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Chinese Diasporas provides a concise and compelling new history of internal and external Chinese migration from the sixteenth century to the present day. Steven Miles places Chinese migrants and their families at the center of his narrative through a series of engaging case studies taking readers from the heart of Ming China to the global property markets of the twenty-first century. The focus on individual migrants and their descendants reveals the ways in which the “Chinese diaspora” has consisted of distinct paths of migration from specific emigrant communities to targeted destinations both within China and abroad. This is essential reading for those interested in the history of the Chinese diaspora and the overseas Chinese, and for those interested in the role of migration in the making of the modern world.
Good education requires student experiences that deliver lessons about practice as well as theory and that encourage students to work for the public good—especially in the operation of democratic institutions (Dewey 1923; Dewy 1938). We report on an evaluation of the pedagogical value of a research project involving 23 colleges and universities across the country. Faculty trained and supervised students who observed polling places in the 2016 General Election. Our findings indicate that this was a valuable learning experience in both the short and long terms. Students found their experiences to be valuable and reported learning generally and specifically related to course material. Postelection, they also felt more knowledgeable about election science topics, voting behavior, and research methods. Students reported interest in participating in similar research in the future, would recommend other students to do so, and expressed interest in more learning and research about the topics central to their experience. Our results suggest that participants appreciated the importance of elections and their study. Collectively, the participating students are engaged and efficacious—essential qualities of citizens in a democracy.
A curious aspect of the evolution of the hypnozoite theory of malarial relapse is its transmogrification from theory into ‘fact’, this being of historical, linguistic, scientific and sociological interest. As far as it goes, the hypnozoite explanation for relapse is almost certainly correct. I contend, however, that many of the genotypically homologous, non-reinfection, relapse-like Plasmodium vivax recurrences that researchers ascribe to hypnozoite activation are probably hypnozoite-independent. Indeed, some malariologists are starting to recognize that homologous P. vivax recurrences have most likely been overattributed to activation of hypnozoites. Hitherto identified, non-hypnozoite, possible plasmodial sources of recurrence that must be considered, besides circulating erythrocytic stages, include parasites in splenic dendritic cells, other cells in the spleen (in addition to infected erythrocytes there), bone marrow (importantly) and the skin. I argue that we need to take into account the possibility of a dual or multiple extra-vascular origin of P. vivax non-reinfection recurrences, not arbitrarily discount it. The existence of a P. vivax reservoir(s) is a topical subject and one of practical importance for malaria eradication. Pertinent drug-associated matters are also discussed, as is the dormancy-related significance of clues provided by blood-stage-induced malarial infection.
A paleoecological record from Lake Palotoa (1370 m elevation) in the Andean foothills of Peru spans the last 3800 years. Lake Palotoa lies near the modern cloud base in a location sensitive to changes in atmospheric moisture. In many areas, these forests have been destroyed, but Lake Palotoa shows no sign of human occupation today or in the past. The modern forest surrounding the lake is dominated by the Andean palm, Dictyocaryum lamarckianum, which is also the most abundant taxon in the fossil pollen record. Fossil pollen data show the vegetation assemblages have not experienced strong compositional changes in the late Holocene. Global-scale climatic events such as the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and the Little Ice Age (LIA) are identified within the record, though the vegetation responses are subtle. Hedyosmum and Sloanea pollen percentages increase near the onset of the MCA and may reflect decreased seasonality. The LIA coincides with increased Hedyosmum pollen percentages, and increases in Clethra and Begonia, two elements that tend to occupy forests now found at higher elevations. Our findings demonstrate the stability of montane forest systems to natural Holocene climate change.
We performed a spatial-temporal analysis to assess household risk factors for Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in a remote, severely-affected village. We defined a household as a family's shared living space and a case-household as a household with at least one resident who became a suspect, probable, or confirmed Ebola case from 1 August 2014 to 10 October 2014. We used Geographic Information System (GIS) software to calculate inter-household distances, performed space-time cluster analyses, and developed Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE). Village X consisted of 64 households; 42% of households became case-households over the observation period. Two significant space-time clusters occurred among households in the village; temporal effects outweighed spatial effects. GEE demonstrated that the odds of becoming a case-household increased by 4·0% for each additional person per household (P < 0·02) and 2·6% per day (P < 0·07). An increasing number of persons per household, and to a lesser extent, the passage of time after onset of the outbreak were risk factors for household Ebola acquisition, emphasizing the importance of prompt public health interventions that prioritize the most populated households. Using GIS with GEE can reveal complex spatial-temporal risk factors, which can inform prioritization of response activities in future outbreaks.
