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In September 2016, the annual meeting of the International Union for Quaternary Research’s Loess and Pedostratigraphy Focus Group, traditionally referred to as a LoessFest, met in Eau Claire, Wisconsin, USA. The 2016 LoessFest focused on “thin” loess deposits and loess transportation surfaces. This LoessFest included 75 registered participants from 10 countries. Almost half of the participants were from outside the United States, and 18 of the participants were students. This review is the introduction to the special issue for Quaternary Research that originated from presentations and discussions at the 2016 LoessFest. This introduction highlights current understanding and ongoing work on loess in various regions of the world and provides brief summaries of some of the current approaches/strategies used to study loess deposits.
Following a cluster of serious pseudomonas skin infections linked to a body piercing and tattooing premises, a look-back exercise was carried out to offer clients a screen for blood-borne viruses. Of those attending for screening 72% (581/809) had a piercing procedure in the premises of interest: 94 (16%) were under 16 years of age at the time of screening. The most common site of piercing was ear (34%), followed by nose (27%), nipple (21%) and navel (21%). A small number (<5) tested positive for hepatitis B and C, with no evidence this was linked to the premises. However, 36% (211/581) of clients reported a skin infection associated with their piercing. Using data from client forms, 36% provided a false age. Those aged under 16 years (OR 4.5, 95% CI 2.7–7.7) and those receiving a piercing at an intimate site (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.3–3.6) were more likely to provide a false age. The findings from this exercise were used to support the drafting of the Public Health (Wales) Bill which proposed better regulation of piercing premises and the need to provide proof of being 18 years of age or over before having a piercing of an intimate site.
Network analysis is an emerging approach in the study of psychopathology, yet few applications have been seen in eating disorders (EDs). Furthermore, little research exists regarding changes in network strength after interventions. Therefore the present study examined the network structures of ED and co-occurring depression and anxiety symptoms before and after treatment for EDs.
Participants from residential or partial hospital ED treatment programs (N = 446) completed assessments upon admission and discharge. Networks were estimated using regularized Graphical Gaussian Models using 38 items from the Eating Disorders Examination-Questionnaire, Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory.
ED symptoms with high centrality indices included a desire to lose weight, guilt about eating, shape overvaluation, and wanting an empty stomach, while restlessness, self-esteem, lack of energy, and feeling overwhelmed bridged ED to depression and anxiety symptoms. Comparisons between admission and discharge networks indicated the global network strength did not change significantly, though symptom severity decreased. Participants with denser networks at admission evidenced less change in ED symptomatology during treatment.
Findings suggest that symptoms related to shape and weight concerns and guilt are central ED symptoms, while physical symptoms, self-esteem, and feeling overwhelmed are links that may underlie comorbidities in EDs. Results provided some support for the validity of network approaches, in that admission networks conveyed prognostic information. However, the lack of correspondence between symptom reduction and change in network strength indicates that future research is needed to examine network dynamics in the context of intervention and relapse prevention.
Objectives: Glioblastoma is a lethal disease in the elderly population. We aimed to evaluate disease and treatment outcomes in the oldest-old patients. Methods: Patients >80 years old with histologically confirmed glioblastoma treated between 2004 and 2009 were identified. We included patients managed with best supportive care (BSC), temozolomide (TMZ) alone, radiotherapy (RT) alone, or concomitantly with TMZ (CRT). Survival outcomes were analyzed using the Kaplan–Meier method. Results: Ultimately, 48 patients were analyzed. Median age and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) Performance Status were 82 years and 2, respectively. The median Age-Adjusted Charlson Index (AAC) was 6. Gross total and subtotal resections were performed in 16.7% and 18.8% of patients, respectively. Biopsy followed by RT alone was the treatment modality for 23/48 (47.9%), while 17/48 (35.4%) received surgery followed by RT alone or CRT. A total of 8 (16.7%) were managed with BSC after biopsy. Median overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were 4.1 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 3.3-4.9) and 2.7 (95% CI 1.5-3.9) months, respectively. Improved median OS was observed in those treated with surgical resection followed by RT alone or CRT (7.1 months), compared to biopsy followed by RT alone (4.2 months) or BSC (2.0 months; p=0.002). Surgical resection, age≤85, and AAC<6 were associated with better OS (p=0.032, p=0.031, and p=0.02, respectively). Cause of death was neurological progression in 56% of cases. RT was well-tolerated. Conclusions: PFS and OS outcomes remain poor in the oldest-old patients (>80 years old). Younger age, lower AAC, surgical resection, and adjuvant treatment were associated with improved OS.
