrolled Eating (UE 2) and Emotional Eating (EE), accounting for 41·2 % of the total common variance with good scale reliability. ANOVA revealed that younger children reported higher UE 1 and CR scores than older children, and boys who reported high UE 1 scores had significantly higher BMI Z-scores. Children with high UE 1 scores reported a greater preference for high-protein and -fat foods, and high-fat savoury (HFSA) and high-fat sweet (HFSW) foods. Higher preference for high-protein, -fat and -carbohydrate foods, and HFSA, HFSW and low-fat savoury foods was found in children with high UE 2 scores.
The study suggests that the CFFEQ-R20 can be used to measure eating behaviour traits and associations with BMI Z-score and food/taste preferences in Canadian children and adolescents. Future research is needed to examine the validity of the questionnaire in larger samples and other geographical locations, as well as the inclusion of extraneous variables such as parental eating or socio-economic status.
Certain factors, such as food quality, label content and grocery characteristics, may be considered when purchasing foods. Food availability in the home has been shown to influence dietary behaviours, also associated with delay discounting (DD). The present study sought to characterize the relationships between DD, food purchasing considerations and healthfulness of foods in the home.
A cross-sectional, online survey of adults (n 477) was conducted with the following measures: DD, consideration of food quality (nutrition, taste) and grocery characteristics (price, ease of preparation, shelf-life) while shopping, use of food labels and food availability in the home. DD was assessed by the area under the delay discounting curve (AUC) using a binary choice task. Greater AUC reflects lower DD. Structural equation modelling was used to allow AUC to simultaneously predict purchasing considerations and foods in the home.
Adult employees in south-east Alabama, USA.
DD was negatively associated with food label use and emphasis on food quality when shopping (P<0·001). In the final model, DD was associated with availability of healthful foods in the home and emphasis on food quality and grocery characteristics. About 33 % of the variance in shopping behaviours, 5 % in food label use, 7 % in availability of healthful foods and 4 % in availability of unhealthful foods was explained by DD.
Individuals with lower DD appear to be more thoughtful in making food purchasing decisions and have healthful foods available in the home more frequently than individuals with higher DD.
Open literature publications, in the period from 2010 to the end of January 2018, on refractory high entropy alloys (RHEAs) and refractory complex concentrated alloys (RCCAs) are reviewed. While RHEAs, by original definition, are alloys consisting of five or more principal elements with the concentration of each of these elements between 5 and 35 at.%, RCCAs can contain three or more principal elements and the element concentration can be greater than 35%. The 151 reported RHEAs/RCCAs are analyzed based on their composition, processing methods, microstructures, and phases. Mechanical properties, strengthening and deformation mechanisms, oxidation, and corrosion behavior, as well as tribology, of RHEA/RCCAs are summarized. Unique properties of some of these alloys make them promising candidates for high temperature applications beyond Ni-based superalloys and/or conventional refractory alloys. Methods of development and exploration, future directions of research and development, and potential applications of RHEAs are discussed.
Different diagnostic interviews are used as reference standards for major depression classification in research. Semi-structured interviews involve clinical judgement, whereas fully structured interviews are completely scripted. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), a brief fully structured interview, is also sometimes used. It is not known whether interview method is associated with probability of major depression classification.
To evaluate the association between interview method and odds of major depression classification, controlling for depressive symptom scores and participant characteristics.
Data collected for an individual participant data meta-analysis of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) diagnostic accuracy were analysed and binomial generalised linear mixed models were fit.
A total of 17 158 participants (2287 with major depression) from 57 primary studies were analysed. Among fully structured interviews, odds of major depression were higher for the MINI compared with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) (odds ratio (OR) = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.15–3.87). Compared with semi-structured interviews, fully structured interviews (MINI excluded) were non-significantly more likely to classify participants with low-level depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≤6) as having major depression (OR = 3.13; 95% CI = 0.98–10.00), similarly likely for moderate-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores 7–15) (OR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.56–1.66) and significantly less likely for high-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≥16) (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.26–0.97).
The MINI may identify more people as depressed than the CIDI, and semi-structured and fully structured interviews may not be interchangeable methods, but these results should be replicated.
