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Previous research has shown relatively diminished medial prefrontal cortex activation and heightened psychophysiological responses during the recollection of personal events in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but the origin of these abnormalities is unknown. Twin studies provide the opportunity to determine whether such abnormalities reflect familial vulnerabilities, result from trauma exposure, or are acquired characteristics of PTSD.
In this case–control twin study, 26 male identical twin pairs (12 PTSD; 14 non-PTSD) discordant for PTSD and combat exposure recalled and imagined trauma-unrelated stressful and neutral life events using a standard script-driven imagery paradigm during functional magnetic resonance imaging and concurrent skin conductance measurement.
Diminished activation in the medial prefrontal cortex during Stressful v. Neutral script-driven imagery was observed in the individuals with PTSD, relative to other groups.
Diminished medial prefrontal cortex activation during Stressful v. Neutral script-driven imagery may be an acquired characteristic of PTSD. If replicated, this finding could be used prospectively to inform diagnosis and the assessment of treatment response.
We present low-frequency spectral energy distributions of 60 known radio pulsars observed with the Murchison Widefield Array telescope. We searched the GaLactic and Extragalactic All-sky Murchison Widefield Array survey images for 200-MHz continuum radio emission at the position of all pulsars in the Australia Telescope National Facility (ATNF) pulsar catalogue. For the 60 confirmed detections, we have measured flux densities in 20 × 8 MHz bands between 72 and 231 MHz. We compare our results to existing measurements and show that the Murchison Widefield Array flux densities are in good agreement.
There is a growing body of literature describing the characteristics of patients who plan for the end of life, but little research has examined how caregivers influence patients' advance care planning (ACP). The purpose of this study was to examine how patient and caregiver characteristics are associated with advance directive (AD) completion among patients diagnosed with a terminal illness. We defined AD completion as having completed a living will and/or identified a healthcare power of attorney.
A convenience sample of 206 caregiver–patient dyads was included in the study. All patients were diagnosed with an advanced life-limiting illness. Trained research nurses administered surveys to collect information on patient and caregiver demographics (i.e., age, sex, race, education, marital status, and individual annual income) and patients' diagnoses and completion of AD. Multivariate logistic regression was employed to model predictors for patients' AD completion.
Over half of our patient sample (59%) completed an AD. Patients who were older, diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and with a caregiver who was Caucasian or declined to report an income level were more likely to have an AD in place.
Significance of results:
Our results suggest that both patient and caregiver characteristics may influence patients' decisions to complete an AD at the end of life. When possible, caregivers should be included in advance care planning for patients who are terminally ill.
The North Carolina Wetland Assessment Method (NC WAM) was developed from 2003 to 2007 by a team of federal and state agencies to rapidly assess the level of wetland function. NC WAM is a field method which is science-based, reproducible, rapid, and observational in nature used to determine the level of wetland function relative to reference for each of 16 North Carolina general wetland types. Three major functions (Hydrology, Water Quality, and Habitat) were recognized along with 10 sub-functions. Sub-functions and functions are evaluated using 22 field metrics on a field assessment form. Data are entered into a computer program to generate High, Medium, and Low ratings for each sub-function, function, and the overall assessment area based on an iterative Boolean logic process using 71 unique combinations. The method was field tested across the state at more than 280 sites of varying wetland quality. Examples are presented for the use of NC WAM for compensatory mitigation notably to calculate functional uplift from wetland enhancement. Calibration and verification analyses to date show that the results of the method are significantly correlated with long-term wetland monitoring data and NC WAM has been verified for one wetland type (headwater forest) using these data.
Two broad aims drive weed science research: improved management and improved
understanding of weed biology and ecology. In recent years, agricultural
weed research addressing these two aims has effectively split into separate
subdisciplines despite repeated calls for greater integration. Although some
excellent work is being done, agricultural weed research has developed a
very high level of repetitiveness, a preponderance of purely descriptive
studies, and has failed to clearly articulate novel hypotheses linked to
established bodies of ecological and evolutionary theory. In contrast,
invasive plant research attracts a diverse cadre of nonweed scientists using
invasions to explore broader and more integrated biological questions
grounded in theory. We propose that although studies focused on weed
management remain vitally important, agricultural weed research would
benefit from deeper theoretical justification, a broader vision, and
increased collaboration across diverse disciplines. To initiate change in
this direction, we call for more emphasis on interdisciplinary training for
weed scientists, and for focused workshops and working groups to develop
specific areas of research and promote interactions among weed scientists
and with the wider scientific community.
The practice of anchoritism - religious enclosure which was frequently solitary and voluntarily embraced, very often in a permanent capacity - was widespread in many areas of Europe throughout the middle ages. Originating in the desert withdrawal of the earliest Christians and prefiguring even the monastic life, anchoritism developed into an elite vocation which was popular amongst both men and women. Within this reclusive vocation, the anchorite would withdraw, either alone or with others like her or him, to a small cell or building, very frequently attached to a church or other religious institution, where she or he would - theoretically at least - remain locked up until death. In the later period it was a vocation which was particularly associated with pious laywomen who appear to haveopted for this extreme way of life in their thousands throughout western Europe, often as an alternative to marriage or remarriage, allowing them, instead, to undertake the role of 'living saint' within the community.
This volume brings together for the first time in English much of the most important European scholarship on the subject to date. Tracing the vocation's origins from the Egyptian deserts of early Christian activity through to its multiple expressions in western Europe, it also identifies some of those regions - Wales and Scotland, for example - where the phenomenon doesnot appear to have been as widespread. As such, the volume provides an invaluable resource for those interested in the theories and practices of medieval anchoritism in particular, and the developmentof medieval religiosity more widely.
Dr LIZ HERBERT MCAVOY is Senior Lecturer in Gender in English and Medieval Studies at Swansea University.
CONTRIBUTORS: Anneke B. Mulder-Bakker, Gabriela Signori, M. Sensi, G. Cavero Dominguez, P. L'Hermite-Leclercq, Mari Hughes-Edwards, Colman O Clabaigh, Anna McHugh, Liz Herbert McAvoy.