Body dissatisfaction and depressive symptoms are commonly experienced during adolescence and increase the risk of adverse health outcomes, especially eating disorders. However, the dominant temporal associations between these two experiences (i.e., whether one is a risk factor for the other or the two are mutually reinforcing) has yet to be fully explored. We examined the associations between body dissatisfaction and depressive symptoms assessed at baseline and 5- and 10-year follow-up in younger (M age = 12.9 years at baseline, 56% female, n = 577) and older (M age = 15.9 years at baseline, 57% female, n = 1,325) adolescent cohorts assessed as part of Project Eating Among Teens and Young Adults. Associations between body dissatisfaction and depressive symptoms were examined using cross-lagged models. For females, the dominant directionality was for body dissatisfaction predicting later depressive symptoms. For males, the picture was more complex, with developmentally sensitive associations in which depressive symptoms predicted later body dissatisfaction in early adolescence and early adulthood, but the reverse association was dominant during middle adolescence. These findings suggest that interventions should be tailored to dynamic risk profiles that shift over adolescence and early adulthood, and that targeting body dissatisfaction at key periods during development may have downstream impacts on depressive symptoms.
The Deep Ice Sheet Coring (DISC) drill developed by Ice Coring and Drilling Services under contract with the US National Science Foundation is an electromechanical ice-drill system designed to take 122mm ice cores to depths of 4000 m. The new drill system was field-tested near Summit camp in central Greenland during the spring/summer of 2006. Testing was conducted to verify the performance of the DISC drill system and its individual components and to determine the modifications required prior to the system’s planned deployment for coring at the WAIS Divide site in Antarctica in the following year. The experiments, results and the drill crew’s experiences with the DISC drill during testing are described and discussed.
In the 1998-99 flight, BOOMERanG has produced maps of ∼4% of the sky at high Galactic latitudes, at frequencies of 90, 150, 240 and 410 GHz, with resolution ≳ 10'. The faint structure of the Cosmic Microwave Background at horizon and sub-horizon scales is evident in these maps. These maps compare well to the maps recently obtained at lower frequencies by the WMAP experiment. Here we compare the amplitude and morphology of the structures observed in the two sets of maps. We also outline the polarization sensitive version of BOOMERanG, which was flown early this year to measure the linear polarization of the microwave sky at 150, 240 and 350 GHz.
The Cosmic Background Imager (CBI) is an instrument designed to make images of the cosmic microwave background radiation and to measure its statistical properties on angular scales from about 3 arc minutes to one degree (spherical harmonic scales from l ˜ 4250 down to l ˜ 400). The CBI is a 13-element interferometer mounted on a 6 meter platform operating in ten 1-GHz frequency bands from 26 GHz to 36 GHz. The instantaneous field of view of the instrument is 45 arcmin (FWHM) and its resolution ranges from 3 to 10 arcmin; larger fields can be imaged by mosaicing. At this frequency and resolution, the primary foreground is due to discrete extragalactic sources, which are monitored at the Owens Valley Radio Observatory and subtracted from the CBI visibility measurements.
The instrument has been making observations since late 1999 of both primordial CMB fluctuations and the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect in clusters of galaxies from its site at an altitude of 5080 meters near San Pedro de Atacama, in northern Chile. Observations will continue until August 2001 or later. We present preliminary results from the first few months of observations.
BOOMERanG has recently resolved structures on the last scattering surface at redshift ˜ 1100 with high signal to noise ratio. We review the technical advances which made this possible, and we focus on the current results for maps and power spectra, with special attention to the determination of the total mass-energy density in the Universe and of other cosmological parameters.
We present multi-instrument observations of AR 8048, made between June 3 and June 5 1997 as part of SoHO JOP033. This active region (AR) has a sigmoid-like global shape and undergoes transient brightenings through which the stored energy is released.
Using a magneto-hydrostatic model, we compute coronal magnetic field. The large-scale magnetic lines confirm the sigmoidal characteristics of the AR. The field lines most closely matching the hotter SoHO/CDS loops extend along the quasi-separatrix-Iayers (QSLs) of the coronal field. Transition region (TR) brightenings observed with SoHO/CDS can be associated with both QSL intersections with the photosphere, and places where separatrices corresponding to bald patches (BPs, sites where field lines are tangent to the photosphere) lie at the photospheric plane. There are suggestions that the element abundances measured in the TR may depend on the type of topological structure present. TR brightenings associated with QSLs have coronal abundances, while those associated with BP separatrices have abundances closer to photospheric values.
Our current knowledge of the basic characteristics of CVs, such as their distance and luminosity, are largely based on observations of optically bright (V < 16 mag) systems. This has tended to favour the more luminous members (Mv ~ 7 … 10 mag) lying nearby in the Galactic plane (z < 400 pc;). In order to alleviate this bias, Howell & Szkody (1990) compiled a list of ~90 CVs that were faint enough and were at high galactic latitude to potentially place them well outside the Galactic plane, in the halo. We have obtained infrared J and K band images of a number of the CVs listed by Howell & Szkody (1990) in order to establish whether these systems are truely at large distances, or are instead a population of intrinsically faint objects lying relatively nearby. The distances were determined using Bailey’s method (1982) and incorporated the recent SK calibrations by Ramseyer (1994).
