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The hydrological ice-sheet basin draining into the Tasersiaq lake, West Greenland (66°13’ N, 50°30’W), was delineated, first using standard digital elevation models (DEMs) for ice-sheet surface and bedrock, and subsequently using a new high-resolution dataset, with a surface DEM derived from repeat-track interferometric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and a bedrock topography derived from an airborne 60 MHz ice-penetrating radar. The extent of the delineation was calculated from a water-pressure potential as a function of the ice-sheet surface and bedrock elevations and a hydraulic factor k describing the relative importance of the potential of the ice overburden pressure compared to the bedrock topography. Themeltwater run-off for the basin delineations was modelled with an energy-balance model calibrated with observed ice-sheet ablation and compared to a 25 year time series of measured basin run-off. The standard DEMs were found to be inadequate for delineation purposes, whereas delineations from high-resolution data were found to be very sensitive to changes in k in a non-linear way, causing a factor 5 change of basin area, corresponding to a doubling of the modelled runoff. The 50% standard deviation of the measured basin run-off could thus be explained by small year-to-year variations of the k-factor.
Biological tissues have complex, three-dimensional (3D) organizations of cells and matrix factors that provide the architecture necessary to meet morphogenic and functional demands. Disordered cell alignment is associated with congenital heart disease, cardiomyopathy, and neurodegenerative diseases and repairing or replacing these tissues using engineered constructs may improve regenerative capacity. However, optimizing cell alignment within engineered tissues requires quantitative 3D data on cell orientations and both efficient and validated processing algorithms. We developed an automated method to measure local 3D orientations based on structure tensor analysis and incorporated an adaptive subregion size to account for multiple scales. Our method calculates the statistical concentration parameter, κ, to quantify alignment, as well as the traditional orientational order parameter. We validated our method using synthetic images and accurately measured principal axis and concentration. We then applied our method to confocal stacks of cleared, whole-mount engineered cardiac tissues generated from human-induced pluripotent stem cells or embryonic chick cardiac cells and quantified cardiomyocyte alignment. We found significant differences in alignment based on cellular composition and tissue geometry. These results from our synthetic images and confocal data demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of our method to measure alignment in 3D tissues.
We have begun a program to measure oscillator strengths of autoionizing resonances that result from a transition in the VUV between a laser excited initial state and a final state in which a core electron is promoted. These measurements demonstrate a new technique to combine synchrotron radiation, laser pumping, and photoelectron spectroscopy.
Measurements of the energy positions of autoionizing resonances have been honed to a fine art over the past 50 years. Total cross section measurements and the parameters that describe autoionizing resonances have been determined. Most of these studies have been made from the dipole allowed ground state. Recently autoionizing resonances have been observed from excited initial states and from ion initial states. We have heard several talks, at this meeting which described some of this type of research. In the measurements to be described in this paper, laser radiation is combined with synchrotron radiation, as shown schematicaly in Figure 1, to study the photoionization from excited initial states to continuum final states or to autoionizing final states. Continuum radiation from the Aneau de Collisions d’Orsay (ACO), which is installed at the Universite de Paris-Sud, in Orsay France, is monochromatized by a toroidal grating monochromator (TGM) and is focused by a toroidal output mirror on to a weakly collimated sodium beam emanating from a furnace mounted on the axis of a cylinderical mirror analyzer (CMA). This electron spectrometer is used to study the kinetic energy distribution of the ejected photoelectrons produced by the interaction of the photon beam with the focused synchrotron radiation.
An AlxGa1−xN/GaN two-dimensional electron gas structure with x = 0.13 deposited by molecular beam epitaxy on a GaN layer grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy on a sapphire substrate was characterized. Hall effect measurements gave a sheet electron concentration of 5.1×1012 cm−2 and a mobility of 1.9 × 104 cm2/Vs at 10 K. Mobility spectrum analysis showed single-carrier transport and negligible parallel conduction at low temperatures. The sheet carrier concentrations determined from Shubnikov-de Haas magnetoresistance oscillations were in good agreement with the Hall data. The electron effective mass was determined to be 0.215±0.006 m0 based on the temperature dependence of the amplitude of Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations. The quantum lifetime was about one-fifth of the transport lifetime of 2.3 × 10−12 s.
Temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) studies have been performed on InGaN epilayers and InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. We observed anomalous temperature dependent emission behavior (specifically an S-shaped decrease-increase-decrease) of the peak energy (EPL) of the InGaN-related PL emission with increasing temperature. In the case of the InGaN epilayer, EPL decreases in the temperature range of 10 – 50 K, increases for 50 – 110 K, and decreases again for 110 – 300 K with increasing temperature. For the InGaN/GaN MQWs, EPL decreases from 10 – 70 K, increases from 70 – 150 K, then decreases again for 150 – 300 K. The actual temperature dependence of the PL emission was estimated with respect to the bandgap energy determined by photoreflectance spectra. We observed that the PL peak emission shift has an excellent correlation with a change in carrier lifetime with temperature. We demonstrate that the temperature-induced S-shaped PL shift is caused by the change in carrier recombination dynamics with increasing temperature due to inhomogeneities in the InGaN structures.