Following the approach of standard filtering theory, we analyse investor valuation of firms, when these are modelled as geometric-Brownian state processes that are privately and partially observed, at random (Poisson) times, by agents. Tasked with disclosing forecast values, agents are able purposefully to withhold their observations; explicit filtering formulae are derived for downgrading the valuations in the absence of disclosures. The analysis is conducted for both a solitary firm and m co-dependent firms.
Fourteen members of the committee have failed to respond to correspondence; nearly all of the others have expressed the definite opinion that non-responsive members should be dropped from committee membership when a new list is prepared a few correspondents indicating however, that the policy should be adopted for Commission 27 only if generally adopted for all commissions of the Union.
Theocritus rarely speaks in his own person. As an impersonal narrator he is concerned primarily with dramatic situations, each of which focuses upon the personalities of a few actors. Often, moreover, even as a narrator, Theocritus offers little more than brief introductions to set the scene for dramatic monologues or dialogues between the fictional characters of his poems. Sometimes his characters present themselves without any explicit commentary. As a consequence our assessment of Theocritus' own values and views is bound up with our sense of his relation to the characters whom he portrays. In many cases there is an implicit but nonetheless forceful contrast between the author and his characters, so that there is no question of taking their views as the author's or of taking the characters themselves as embodiments of the author's own values.
Rather, the reverse is true. The characterization of Gorgo and Praxinoa, for example, the two housewives who are childishly awed by the splendor and bustle of Alexandria on a holiday, suggests the poet's own confident urbanity. Similarly, the characterization of the two drinking companions in Idyll 14 who exchange accounts of misadventure in love and the virtues of service in Ptolemy's mercenary army, implies the poet's commitment to the values of refinement and restraint. Contrast between Theocritus and his characters in those poems is self-evident if for no other reason than the contrast between the refinement, self-consciousness, and obvious artificiality of Theocritus' style and the spontaneity and coarseness of the characters whom he portrays.
We present the results of electron beam assisted molecular beam epitaxy (EB-MBE) on the growth mode of silicon on CaF2/Si(111). By irradiating the CaF2 surface with low energy electrons, the fluorine is desorbed, leaving an ordered array of F-centers behind. Using atomic force microscopy (AFM), we do not detect any surface damage on the CaF2 layer due to the low energy electron irradiation. The surface free energy of the CaF2 is raised due to the F-center array and the subsequent silicon layer is smoother. Using AFM and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), we find an optimal range of exposures for high temperature (650°C) growth of the silicon overlayer that minimizes surface roughness of the silicon overlayer and we present a simple model based on geometrical thermodynamics to explain this.
We observed a similar optimal range of exposures that minimizes the surface roughness for medium (575°C) and low (500°C) growth temperatures of the silicon layer. We present an explanation for this growth mode based on kinetics.
Asymmetric reflections in which the beam paths are skew with respect to the sample surface have been used to characterize thin heteroepitaxial layers by double axis X-ray diffractometry. By utilizing reflections with Braqg cones which are partially embedded in the sample surface it is possible to tune to grazing the angles of incidence or emergence. Enhanced layer to substrate peak intensity ratio and narrower layer peak widths can be obtained. The technique is demonstrated using skew angle reflections 333, 133 and 044 from a 400Å GaInAsP layer on an InP substrate.
Zinc composition variation and gross structural defects including grain and tilt boundaries, twins, and mechanical cracks in high pressure Bridgman Cd1−xZnxTe are characterized and correlated to various detector-related responses. Triple axis x-ray diffraction, double crystal x-ray topography, infrared microscopy, and etch pit density measurements are used to reveal and quantify the spatial distribution and the nature of the structural defects. Mechanical cracks in the material are found to act as conductive “shorting paths”, indicated by excessive leakage currents and reduced charge (electron) collection measured along these cracks. Reduced charge collection is also obtained across grain boundaries and in regions with poor crystallinity, indicating that they serve as carrier recombination sites. Finally, the effects of the zinc composition variation on the measured leakage current and the amount of electrons collected are found to be masked by gross structural defects. These characterization techniques provide a wealth of information which can be used not only to study the relationship between the structural and device properties of CdZnTe but also to screen production material for subsequent device fabrication.
