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Role functioning is key to optimal health and inoculates against life-long inequality. Depression is a leading cause of functional disability. In most cases, improved symptomatology corresponds with improved functioning; however, functioning does not always return to “normal”, despite symptom remission. Furthermore, the relationship between symptom remission and the likelihood of being Not in Employment, Education or Training (NEET) is unknown.
Objectives and aim
To examine the temporal associations between depression course, functioning, and NEET status in young adults with mental health problems.
A prospective and multisite clinical cohort study of young people aged 15–25 years seeking help from a primary mental health service (n = 448). Participants completed a clinical interview (incl. QIDS-C16) and self-report battery (incl. WHODAS 2.0, employment, education) at baseline which was repeated at 12-month follow-up whilst continuing treatment as usual.
Remitted depression was significantly associated with improved functioning; however, 12 month functioning was still lower than the normative ranges for age-matched peers. Remittance of depression did not change the likelihood of being NEET. Only 10% of those who were NEET had received vocational support during the study.
Remittance of depression was associated with improved functioning but it did not reduce the likelihood of being NEET. This may be explained by economic influences or alternatively, a time lag may exist where improvements in functioning do not immediately correspond with reduced NEET rates. Lastly, there may be a scarring effect of depression such that change in NEET status requires an additional intervention to depression treatment.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Objectives: A rich body of literature has established the role of body image distortion and dissatisfaction in the development and maintenance of eating disorders. However, many of the currently used techniques require explicit comparison of the person’s body to an external stimulus. As the body schema is a largely unconscious construct, explicit comparison tasks may reflect a proxy, rather than the body schema itself. Methods: Here we use an implicit mental motor imagery (MMI) task to interrogate the body schema in healthy control participants (N=40) and participants at a residential eating disorder treatment center (N=42). By comparing the time it takes to imagine making a movement along a part of the body to the time it takes to actually make the same movement, we were able to assess participants’ mental image of their body (i.e., body schema). Results: We found that participants with eating disorders, but not healthy controls, exhibited distortions of the body schema such that they believed their abdomen, buttocks, and thighs to be larger than they really are. Additionally, the MMI task used here provided information above and beyond traditional self-report measures (i.e., Body Shape Questionnaire). Together the MMI task and traditional measures provide the most information. Conclusions: Findings using the novel MMI task are in line with the literature; participants with eating disorders consider themselves to be larger than they truly are. Taken together, results of this study suggest that MMI tasks provide complementary information to traditional self-report measures. (JINS, 2018, 22, 000–000)
On 30 May 2012, Surrey and Sussex Health Protection Unit was called by five nurseries reporting children and staff with sudden onset vomiting approximately an hour after finishing their lunch that day. Over the following 24 h 50 further nurseries supplied by the same company reported cases of vomiting (182 children, 18 staff affected). Epidemiological investigations were undertaken in order to identify the cause of the outbreak and prevent further cases. Investigations demonstrated a nursery-level attack rate of 55 out of 87 nurseries (63·2%, 95% confidence interval 52·2–73·3). Microbiological tests confirmed the presence of Bacillus cereus in food and environmental samples from the catering company and one nursery. This was considered microbiologically and epidemiologically consistent with toxin from this bacterium causing the outbreak. Laboratory investigations showed that the conditions used by the caterer for soaking of pearl haricot beans (known as navy bean in the USA) used in one of the foods supplied to the nurseries prior to cooking, was likely to have provided sufficient growth and toxin production of B. cereus to cause illness. This large outbreak demonstrates the need for careful temperature control in food preparation.
The Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz (MALT90) survey aims to characterise the physical and chemical evolution of high-mass star-forming clumps. Exploiting the unique broad frequency range and on-the-fly mapping capabilities of the Australia Telescope National Facility Mopra 22 m single-dish telescope1, MALT90 has obtained 3′ × 3′ maps towards ~2 000 dense molecular clumps identified in the ATLASGAL 870 μm Galactic plane survey. The clumps were selected to host the early stages of high-mass star formation and to span the complete range in their evolutionary states (from prestellar, to protostellar, and on to
regions and photodissociation regions). Because MALT90 mapped 16 lines simultaneously with excellent spatial (38 arcsec) and spectral (0.11 km s−1) resolution, the data reveal a wealth of information about the clumps’ morphologies, chemistry, and kinematics. In this paper we outline the survey strategy, observing mode, data reduction procedure, and highlight some early science results. All MALT90 raw and processed data products are available to the community. With its unprecedented large sample of clumps, MALT90 is the largest survey of its type ever conducted and an excellent resource for identifying interesting candidates for high-resolution studies with ALMA.