International Ultraviolet Explorer observations of the ROSATWFC-discovered AM Hers RE2107–05, RE1938–46, RE1833–74, RE1149+28, and RE0751+14 reveal UV spectra (1200 – 2000 Å) which are unique when compared with previously studied systems. Specifically, the intensities of individual emission lines due to CIV, CII, N V, HeII, and Si IV, are 2 – 4 times stronger then typically seen. However, the equivalent width ratios of these same emission lines, (CII/CIV, N V/CIV, HeII/CIV, and Si IV/CIV), are similar to those in typical AM Hers. These results indicate that the EUV-discovered AM Hers must have larger UV emitting volumes. Using additional observations of these stars made by EUVE, we speculate on the cause of their larger UV line fluxes.
HST UV observations of V795 Her reveal a strong 2.6-h orbital variation in the prominent UV lines, in contrast to earlier (IUE) evidence of a 4.8-h period. Only the C IV line contains a strong blue-shifted, wind formed absorption component. Several lines exhibit a ‘narrow’ absorption feature near rest velocity which may originate in the disk, and a blue-shifted emission feature which accounts for most of the line profile variability.
Spontaneous regression of solid malignancy is extremely rare. It is virtually unheard of in the last half century in the published literature. The overwhelming majority of medical professionals do not know that this phenomenon exists.
This paper reports such a case involving a patient with proven laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma in New Zealand. Whilst waiting for definitive treatment, he was afflicted with prolonged septicaemia secondary to peritonitis from percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube insertion. Following a total laryngectomy, histology of the specimen did not contain any evidence of neoplasia.
Based predominantly on work established by Dr William Coley, we believe that a period of prolonged pyrexia preceding definitive surgery contributed to this apparent ‘miracle’. The time may be ripe to further debate on whether the medical profession should consider pyrexia therapy as a last resort treatment for patients deemed incurable by conventional methods.
Analysing dietary data to capture how individuals typically consume foods is dependent on the coding variables used. Individual foods consumed simultaneously, like coffee with milk, are given codes to identify these combinations. Our literature review revealed a lack of discussion about using combination codes in analysis. The present study identified foods consumed at mealtimes and by race when combination codes were or were not utilized.
Duplicate analysis methods were performed on separate data sets. The original data set consisted of all foods reported; each food was coded as if it was consumed individually. The revised data set was derived from the original data set by first isolating coded foods consumed as individual items from those foods consumed simultaneously and assigning a code to designate a combination. Foods assigned a combination code, like pancakes with syrup, were aggregated and associated with a food group, defined by the major food component (i.e. pancakes), and then appended to the isolated coded foods.
Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span study.
African-American and White adults with two dietary recalls (n 2177).
Differences existed in lists of foods most frequently consumed by mealtime and race when comparing results based on original and revised data sets. African Americans reported consumption of sausage/luncheon meat and poultry, while ready-to-eat cereals and cakes/doughnuts/pastries were reported by Whites on recalls.
Use of combination codes provided more accurate representation of how foods were consumed by populations. This information is beneficial when creating interventions and exploring diet–health relationships.
The study of ceramics in the mediaeval Middle East has traditionally been divided into two separate fields, those of archaeology and art history. Archaeologists have generally focused on the finds from their own sites, seeking only precise comparanda for publication. High-quality glazed ceramics such as lustre-wares were made in a restricted number of centres and distributed over a very large area, and thus may be a small percentage of the total ceramic assemblage. No archaeologist constrained to analysis of material from their own site has ever had the opportunity to examine the fine wares as a complete corpus. Broad all-encompassing approaches to the fine wares have only been attempted by art historians utilizing traditional connoisseurship techniques and focusing on the whole vessels which have appeared on the art market since the nineteenth century.
This paper represents the reporting of a component of a larger study that is the first attempt at providing a chronology for Middle Eastern élite glazed wares dating from about 700 to 1340 (all dates are in the “common era” or AD) based on the methodologies of archaeological ceramic study. This forms part of a comprehensive multidisciplinary study, including the application of the scanning electron microscope (SEM) with X-ray spectroscopy and petrographic analysis.
We investigate the interaction between a developed country that imports a carbon-intensive product, such as electricity, and a transitioning economy that exports the product. Production of the good generates a transboundary externality related to climate change; if this externality is priced improperly, the application of a feed-in tariff or border tax adjustment can provide an indirect policy instrument. We analyze the application of such a measure in a stark model where the importing country cares about climate-related damages while the exporting country does not; this can be viewed as reflecting a scenario where the (developed) importing country is more concerned about climate change than is the (transitioning) exporting economy. Because climate change will occur over a long time frame, the problem is dynamic. In this modeling context, we describe the manner in which the (second-best) tariff-cum-border tax adjustment relates to the carbon stock.