Please note, due to essential maintenance online transactions will not be possible between 02:30 and 04:00 BST, on Tuesday 17th September 2019 (22:30-00:00 EDT, 17 Sep, 2019). We apologise for any inconvenience.
To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Dystocia is defined as a prolonged, or difficult, parturition and is one of the most economically significant secondary traits. Any attempt for decreasing dystocia rate will result in decreasing farming cost and improving animal welfare. The disproportion between calf size (birth weight) and pelvic opening of the dam is the major cause of calving difficulty. Heifers have smaller pelvic area and experience more incidence of dystocia. Calving difficulty in heifers is considered as a different trait from those of later parities (Weller et. al. 1988). Calf birth weight is the most important factor influencing dystocia. Calving difficulty and calf birth weight are characters influenced by maternal effects, so considering maternal effect in data analysis will increase model accuracy. The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters of calving difficulty and birth weight.
West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus which circulates in birds, horses and humans. An estimated 80% of WNV infections are asymptomatic. Fewer than 1% of infected persons develop neuroinvasive disease, which typically presents as encephalitis, meningitis, or acute flaccid paralysis. This study was conducted from January 2008 to June 2009 in Isfahan, Iran. Patients attending the emergency department with fever and loss of consciousness were consecutively included. Cerebrospinal fluids (CSF) were initially analysed through bacteriology and biochemistry examinations, resulting in those with evidence of meningitis being excluded. Patients' CSF and serum were diagnosed by serological and molecular assays. A total of 632 patients with fever and loss of consciousness were tested by CSF analyses. Samples of the remaining patients (39·4%) were referred for WNV investigation. Three (1·2%) of the patients were positive for both serum and CSF by RT–PCR, and six (2·4%) were positive only for IgG antibodies. History of insect bite, and blood transfusion and transplantation were risk factors for being positive by RT–PCR (P=0·048) and being IgG positive (P=0·024), respectively. The results of this study showed that the prevalence of West Nile fever is low in patients with encephalitis.
The electronic and optical properties of device quality hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films grown by electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma deposition were studied together with in-situ plasma characteristics. Hydrogen and helium plasmas, excited by 50–250 watts of 2.45 GHz microwave power under ECR conditions, were used to decompose silane at 6 to 20 mtorr pressures during the deposition of a-Si:H films at a 297 C substrate temperature. Both the electron temperature and density, and ion flux are measured near the deposition surface using plane and cylindrical Langmuir probes. An attempt is made to correlate these plasma properties with the light and dark photoconductivity, optical gap, refractive index, and subband gap photoconductivity.