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Additional crystallographic data are given for the recently reported mineral middlebackite, which has been described for discoveries at Iron Knob in South Australia and Passo di San Lugano near Trento, Italy. The material examined in the present study was from a third finding of the mineral, viz. from a quartz outcrop at Mooloo Downs Station in Western Australia within which it was co-located with the chemically- and structurally-related mineral moolooite, CuIIC2O4·nH2O, reported by Clarke and Williams (1986). In this study, the crystal structure was elucidated independently of the other studies using a combination of the a priori charge flipping and simulated annealing methods with synchrotron radiation diffraction (SRD) powder data. The principal crystal data for the Mooloo Downs material are: space group P21/c with lattice parameters a = 7.2659(18) Å, b = 5.7460(11) Å, c = 5.6806(11) Å, β = 104.588(3)°; Vc = 229.46(18) Å3; empirical formula CuII2C2O4(OH)2 with 2 formula units per unit cell; and calculated density = 3.605 g cm−3. The lattice parameters agree approximately with values given for the other studies, but not within the reported error estimates. The atom coordinates, interatomic distances, and angles for the Mooloo Downs material are compared with those from the other studies using single crystal data, with the values from all three studies agreeing approximately, but again not within the reported uncertainties. The crystal chemistry found for middlebackite received strong confirmation through the synthesis for the first time of di-copper oxalate di-hydroxide. Laboratory X-ray diffraction powder data for the synthetic form of the mineral from this study agree closely with the SRD data for the natural mineral.
Mass attenuation coefficients (MACs) are frequently estimated over a range of wavelengths in x-ray spectrometry from the intensity of the Compton peak IC associated with a prominent tube line. The MAC μλ at wavelength λ is estimated from the MAC at the Compton wavelength λC with the approximations μλ α μC and μC α 1/IC. Systematic errors may introduce absorption edge bias (AEB) effects into the results, caused by sample components vith absorption edges between λc and λ. A procedure is described which eliminates AEB effects by measuring IC using emission radiation from a primary beam filter.
The orthorhombic mineral moolooite, CuC2O4. nH2O, described by Clarke and Williams (1986) using Debye-Scherrer photographic data, has a fully-disordered stacking fault (FDSF) structure. Related monoclinic models have been reported for various synthesised samples based on Schmittler (1968). In the present study, synchrotron radiation diffraction data for moolooite and synthesised specimens have been examined with particular reference to crystallographic disorder. The moolooite data correspond to space group Pnnm, with a = 5.3064(2), b = 5.6804(2), c = 2.5630(1) Å; Vc = 77.26(1) Å3; and Z = 1; and the FDSF structure along the b-direction has been confirmed. The synthetic specimen data from the study indicate partial ordering, with space group P21/n; and the cell parameters for one specimen being a = 5.957(7), b = 5.611(5), c = 5.133(7) Å; β = 115.16(2)°; Vc = 155.27 Å3 and Z = 2. The level of zeolitic water in the materials has been considered using the approach of Schmittler based on thermogravimetry and pycnometry. The new data for natural topotype material correspond to CuC2O4.1.0H2O. It is postulated that the level of water for natural and synthetic specimens may be attributed to the conditions under which the material forms.
The role that vitamin D plays in pulmonary function remains uncertain. Epidemiological studies reported mixed findings for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D)–pulmonary function association. We conducted the largest cross-sectional meta-analysis of the 25(OH)D–pulmonary function association to date, based on nine European ancestry (EA) cohorts (n 22 838) and five African ancestry (AA) cohorts (n 4290) in the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium. Data were analysed using linear models by cohort and ancestry. Effect modification by smoking status (current/former/never) was tested. Results were combined using fixed-effects meta-analysis. Mean serum 25(OH)D was 68 (sd 29) nmol/l for EA and 49 (sd 21) nmol/l for AA. For each 1 nmol/l higher 25(OH)D, forced expiratory volume in the 1st second (FEV1) was higher by 1·1 ml in EA (95 % CI 0·9, 1·3; P<0·0001) and 1·8 ml (95 % CI 1·1, 2·5; P<0·0001) in AA (Prace difference=0·06), and forced vital capacity (FVC) was higher by 1·3 ml in EA (95 % CI 1·0, 1·6; P<0·0001) and 1·5 ml (95 % CI 0·8, 2·3; P=0·0001) in AA (Prace difference=0·56). Among EA, the 25(OH)D–FVC association was stronger in smokers: per 1 nmol/l higher 25(OH)D, FVC was higher by 1·7 ml (95 % CI 1·1, 2·3) for current smokers and 1·7 ml (95 % CI 1·2, 2·1) for former smokers, compared with 0·8 ml (95 % CI 0·4, 1·2) for never smokers. In summary, the 25(OH)D associations with FEV1 and FVC were positive in both ancestries. In EA, a stronger association was observed for smokers compared with never smokers, which supports the importance of vitamin D in vulnerable populations.
