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Background: To attain the most comprehensive view of the quality of life (QoL) of a child with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), the completion of a pediatric QoL measure by the child and his/her parent and the assessment of QoL and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) as separate constructs is crucial. Previous QoL research has not assessed HRQoL as a separate construct. By using the Quality of My Life (QoML) questionnaire, our objective was to describe QoL and HRQoL in boys with DMD based on child-and parent-reports. Methods: Parent and child dyads identified via the Canadian Neuromuscular Disease Registry received QoML questionnaires (2013-2016). Children and parent-proxy each completed the QoL and HRQoL Visual Analog Scales. Responses were marked on a 10-cm line, with higher scores (max=10) reflecting higher QoL and HRQoL. Descriptive statistics were computed for child- and parent-reports of QoL and HRQoL at three time-points. Results: Mean(SD) QoL and HRQoL scores for child- and parent-reports were: 1) Baseline (n=20 dyads), 8.32(1.72) vs. 6.73(2.23) and 7.63(2.51) vs. 6.73(2.19); 2)18-months (n=10 dyads, n=9 dyads), 7.83(2.05) vs 7.66(1.66) and 7.62(2.41) vs 7.41(2.16); 3) 36-months (n=15 dyads) 7.38(2.00) vs. 6.99(1.77) and 7.19(2.70) vs. 6.76(2.26). Conclusions: Boys with DMD report higher QoL and HRQoL compared to their parents.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: To evaluate the ability of various techniques to track changes in body fluid volumes before and after a rapid infusion of saline. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Eight healthy participants (5M; 3F) completed baseline measurements of 1) total body water using ethanol dilution and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and 2) blood volume, plasma volume and red blood cell (RBC) volume using carbon monoxide rebreathe technique and I-131 albumin dilution. Subsequently, 30mL saline/kg body weight was administered intravenously over 20 minutes after which BIA and ethanol dilution were repeated. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: On average, 2.29±0.35 L saline was infused with an average increase in net fluid input-output (I/O) of 1.56±0.29 L. BIA underestimated measured I/O by −3.4±7.9%, while ethanol dilution did not demonstrate a measurable change in total body water. Carbon monoxide rebreathe differed from I-131 albumin dilution measurements of blood, plasma and RBC volumes by +0.6±2.8%, −5.4±3.6%, and +11.0±4.7%, respectively. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: BIA is capable of tracking modest changes in total body water. Carbon monoxide rebreathe appears to be a viable alternative for the I-131 albumin dilution technique to determine blood volume. Together, these two techniques may be useful in monitoring fluid status in patients with impaired fluid regulation.
The idea that the state is a fiduciary to its citizens has a long pedigree - ultimately reaching back to the ancient Greeks, and including Hobbes and Locke among its proponents. Public fiduciary theory is now experiencing a resurgence, with applications that range from international law, to insider trading by members of Congress, to election law and gerrymandering. This book is the first of its kind: a collection of chapters by leading writers on public fiduciary subject areas. The authors develop new accounts of how fiduciary principles apply to representation; to officials and judges; to problems of legitimacy and political obligation; to positive rights; to the state itself; and to the history of ideas. The resulting volume should be of great interest to political theorists and public law scholars, to private fiduciary law scholars, and to students seeking an introduction to this new and increasingly relevant area of study.
This study focused on the spirurid nematode Mastophorus muris in water voles (Arvicola amphibius) trapped in three regions in southern Sweden during spring and fall 2013. The collection of water voles formed part of a larger project (EMIRO) on the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis in rodents. The voles’ stomach contents were examined for the presence of M. muris. Prevalence, mean abundance and mean intensity of infection were calculated. A generalized linear model model was used to examine the effects of sex, functional group, season and region on the number of M. muris individuals in each vole. Forty-seven of 181 (26%) voles were infected with M. muris, with up to 74 worms each. The overall mean intensity (worms per infected vole) was 15 (95% CI 10–21), and abundance (mean number of worms in all voles) was 4 (95% CI 2–6). Model output indicated a significant effect of season and region with respect to abundance of nematode infection, which was independent of sex and functional group of the investigated host.