One of the major science goals of the SkyMapper survey of the Southern Hemisphere sky is the determination of the shape and extent of the halo of the Galaxy. In this paper, we quantify the likely efficiency and completeness of the survey as regards the detection of RR Lyrae variable stars, which are excellent tracers of the halo stellar population. We have accomplished this via observations of the RR Lyrae-rich globular cluster NGC 3201. We find that for single-epoch uvgri observations followed by two further epochs of g, r imaging, as per the intended three-epoch survey strategy, we recover known RR Lyraes with a completeness exceeding 90%. We also investigate boundaries in the gravity-sensitive single-epoch two-colour diagram that yield high completeness and high efficiency (i.e., minimal contamination by non-RR Lyraes) and the general usefulness of this diagram in separating populations.
This paper presents the design and science goals for the SkyMapper telescope. SkyMapper is a 1.3-m telescope featuring a 5.7-square-degree field-of-view Cassegrain imager commissioned for the Australian National University's Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics. It is located at Siding Spring Observatory, Coonabarabran, NSW, Australia and will see first light in late 2007.
The imager possesses 16 384 × 16 384 0.5-arcsec pixels. The primary scientific goal of the facility is to perform the Southern Sky Survey, a six-colour and multi-epoch (four-hour, one-day, one-week, one-month and one-year sampling) photometric survey of the southerly 2π sr to g ∼23 mag. The survey will provide photometry to better than 3% global accuracy and astrometry to better than 50 milliarcsec. Data will be supplied to the community as part of the Virtual Observatory effort. The survey will take five years to complete.
An AlxGa1-xN/GaN two-dimensional electron gas structure with x = 0.13 deposited by molecular beam epitaxy on a GaN layer grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy on a sapphire substrate was characterized. Hall effect measurements gave a sheet electron concentration of 5.1×1012 cm-2 and a mobility of 1.9 × 104 cm2/Vs at 10 K. Mobility spectrum analysis showed single-carrier transport and negligible parallel conduction at low temperatures. The sheet carrier concentrations determined from Shubnikov-de Haas magnetoresistance oscillations were in good agreement with the Hall data. The electron effective mass was determined to be 0.215±0.006 m0 based on the temperature dependence of the amplitude of Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations. The quantum lifetime was about one-fifth of the transport lifetime of 2.3 × 10-12 s.
It is well established that the presence of prominent anxiety within depressive episodes portends poorer outcomes. Important questions remain as to which anxiety features are important to outcome and how sustained their prognostic effects are over time.
To examine the relative prognostic importance of specific anxiety features and to determine whether their effects persist over decades and apply to both unipolar and bipolar conditions.
Participants with unipolar (n = 476) or bipolar (n = 335) depressive disorders were intensively followed for a mean of 16.7 years (s.d. = 8.5).
The number and severity of anxiety symptoms, but not the presence of pre-existing anxiety disorders, showed a robust and continuous relationship to the subsequent time spent in depressive episodes in both unipolar and bipolar depressive disorder. The strength of this relationship changed little over five successive 5-year periods.
The severity of current anxiety symptoms within depressive episodes correlates strongly with the persistence of subsequent depressive symptoms and this relationship is stable over decades.
The microstructure of narrow metal conductors in the electrical interconnections on IC chips has often been identified as of major importance in the reliability of these devices. The stresses and stress gradients that develop in the conductors as a result of thermal expansion differences in the materials and of electromigration at high current densities are believed to be strongly dependent on the details of the grain structure. The present work discusses new techniques based on microbeam x-ray diffraction (MBXRD) that have enabled measurement not only of the microstructure of totally encapsulated conductors but also of the local stresses in them on a micron and submicron scale. White x-rays from the Advanced Light Source were focused to a micron spot size by Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors. The sample was stepped under the micro-beam and Laue images obtained at each sample location using a CCD area detector. Microstructure and local strain were deduced from these images. Cu lines with widths ranging from 0.8 [.proportional]m to 5 [.proportional]m and thickness of 1 [.proportional]m were investigated. Comparisons are made between the capabilities of MBXRD and the well established techniques of broad beam XRD, electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD) and focused ion beam imagining (FIB).
Temperature-variable Hall and Shubnikov- de Haas effects have been used to study persistent photoconductivity in an AlGaN/GaN heterojunction. At liquid helium temperatures, the mobility in this structure was close to 55000 cm2/Vs. A blue GaN-based light emitting diode was used to illuminate the sample. This illumination resulted in a persistent photocurrent, which allowed us to vary the carrier density and study the dependence of the mobility on the carrier concentration. Exposing the sample to this light resulted in an increase in the carrier density. For small increases in the density, the mobility also increased. However, unlike in previous reports by other authors, extended illumination resulted in an increase in the density and a decrease in the mobility. The initial increase in the mobility is attributed to increased screening due to the increase in the carrier density, while the decrease in the mobility may be attributed to alloy scattering.