There are few prevalence studies of suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm (NSSH).
We aimed to estimate the prevalence of thoughts of NSSH, suicidal thoughts, NSSH and suicide attempts among 18- to 34-year-olds in Scotland.
We interviewed a representative sample of young adults from across Scotland.
We interviewed 3508 young people; 11.3 and 16.2% reported a lifetime history of suicide attempts and NSSH, respectively. The first episode of NSSH tended to precede the first suicide attempt by about 2 years. Age at onset of NSSH and suicide attempt was younger in females. Earlier age at onset was associated with more frequent NSSH/suicide attempts. Women are significantly more likely to report NSSH and suicide attempts compared with men.
One in nine young people has attempted suicide and one in six has engaged in NSSH. Clinicians should be vigilant, as suicide attempts and NSSH are relatively common.
Few studies have examined the challenges faced by emergency medicine (EM) physicians in conducting goals of care discussions. This study is the first to describe the perceived barriers and facilitators to these discussions as reported by Canadian EM physicians and residents.
A team of EM, palliative care, and internal medicine physicians developed a survey comprising multiple choice, Likert-scale and open-ended questions to explore four domains of goals-of-care discussions: training; communication; environment; and patient beliefs.
Surveys were sent to 273 EM staff and residents in six sites, and 130 (48%) responded. Staff physicians conducted goals-of-care discussions several times per month or more, 74.1% (80/108) of the time versus 35% (8/23) of residents. Most agreed that goals-of-care discussions are within their scope of practice (92%), they felt comfortable having these discussions (96%), and they are adequately trained (73%). However, 66% reported difficulty initiating goals-of-care discussions, and 54% believed that admitting services should conduct them. Main barriers were time (46%), lack of a relationship with the patient (25%), patient expectations (23%), no prior discussions (21%), and the inability to reach substitute decision-makers (17%). Fifty-four percent of respondents indicated that the availability of 24-hour palliative care consults would facilitate discussions in the emergency department (ED).
Important barriers to discussing goals of care in the ED were identified by respondents, including acuity and lack of prior relationship, highlighting the need for system and environmental interventions, including improved availability of palliative care services in the ED.
The postnatal period is the most dangerous phase of life and survival depends on the neonate behaving appropriately from birth. Consequently, many aspects of neonate behaviour are often near to being fully formed at birth. However, experience will often be required to shape the expression of the behaviour and improve its effectiveness. The immediate problems facing the neonate will be related to the overall reproductive strategy of the species. In pigs, sibling rivalry will be critical in establishing and maintaining fidelity to a teat, and this early conflict is probably most important for survival. The teat order that succeeds this early rivalry is probably not, however, the result of competition over the most productive teats but because of certain intrinsic advantages of teat fidelity that maximize growth. In sheep the need to quickly follow and solicit sucking only from the dam makes learning to recognise the mother a priority. Recent results suggest that the ability of the neonate lamb to recognize its mother has been under-estimated and that failure of lambs to recognise their mothers can make a significant contribution to mortality rates. Survival in any species is, however, not simply a matter of appropriate neonate behaviour but may depend critically on the quality of the interaction between the mother and offspring. It is difficult to determine the end of the neonate period given the often protracted nature of weaning. As weaning progresses there is a shift to bonding with siblings and peers and to an extent these relationships take over some of the social functions of the mother-infant relationship such as avoidance of predators. Lastly, experiences gained during the neonate period can have long-term effects on behaviour such as diet selection, social preferences and responses to fear with important implications for farmed livestock.
A global, monthly snow depth data set has been generated from weather satellite (Nimbus 7) observations using passive microwave remote-sensing techniques. In this paper we analyzed five years of data, 1980–1984, to compute the snow-load excitation of the annual wobble of the Earth's rotation axis. A uniform sea-level decrease has been assumed in order to conserve water mass. The result shows dominant seasonal cycles. The prograde component of the annual excitation is Ψ+ = (5.0 milliarcsec, −110*) and the retrograde component Ψ− = (5.0 milliarcsec, −31*). These computed values are compared with previous groundwater estimates, as well as the inferred values from ILS and LAGEOS polar motion measurements. The importance of accurate data is stressed and future plans proposed.
