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Systematic analysis of fiduciaries and trust is rare. The aim of this volume is to help fill this gap. The chapters explore the interactions of fiduciary law and trust, drawing on literatures on trust that have been generated in a variety of disciplines. They do so with an eye to the full scope of extension claimed for the fiduciary principle, from its heartland in private law, to its frontiers in public law and government more broadly. Overall, the volume advances an integrated and wide-ranging understanding of the relation of fiduciaries and trust that illuminates key legal and political problems, and challenges and deepens our understanding of fiduciaries and trust themselves.
Clonal Mycobacterium mucogenicum isolates (determined by molecular typing) were recovered from 19 bronchoscopic specimens from 15 patients. None of these patients had evidence of mycobacterial infection. Laboratory culture materials and bronchoscopes were negative for Mycobacteria. This pseudo-outbreak was caused by contaminated ice used to provide bronchoscopic lavage. Control was achieved by transitioning to sterile ice.
Although the science of team science is no longer a new field, the measurement of team science and its standardization remain in relatively early stages of development. To describe the current state of team science assessment, we conducted an integrative review of measures of research collaboration quality and outcomes.
Collaboration measures were identified using both a literature review based on specific keywords and an environmental scan. Raters abstracted details about the measures using a standard tool. Measures related to collaborations with clinical care, education, and program delivery were excluded from this review.
We identified 44 measures of research collaboration quality, which included 35 measures with reliability and some form of statistical validity reported. Most scales focused on group dynamics. We identified 89 measures of research collaboration outcomes; 16 had reliability and 15 had a validity statistic. Outcome measures often only included simple counts of products; publications rarely defined how counts were delimited, obtained, or assessed for reliability. Most measures were tested in only one venue.
Although models of collaboration have been developed, in general, strong, reliable, and valid measurements of such collaborations have not been conducted or accepted into practice. This limitation makes it difficult to compare the characteristics and impacts of research teams across studies or to identify the most important areas for intervention. To advance the science of team science, we provide recommendations regarding the development and psychometric testing of measures of collaboration quality and outcomes that can be replicated and broadly applied across studies.
Background: To attain the most comprehensive view of the quality of life (QoL) of a child with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), the completion of a pediatric QoL measure by the child and his/her parent and the assessment of QoL and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) as separate constructs is crucial. Previous QoL research has not assessed HRQoL as a separate construct. By using the Quality of My Life (QoML) questionnaire, our objective was to describe QoL and HRQoL in boys with DMD based on child-and parent-reports. Methods: Parent and child dyads identified via the Canadian Neuromuscular Disease Registry received QoML questionnaires (2013-2016). Children and parent-proxy each completed the QoL and HRQoL Visual Analog Scales. Responses were marked on a 10-cm line, with higher scores (max=10) reflecting higher QoL and HRQoL. Descriptive statistics were computed for child- and parent-reports of QoL and HRQoL at three time-points. Results: Mean(SD) QoL and HRQoL scores for child- and parent-reports were: 1) Baseline (n=20 dyads), 8.32(1.72) vs. 6.73(2.23) and 7.63(2.51) vs. 6.73(2.19); 2)18-months (n=10 dyads, n=9 dyads), 7.83(2.05) vs 7.66(1.66) and 7.62(2.41) vs 7.41(2.16); 3) 36-months (n=15 dyads) 7.38(2.00) vs. 6.99(1.77) and 7.19(2.70) vs. 6.76(2.26). Conclusions: Boys with DMD report higher QoL and HRQoL compared to their parents.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: To evaluate the ability of various techniques to track changes in body fluid volumes before and after a rapid infusion of saline. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Eight healthy participants (5M; 3F) completed baseline measurements of 1) total body water using ethanol dilution and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and 2) blood volume, plasma volume and red blood cell (RBC) volume using carbon monoxide rebreathe technique and I-131 albumin dilution. Subsequently, 30mL saline/kg body weight was administered intravenously over 20 minutes after which BIA and ethanol dilution were repeated. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: On average, 2.29±0.35 L saline was infused with an average increase in net fluid input-output (I/O) of 1.56±0.29 L. BIA underestimated measured I/O by −3.4±7.9%, while ethanol dilution did not demonstrate a measurable change in total body water. Carbon monoxide rebreathe differed from I-131 albumin dilution measurements of blood, plasma and RBC volumes by +0.6±2.8%, −5.4±3.6%, and +11.0±4.7%, respectively. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: BIA is capable of tracking modest changes in total body water. Carbon monoxide rebreathe appears to be a viable alternative for the I-131 albumin dilution technique to determine blood volume. Together, these two techniques may be useful in monitoring fluid status in patients with impaired fluid regulation.