Early life experiences could determine brain and behavioral development. Neurotrophic factors are likely to mediate the effects of the experience on brain structures and function. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a central role in psychiatric disorders. To investigate the effects of early rearing condition on the amygdala – and serum – BDNF levels, we reared male Wistar rats from weaning (postnatal days 21) to adulthood (postnatal days 119) in three different rearing conditions: (1) enriched, (2) standard and (3) isolated. We found that long-term post-weaning environmental enrichment leads to lower amygdala – and serum – BDNF levels as well as lower brain weights. Grouped rearing in standard laboratory cages enhanced body weight. Thus, early rearing condition might play a crucial role in adult healthiness by predetermining individual BDNF profiles.