Over 300 cases of acute toxoplasmosis are confirmed by reference testing in England and Wales annually. We conducted a case-control study to identify risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection to inform prevention strategies. Twenty-eight cases and 27 seronegative controls participated. We compared their food history and environmental exposures using logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals in a model controlling for age and sex. Univariable analysis showed that the odds of eating beef (OR 10·7, P < 0·001), poultry (OR 6·4, P = 0·01) or lamb/mutton (OR 4·9, P = 0·01) was higher for cases than controls. After adjustment for potential confounders a strong association between beef and infection remained (OR 5·6, P = 0·01). The small sample size was a significant limitation and larger studies are needed to fully investigate potential risk factors. The study findings emphasize the need to ensure food is thoroughly cooked and handled hygienically, especially for those in vulnerable groups.
A measles outbreak occurred in a school in a small town in the South East of Ireland in September–November 2013. Most (and all early) cases had one dose of the measles-mumps- rubella (MMR) vaccination. All suspected cases were followed up, in order to advise on sampling and provide public health advice to them and their contacts. MMR vaccination control measures were instituted in the town. These included early second MMR in primary schools and childcare facilities, bringing forward the planned school MMR catch-up programme, early first MMR dose for children aged 6–12 months and targeted advice to unvaccinated children. There were 20 cases (17 confirmed) of measles associated with the outbreak. Fifteen cases occurred in the index school, with four in pre-school-age children (<4 years) who had clear epidemiological links with children at the school. This was a well-circumscribed outbreak occurring, unusually, in a well-vaccinated population. The outbreak came late to the attention of Department of Public Health staff but prompt action, once notified, and institution of control measures resulted in quick termination of the outbreak and prevention of cases in a neighbouring city.
To describe the symptoms and functional changes in patients with high levels of somatization who were referred to an outpatient, multidisciplinary, shared mental healthcare (SMHC) service that primarily offered cognitive behavioural therapy. Second, we wished to compare the levels of somatization in this outpatient clinical sample with previously published community norms.
Somatization is common in primary care, and it can lead to significant impairment, disproportionate resource use, and poses a challenge for management.
All the patients (18+ years, n=508) who attended three or more treatment sessions in SMHC primary care over a seven-year period were eligible for inclusion to this pre–post study. Self-report measures included the Patient Health Questionnaire’s somatic symptom severity scale (PHQ-15) and the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS II). Normative comparisons were used to assess the degree of symptoms and functional changes.
Clinically significant levels of somatization before treatment were common (n=138, 27.2%) and were associated with a significant reduction in somatic symptom severity (41.3% reduction; P<0.001) and disability (44% reduction; P<0.001) after treatment. Patients’ levels of somatic symptom severity and disability approached but did not quite reach the community sample norms following treatment. Multidisciplinary short-term SMHC was associated with significant improvement in patient symptoms and disability, and shows promise as an effective treatment for patients with high levels of somatization. Including a control group would allow more confidence regarding the conclusions about the effectiveness of SMHC for patients impaired by somatization.
In agricultural production systems, nitrogen (N) losses to the environment can occur through nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and nitrate (NO3−) leaching. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate: (1) if urine excreted by non-lactating dairy cows pulse-dosed with dicyandiamide (DCD) and applied to lysimeters reduced N2O-N emissions and NO3−-N leaching on two soil types; and (2) if urine + DCD would increase herbage production over winter. Lysimeters were used to measure N2O emissions and NO3-N leaching. The soils used were a free-draining acid brown earth of sandy loam to loam texture (termed free-draining) and a poorly drained silt loam gley (termed poorly drained). Grass plots were established on the free-draining soil to measure herbage production. The N loading rate of the urine + DCD was 508 kg N/ha and the urine without DCD (urine only) was 451 kg N/ha. Total NO3−-N leaching losses from the free-draining and poorly draining soils were reduced from 100 and 81 kg NO3−-N/ha on the urine-only treatment, respectively, to 9 and 11·6 kg NO3−-N/ha on the urine + DCD treatment, respectively. Total N2O-N emissions from the free-draining and poorly drained soils were reduced significantly from 13·6 and 12·1 kg N2O-N/ha on the urine-only treatment, respectively, to 2·23 and 5·24 kg N2O-N/ha on the urine + DCD treatment, respectively. Applying urine with DCD to pastures inhibited the nitrification process for up to 56 days after treatment application. In the current experiment, there was no significant effect on spring herbage production when urine + DCD was applied to grass plots. Therefore, feeding DCD to dairy cows to apply DCD directly in urine patches was shown to be an effective mitigation strategy to reduce NO3−-N leaching and N2O-N emissions but did not appear to increase spring herbage production.