Magneto-optical garnet based optical circulator was designed and fabricated with wafer-scale technology. Modeling and simulation strategy is established for the optimization of a new design of circulator based on ring cavity. Wafer-scale technological process is developed and demonstrated allowing fabrication of the optimized BIG/GGG buried ring circulator.
An image sensor with enhanced sensitivity for near ultraviolet radiation (UVA) has been fabricated in TFA (Thin Film on ASIC) technology. The device employs an amorphous silicon pin detector optimized for UV detection by carbonization and layer thickness variation. The front electrode consists of an Al grid or TCO. Measurements show a peak responsivity of 90 mAW-1 at 380 nm. The UV Imager prototype consists of 128 × 128 pixels with a size of 25 μm × 25 [tim each, fabricated in a 0.7 μm CMOS process. Global sensitivity control serves to achieve a dynamic range in excess of 80 dB. The sensor can be used in fields such as chemical, medical and astronomical applications. Furthermore, a UV monitor has been developed, suited to warn of excessive sunlight exposure, considering skin type and sun protection factor.
Using atmospheric pressure MOCVD we have obtained high quality InGaN/GaN and AlGaN/GaN heterostructure materials and devices. For nominally undoped 4 μm thick GaN films, we obtained 300 K mobilities of 780 cm2/Vs and an unintentional background impurity level of n300K = 6*1016 cm−3. For InGaN/GaN heterostructures we have obtained direct band-edge transitions with FWHM as narrow as 7.9 nm (59 meV) for 50Å thick In0.16Ga0.84N quantum wells at 300K, which is the among the best reported values. The quantum wells display energy shifts towards shorter wavelength with decreasing well thickness, and the shift agrees with predicted quantum effects. These materials have been incorporated into InGaN single quantum well LEDs that emit at 450 nm. In addition AlGaN/GaN heterostructure materials have been incorporated into HFETs and MODFETs. Gate-drain breakdown voltage well exceeding 100 V, and extrinsic transconductance gm of up to 140 mS/mm were realized in the MODFET.
Gate dielectrics for advanced ULSI circuits are rapidly scaling below 10 nm. Thinner dielectrics and smaller lateral dimensions are essential to produce high performance transistors for memories, microprocessors and microcontrollers. In this overview we will discuss the factors that affect the performance and reliability of scaled gate dielectrics. Process parameters that affect oxide and oxynitride dielectrics include substrates, pre-gate cleaning, growth parameters and growth techniques as well as oxide and oxynitride dielectric materials. Thin dielectrics require new or modified measurement methods and extensive use of physical analysis techniques such as SIMS, XPS, AFM and TEM to characterize these materials. Boron diffusion through thin gate oxides, HCI stress, and process induced damage can degrade dielectric quality and affect long term reliability. These factors will affect the performance and reliability of circuits with scaled gate dielectrics.
Temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) studies have been performed on InGaN epilayers and InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. We observed anomalous temperature dependent emission behavior (specifically an S-shaped decrease-increase-decrease) of the peak energy (EpL) of the InGaN-related PL emission with increasing temperature. In the case of the InGaN epilayer, EPL decreases in the temperature range of 10 - 50 K, increases for 50 - 110 K, and decreases again for 110 - 300 K with increasing temperature. For the InGaN/GaN MQWs, EPL decreases from 10 - 70 K, increases from 70 - 150 K, then decreases again for 150 - 300 K. The actual temperature dependence of the PL emission was estimated with respect to the bandgap energy determined by photoreflectance spectra. We observed that the PL peak emission shift has an excellent correlation with a change in carrier lifetime with temperature. We demonstrate that the temperature-induced S-shaped PL shift is caused by the change in carrier recombination dynamics with increasing temperature due to inhomogeneities in the InGaN structures.
The present study reviews the use of Cl in gate oxidation furnaces for growth of high quality gate oxides with a thickness in the range of 2 to 15 nm. The following, commercially available, “state of the art” Cl-precursors have been tested: 1,1,1- trichloroethane (TCA), irons-1,2-dichloroethylene (DCE) and oxalyl chloride (OC). Different parameters were evaluated including: metal removal efficiency, poly-silicon haze, Fe bulk incorporation, carrier lifetime and Cl-incorporation in the oxide. Cl2was identified as the active component in Cl-oxidation. As a consequence, OC was identified as being the most efficient Cl-source. In particular, OC is the most suited Cl-source for applications requiring reduced oxygen concentration, such as the manufacturing of ultra thin gate oxides.
The optical properties of (In, Al) GaN thin films and heterostructures have been compared under the conditions of strong nanosecond excitation. The stimulated emission (SE) threshold from AIGaN epilayers was found to increase with increasing Al content compared to GaN, in contrast to InGaN epilayers, where an order of magnitude decrease is observed. Optically pumped SE has been observed from AIGaN films with aluminum concentrations as high as 26%. Room temperature SE at wavelengths as low as 327 nm has been achieved. In contrast to the increase of SE threshold seen for AlGaN films, we found that AlGaN/GaN heterostructures which utilize carrier confinement and optical waveguiding drastically enhance the lasing characteristics. We demonstrate that AIGaN/GaN heterostructures are suitable for the development of deep ultraviolet laser diodes.