Gtain boundaries and twin boundaries in commercial Cd1−xZnxTe, which is prepared by a high-pressure Bridgeman technique, have been investigated with transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, infrared-light microscopy and visible-light microscopy. Boundaries inside these materials were found to be decorated with Te precipitates. The shape and local density of the precipitates were found to depend on the particular boundary. For precipitates that decorate grain boundaries, their microstructure was found to consist of a single, saucer-shaped grain of hexagonal Te (space group P3,2 1). Analysis of a Te precipate by selected-area diffraction revealed the Te to be aligned with the surrounding Cd1−xZnxTe grains. This alignment was found to match the (111) Cd1−xZxTe planes with the (0 111) planes of hexagonal Te. Crystallographic alignments between the Cd1−xZnxTe grains were also observed for a high-angle grain boundary. The structures of the grain boundaries and the Te/Cd1−xZnxTe interface are discussed.
Recent results on MOVPE growth of multilayer two-color HgCdTe detectors, for simultaneous and independent detection of medium wavelength (MW, 3–5 μm) and long wavelength (LW, 8–12 μm) bands, are reported. The structures are grown in situ on lattice matched (100) CdZnTe in the double-heterojunction p-n-N-P configuration. A barrier layer is placed between the LW and MW absorber layers to prevent diffusion of MW photocarriers into the LW junction and thereby eliminate spectral crosstalk. X-ray double crystal rocking curve widths are ∼ 45 arc-secs, indicating good epitaxial quality. SIMS depth profile measurements of these 28 μm thick structures show well-defined alloy compositions, and arsenic and iodine doping. SIMS data on a series of thirteen films show that good run-to-run repeatability is obtained on thicknesses, compositions, and dopant levels with values close to the device design targets. Depth profile of etch pits through the thickness of the films show etch pit densities in the range of 8×105-5×106 cm−2.
We are developing modular arrays of CdZnTe radiation detectors for high-resolution nuclear medicine imaging. Each detector is delineated into a 64×64 array of pixels; the pixel pitch is 380 ptm. Each pixel is connected to a corresponding pad on a multiplexer readout circuit. The imaging system is controlled by a personal computer. We obtained images of standard nuclear medicine phantoms in which the spatial resolution of approximately 1.5 mm was limited by the collimator that was used. Significant improvements in spatial resolution should be possible with different collimator designs. These results are promising for high-resolution nuclear medicine imaging.
We report the first observations of electroluminescence (EL) and lasing in laser structures with high Al-content (x=0.64, Eg=1.474 eV) cladding layers and a narrow-gap InGaAsSb active layer (Eg=0.326 eV at T=77K). The structures are LPE-grown lattice-matched to GaSb substrate. Band energy diagrams of the laser structures had strongly asymmetric band offsets. The heterojunction between high Al-content layer and InGaAsSb narrow-gap active layer has a type II broken-gap alignment at 300K. In this laser structure spontaneous emission was obtained at λ=3.8μm at T=77K and λ=4.25 μm at T=300K. Full width at half maximum (FWHM) of emission band was 34 meV. Emission intensity decreased by a factor of 30 from T=77K to 300K. Lasing with single dominant mode was achieved at λ=3.774 μm (T=80K) in pulsed mode. Threshold current as low as 60 mA and characteristic temperature T0=26K were obtained at T=80–120K.
The application of non-equilibrium transport techniques to Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) grown InSb/InAlSb heterostructure diodes has produced practical devices such as midinfrared LED's and negative luminescent sources that operate at room temperature. By extending the epitaxial growth to vicinal InSb substrates it has been demonstrated that the temperature window for high quality epitaxy can be lowered by ∼12°C, giving greatly improved epilayer morphology. The degree of misorientation needed for given growth temperatures is shown from Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) measurements to be only ∼2°. In addition, the lower growth temperature gives improved dopant activation, lower trap densities and lower reverse bias leakage currents, with consequent benefits to device performance.
Semiconductor multiple-electrode detectors have been developed for the purpose of reducing effects of hole trapping in room-temperature radiation detectors.1,2 Some reported geometries maintain a nearly-uniform electric field inside the detector, but others generate an electric field that is very non-uniform and highly-concentrated at the anode. This paper reports the results of mapping such a detector (having a non-uniform electric field) with a finely collimated gamma-ray beam to determine the detector response as a function of position.