We present the results of a programme of scanning and mapping observations of astronomical masers and Jupiter designed to characterise the performance of the Mopra Radio Telescope at frequencies between 16 and 50 GHz using the 12-mm and 7-mm receivers. We use these observations to determine the telescope beam size, beam shape, and overall telescope beam efficiency as a function of frequency. We find that the beam size is well fit by λ/D over the frequency range with a correlation coefficient of ∼90%. We determine the telescope main beam efficiencies are between ∼48 and 64% for the 12-mm receiver and reasonably flat at ∼50% for the 7-mm receiver. Beam maps of strong H2O (22 GHz) and SiO masers (43 GHz) provide a means to examine the radial beam pattern of the telescope. At both frequencies, the radial beam pattern reveals the presence of three components: a central ‘core’, which is well fit by a Gaussian and constitutes the telescopes main beam; and inner and outer error beams. At both frequencies, the inner and outer error beams extend out to ∼2 and ∼3.4 times the full-width half maximum of the main beam, respectively. Sources with angular sizes of a factor of two or more larger than the telescope main beam will couple to the main and error beams, and therefore the power contributed by the error beams needs to be considered. From measurements of the radial beam power pattern we estimate the amount of power contained in the inner and outer error beams is of order one-fifth at 22 GHz, rising slightly to one-third at 43 GHz.
Although mental health information on the internet is often of poor quality, relatively little is known about the quality of websites, such as Wikipedia, that involve participatory information sharing. The aim of this paper was to explore the quality of user-contributed mental health-related information on Wikipedia and compare this with centrally controlled information sources.
Content on 10 mental health-related topics was extracted from 14 frequently accessed websites (including Wikipedia) providing information about depression and schizophrenia, Encyclopaedia Britannica, and a psychiatry textbook. The content was rated by experts according to the following criteria: accuracy, up-to-dateness, breadth of coverage, referencing and readability.
Ratings varied significantly between resources according to topic. Across all topics, Wikipedia was the most highly rated in all domains except readability.
The quality of information on depression and schizophrenia on Wikipedia is generally as good as, or better than, that provided by centrally controlled websites, Encyclopaedia Britannica and a psychiatry textbook.
Over the past 3 years, we have conducted a survey of 100 square degrees of the southern Galactic plane with the Mopra radiotelescope (HOPS). The survey includes observations of multiple spectral lines in the 12 mm band, with the most important being the water maser transition at 22.2 GHz and the non-metastable inversion transitions of ammonia. We report on initial results from HOPS, including the detection of 540 water masers, about two-thirds of which appear to be new detections. We also find widespread emission in the NH3 (1,1) line, as well as detec tions in the NH3 (2,2), (3,3), (6,6) and (9,9) lines.
Specimens for the detection of avian influenza virus (AIV) were collected from 1937 waterfowl on the Wexford Sloblands, a major wetland reserve in southeast Ireland, between January 2003 and September 2007. During the same period, 1404 waterfowl were sampled at other locations in Ireland. Specimens were tested either by virus isolation or real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rtRT–PCR). A total of 32 isolates of AIV, comprising nine subtypes, was obtained from specimens from the Sloblands compared with just one isolate from elsewhere in Ireland. Samples from nine other waterfowl, five of which were from the Sloblands, tested positive for AIV by rtRT–PCR. Ecological factors are likely to have contributed to the higher detection rate of AIV at the Sloblands compared with the rest of Ireland. It was concluded that targeted surveillance at such sites is a cost-effective means of monitoring the circulation of new AIVs in waterfowl, whereas widespread opportunistic sampling is unproductive and wasteful of resources.
Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) carry several zoonotic pathogens and because rats and humans live in close proximity in urban environments, there exists potential for transmission. To identify zoonotic agents carried by rats in Baltimore, Maryland, USA, we live-trapped 201 rats during 2005–2006 and screened them for a panel of viruses, bacteria, and parasites. Antibodies against Seoul virus (57·7%), hepatitis E virus (HEV, 73·5%), Leptospira interrogans (65·3%), Bartonella elizabethae (34·1%), and Rickettsia typhi (7·0%) were detected in Norway rats. Endoparasites, including Calodium hepatica (87·9%) and Hymenolepis sp. (34·4%), and ectoparasites (13·9%, primarily Laelaps echidninus) also were present. The risk of human exposure to these pathogens is a significant public health concern. Because these pathogens cause non-specific and often self-limiting symptoms in humans, infection in human populations is probably underdiagnosed.
Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (EDS) is an ubiquitous method of elemental analysis for SEM, TEM, and STEM applications. The elements of interest are generally quantified without standards using theoretical calculations or by using standards that are high purity specimens of the elements measured. However, EDS is often used to determine a small percentage of an element in a matrix. The accuracy and limit of detection of these low concentration measurements has not been established. An earlier report proved the concept that a cross section high dose BF2 implanted specimen could provide a standard for EDS measurement of F. This study extends this quantification approach to transition elements of importance to the semiconductor industry.