Declaration of interest
Drs Jetté and Patten declare that they received a grant, outside the submitted work, from the Hotchkiss Brain Institute, which was jointly funded by the Institute and Pfizer. Pfizer was the original sponsor of the development of the PHQ-9, which is now in the public domain. Dr Chan is a steering committee member or consultant of Astra Zeneca, Bayer, Lilly, MSD and Pfizer. She has received sponsorships and honorarium for giving lectures and providing consultancy and her affiliated institution has received research grants from these companies. Dr Hegerl declares that within the past 3 years, he was an advisory board member for Lundbeck, Servier and Otsuka Pharma; a consultant for Bayer Pharma; and a speaker for Medice Arzneimittel, Novartis, and Roche Pharma, all outside the submitted work. Dr Inagaki declares that he has received grants from Novartis Pharma, lecture fees from Pfizer, Mochida, Shionogi, Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma, Daiichi-Sankyo, Meiji Seika and Takeda, and royalties from Nippon Hyoron Sha, Nanzando, Seiwa Shoten, Igaku-shoin and Technomics, all outside of the submitted work. Dr Yamada reports personal fees from Meiji Seika Pharma Co., Ltd., MSD K.K., Asahi Kasei Pharma Corporation, Seishin Shobo, Seiwa Shoten Co., Ltd., Igaku-shoin Ltd., Chugai Igakusha and Sentan Igakusha, all outside the submitted work. All other authors declare no competing interests. No funder had any role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis and interpretation of the data; preparation, review or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
An unprecedented outbreak of Ebola virus diseases (EVD) occurred in West Africa from March 2014 to January 2016. The French Institute for Public Health implemented strengthened surveillance to early identify any imported case and avoid secondary cases.
Febrile travellers returning from an affected country had to report to the national emergency healthcare hotline. Patients reporting at-risk exposures and fever during the 21st following day from the last at-risk exposure were defined as possible cases, hospitalised in isolation and tested by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Asymptomatic travellers reporting at-risk exposures were considered as contact and included in a follow-up protocol until the 21st day after the last at-risk exposure.
From March 2014 to January 2016, 1087 patients were notified: 1053 were immediately excluded because they did not match the notification criteria or did not have at-risk exposures; 34 possible cases were tested and excluded following a reliable negative result. Two confirmed cases diagnosed in West Africa were evacuated to France under stringent isolation conditions. Patients returning from Guinea (n = 531; 49%) and Mali (n = 113; 10%) accounted for the highest number of notifications.
No imported case of EVD was detected in France. We are confident that our surveillance system was able to classify patients properly during the outbreak period.
It is a well-established finding that proportional representation (PR) electoral systems are associated with greater legislative representation for women than single member systems. However, the degree to which different types of PR rules affect voting for female candidates has not been fully explored. The existing literature is also hampered by a reliance on cross-national data in which individual vote preferences and electoral system features are endogenous. In this study, we draw upon an experiment conducted during the 2014 European Parliament (EP) elections to isolate the effects of different PR electoral systems. Participants in the experiment were given the opportunity to vote for real EP candidates in three different electoral systems: closed list, open list, and open list with panachage and cumulation. Because voter preferences can be held constant across the three different votes, we can evaluate the extent to which female candidates were more or less advantaged by the electoral system itself. We find that voters, regardless of their gender, support female candidates, and that this support is stronger under open electoral rules.
Interactions between human lysozyme (HL) and the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Klebsiella pneumoniae O1, a causative agent of lung infection, were identified by surface plasmon resonance. To characterize the molecular mechanism of this interaction, HL binding to synthetic disaccharides and tetrasaccharides representing one and two repeating units, respectively, of the O-chain of this LPS were studied. pH-dependent structural rearrangements of HL after interaction with the disaccharide were observed through nuclear magnetic resonance. The crystal structure of the HL-tetrasaccharide complex revealed carbohydrate chain packing into the A, B, C, and D binding sites of HL, which primarily occurred through residue-specific, direct or water-mediated hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic contacts. Overall, these results support a crucial role of the Glu35/Asp53/Trp63/Asp102 residues in HL binding to the tetrasaccharide. These observations suggest an unknown glycan-guided mechanism that underlies recognition of the bacterial cell wall by lysozyme and may complement the HL immune defense function.