Previous studies have shown significant within-person changes in binge eating and emotional eating across the menstrual cycle, with substantial increases in both phenotypes during post-ovulation. Increases in both estradiol and progesterone levels appear to account for these changes in phenotypic risk, possibly via increases in genetic effects. However, to date, no study has examined changes in genetic risk for binge phenotypes (or any other phenotype) across the menstrual cycle. The goal of the present study was to examine within-person changes in genetic risk for emotional eating scores across the menstrual cycle.
Participants were 230 female twin pairs (460 twins) from the Michigan State University Twin Registry who completed daily measures of emotional eating for 45 consecutive days. Menstrual cycle phase was coded based on dates of menstrual bleeding and daily ovarian hormone levels.
Findings revealed important shifts in genetic and environmental influences, where estimates of genetic influences were two times higher in post- as compared with pre-ovulation. Surprisingly, pre-ovulation was marked by a predominance of environmental influences, including shared environmental effects which have not been previously detected for binge eating phenotypes in adulthood.
Our study was the first to examine within-person shifts in genetic and environmental influences on a behavioral phenotype across the menstrual cycle. Results highlight a potentially critical role for these shifts in risk for emotional eating across the menstrual cycle and underscore the need for additional, large-scale studies to identify the genetic and environmental factors contributing to menstrual cycle effects.
To compare mental health (MH) outcomes of and service use by children born under 1500 g in Ireland with a matched control group.
Using a retrospective cohort design, semi-structured and standardised MH assessments were conducted with parents, teachers and youth.
A total of 64 of 127 surviving children from a very low birth weight (VLBW) cohort from a National Maternity Hospital participated at a mean age of 11.6 years (s.d. 1.0), along with 51 matched controls. More VLBW children received clinical or borderline scores when rated by parents [χ2 (1, n=114)=7.3, p=0.007] or youths [χ2 (1, n=114)=4.83, p=0.028], but not by teachers [χ2 (1, n=114)=1.243, p=0.463]. There was no increase in the use of MH services. A main effect of birth weight remained on the parent Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire [F (1, 88)=5.07, p<0.05) after controlling for intelligence quotient (IQ) and socio-economic status (SES), but only on hyperactivity in males. SES, rather than IQ or birth weight, predicted identification of problems by teachers [F (1, 82)=6.99, p=0.01).
Teachers miss MH difficulties and are influenced more by SES than by IQ or birth weight. This has implications for MH service access. Initial perinatal investment needs to be matched with ongoing surveillance and psychoeducation to ensure that disorders are recognised early and offered appropriate interventions.
In October 2012, an outbreak of gentamicin-resistant, ciprofloxacin non-susceptible extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae occurred in a neonatal intensive care unit in Ireland. In order to determine whether the outbreak strain was more widely dispersed in the country, 137 isolates of K. pneumoniae with this resistance phenotype collected from 17 hospitals throughout Ireland between January 2011 and July 2013 were examined. ESBL production was confirmed phenotypically and all isolates were screened for susceptibility to 19 antimicrobial agents and for the presence of genes encoding blaTEM, blaSHV, blaOXA, and blaCTX-M; 22 isolates were also screened for blaKPC, blaNDM, blaVIM, blaIMP and blaOXA-48 genes. All isolates harboured blaSHV and blaCTX-M and were resistant to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, amoxicillin-clavulanate, and cefpodoxime; 15 were resistant to ertapenem, seven to meropenem and five isolates were confirmed as carbapenemase producers. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of all isolates identified 16 major clusters, with two clusters comprising 61% of the entire collection. Multilocus sequence typing of a subset of these isolates identified a novel type, ST1236, a single locus variant of ST48. Data suggest that two major clonal groups, ST1236/ST48 (CG43) and ST15/ST14 (CG15) have been circulating in Ireland since at least January 2011.