The Fe and Co standards were created by high dose ion implantation. For ions implanted into silicon, a dose of lxl016 atoms/cm2 results in a peak concentration of approximately lxl021 atoms/cm3 or 2% atomic. The exact concentration can be determined using methods such as Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS).
Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (EDS) is generally calibrated for quantification using elemental standards. This can introduce errors when quantifying non-elemental samples and does not provide an accurate detection limit. In addition, variations between analysis tools can lead to values that differ considerably, especially for trace elements. By creating a standard with an exact trace composition, many of the errors inherent in EDS quantification measurements can be eliminated.
The standards are created by high dose ion implantation. For ions implanted into silicon, a dose of 1E16 cm-2 results in a peak concentration of approximately 1E21 cm-3 or 2% atomic. The exact concentration can be determined using other methods, such as Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) or Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). For this study, SIMS analyses were made using a CAMECA IMS-6f magnetic sector. Measurement protocols were used that were developed for high concentration measurements, such as B and P in borophosphosilicate glass (BPSG).
Cu contamination has become a larger concern as more semiconductor fabrication facilities switch from aluminum to Cu interconnects. The resolution limits of several analytical tools are compared to determine the optimum analysis methods for detecting Cu contamination in semiconductor materials. The elemental detection limits of Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), Auger Electron Spectrometry (AES), Microcalorimetry and Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (EDS) systems on Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM), and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) instruments are evaluated for Cu in WSix.
Two different samples were used in this study. One sample has a high uniform concentration (0.9% atomic, 0.7 wt.%) of Cu that was incorporated during the sputter deposition of WSi2. A lower concentration was ion implanted with 63Cu to a dose of lel4 cm-2 and has a peak concentration of lel9 cm"3, or 0.02% atomic.
We present a preliminary analysis of B- and I-band CCD images and Rutgers imaging Fabry–Perot Hα interferometry of the galaxy NGC 3081. We find that the outer R1 and inner ring are both intrinsically oval. We derive a bar pattern speed from the velocity field.
Increased demand for U.S. farm exports—primarily food grains, feed grains, and oil crops—emerged as an important factor influencing food and agricultural research and education in the 1970s. Maintaining producers' revenue remained as a motivating force in agricultural research.
The Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology has been developing a radio-astrometric catalogue for use in the application of radio interferometry to interplanetary navigation and geodesy. The catalogue consists of approximately 100 compact extragalactic radio sources whose relative positions have formal uncertainties of the order of 0”.01. The sources cover nearly all of the celestial sphere above -40° declination. By using the optical counterparts of many of these radio sources, we have tied this radio reference frame to the FK4 optical system with a global accuracy of approximately 0”.01. This paper describes the status of this work.
Several factors arose during the post-World War II era and particularly the 1970-1980 decade which had a great impact on the U.S. food and agriculture system—including forestry, fiber, and related activities. They include (1) the increasing interdependence among the basic industries of agriculture and forestry and other sectors of the domestic and world economies, (2) the emergence of a technology highly dependent on petroleum and petrochemicals accompanied by increasing dependence of the U.S. on foreign sources of petroleum, the cartelization of major foreign crude oil suppliers under OPEC, and an increased vulnerability to worldwide political unrest, (3) the rapidly expanding export market for farm food and feed commodities and the reliance on farm commodity exports to help offset a growing deficit in international trade, (4) the rapid commercialization and industrialization of the food and agriculture sector, and (5) the increasing social awareness and demands for improved environmental quality and human health that led to public regulations affecting the food and agriculture system.
The Deep Space Network (DSN) [operated by JPL under contract to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration] is implementing a Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) capability at DSS 63 (Spain), DSS 14 (California, USA), and DSS 43 (Australia) to support the navigation requirements of planetary space missions. The early development work for this system has already demonstrated the capability of measuring UT1 with a formal accuracy as low as 0.6 msec with only 6 hours of data. Further, a radio astrometric catalog of approximately 45 sources whose positions are known to better than has been constructed. In addition to these measurements, this paper describes the characteristics and anticipated performance of the complete VLBI system being implemented within the DSN for operational use in mid-1979. In particular, one of the capabilities of this system will be the measurement of UT1 and polar motion at weekly intervals. Although the navigation accuracy requirement is only 50 cm for the Voyager mission, this system should be capable of delivering UT1 and polar motion determinations with decimeter accuracy if it is operated at maximum performance. An additional requirement of this operational system is that it have the capability of providing these results within 24 hours of the actual observations.
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