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Combined archaeological, ecological, and geologic research on Chuginadak and Carlisle Islands in the Islands of Four Mountains (IFM) probed questions about the sustainability of human settlements over the past 4000 years in the face of geologic, ecological, and social hazards. We use a human ecodynamics approach to frame the investigation and present original archaeological evidence from this poorly known region of the remote Aleutian Islands. Several village sites occupied during the last four millennia are clustered in locations that were not damaged by earthquake-induced tsunamis; however, new geologic evidence indicates that at least one volcanic eruption forced humans to abandon one or more prehistoric village sites. Combined archaeological, ecological, and geologic analyses demonstrate resilient Unangax̂ occupations of the IFM through long-term climate change as well as earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions with occasional community vulnerability to volcanic eruptions.
We obtained radiocarbon (14C) dates with accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) of vascular plant samples and a charcoal sample collected from peat deposits near the prehistoric village site informally designated CR-03 on Carlisle Island in the Islands of Four Mountains group, Alaska, to determine the eruption age of the CR-02 tephra. A fine vitric ash erupted from Okmok caldera, Umnak Island (ca. 2 ka BP) was also discovered in the bog. The ages of the CR-02 tephra and Okmok II ash are estimated to be 1050 and 2000 cal BP, respectively. Because both tephras are distinctive and widespread, these are important chronostratigraphic markers for archaeological sites in this island group. The 14C dates obtained from this bog are 800 years younger than the dates of the charcoal fragments from cultural layers in the Unit 3 of prehistoric village site CR-02 (AMK-0003).
Lateral fluctuations of shoreline positions along shallow basinal margins often result in spatially and temporally overprinted (palimpsested) firmground or hardground surfaces (Frey and Basan, 1981). Recent palimpsested surfaces can teach us a great deal about the fossil record, particularly when we view them taphonomically. For the last few years we have been studying such surfaces along the seaward coast of St. Catherines Island, Georgia. In this paper we will first briefly discuss the modern salt marsh at St. Catherines Island, and its invertebrate inhabitants. This will form a basis for recognition and description of relict marsh surfaces. We will next describe the relict salt marsh surface that is currently being exhumed by coastal erosion and palimpsested by other invertebrate communities. Such palimpsested events also represent heterochronous community replacement–the disjunct temporal and (usually) spatial overprinting of an older community (or biogenic surface) by one (or more) younger communities. This interprets “replacement” as a passive, generally species non-interactive, phenomenon (contra Miller, 1986). Lastly, we will make some rather broad comparisons between the St. Catherines Island setting and what we interpret as analogous situations recorded in the Carboniferous strata of the Appalachian Basin.
Stratigraphy provides a basic temporal and spatial framework for all studies of earth history. The foundations of stratigraphy were built in the 17th and 18th centuries through the efforts of Steno and Smith. Formalization of the principles of organic evolution followed closely in the mid-19th century with the publication of the Origin of Species. Although paleoecological observations span centuries, the establishment of paleoecology as a scientific discipline is a 20th century phenomenon. Initially, paleontology (paleobiology) was an integral part of stratigraphy and housed the subdisciplinary studies of evolution and paleoecology. Retention of a stratigraphic framework soon became difficult, perhaps due to the potential for circular reasoning in the evolutionary study of fossils. If the rock record was subdivided on the basis of fossils, how could the evolutionary relationships of these organisms be evaluated when they, or related forms, had been used to construct the temporal framework?
Whole apples have not been previously implicated in outbreaks of foodborne bacterial illness. We investigated a nationwide listeriosis outbreak associated with caramel apples. We defined an outbreak-associated case as an infection with one or both of two outbreak strains of Listeria monocytogenes highly related by whole-genome multilocus sequence typing (wgMLST) from 1 October 2014 to 1 February 2015. Single-interviewer open-ended interviews identified the source. Outbreak-associated cases were compared with non-outbreak-associated cases and traceback and environmental investigations were performed. We identified 35 outbreak-associated cases in 12 states; 34 (97%) were hospitalized and seven (20%) died. Outbreak-associated ill persons were more likely to have eaten commercially produced, prepackaged caramel apples (odds ratio 326·7, 95% confidence interval 32·2–3314). Environmental samples from the grower's packing facility and distribution-chain whole apples yielded isolates highly related to outbreak isolates by wgMLST. This outbreak highlights the importance of minimizing produce contamination with L. monocytogenes. Investigators should perform single-interviewer open-ended interviews when a food is not readily identified.
We provide detailed contextual information on 25 14C dates for unusually well-preserved archaeological and paleontological remains from Daisy Cave. Paleontological materials, including faunal and floral remains, have been recovered from deposits spanning roughly the past 16,000 yr, while archaeological materials date back to ca. 10,500 BP. Multidisciplinary investigations at the site provide a detailed record of environmental and cultural changes on San Miguel Island during this time period. This record includes evidence for the local or regional extinction of a number of animal species, as well as some of the earliest evidence for the human use of boats and other maritime activities in the Americas. Data from Daisy Cave contribute to a growing body of evidence that Paleoindians had adapted to a wide variety of New World environments prior to 10,000 PB. Analysis of shell-charcoal pairs, along with isotopic analysis of associated marine shells, supports the general validity of marine shell dating, but also provides evidence for temporal fluctuations in the reservoir effect within the Santa Barbara Channel region.
Throughout the triennium, Commission 6 has interacted with the Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams (CBAT), most ably headed by Brian Marsden. As will be seen from his report below, the use by scientists of the Circulars for rapid dissemination of astronomical and related news continues unabated.
The US Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) requires nursing homes and long-term-care facilities to document residents' vaccination status on the Resident Assessment Instrument (RAI). Vaccinating residents can prevent costly hospital admissions and deaths. CMS and public health officials use RAI data to measure vaccination rates in long-term-care residents and assess the quality of care in nursing homes. We assessed the accuracy of RAI data against medical records in 39 nursing homes in Florida, Georgia, and Wisconsin. We randomly sampled residents in each home during the 2010–2011 and 2011–2012 influenza seasons. We collected data on receipt of influenza vaccination from charts and RAI data. Our final sample included 840 medical charts with matched RAI records. The agreement rate was 0·86. Using the chart as a gold standard, the sensitivity of the RAI with respect to influenza vaccination was 85% and the specificity was 77%. Agreement rates varied within facilities from 55% to 100%. Monitoring vaccination rates in the population is important for gauging the impact of programmes and policies to promote adherence to vaccination recommendations. Use of data from RAIs is a reasonable approach for gauging influenza vaccination rates in nursing-home residents.
Although the cadmium chloride treatment is an essential process for high efficiency thin film cadmium telluride photovoltaic devices, the precise mechanisms involved that improve the cadmium telluride layer are not well understood. In this investigation we apply advanced micro-structural characterization techniques to study the effect of varying the time of the cadmium chloride annealing treatment on the micro-structure of cadmium telluride solar cells deposited by close spaced sublimation (CSS) and relate this to cell performance. A range of techniques has been used to observe the morphological changes to the micro-structure as well as the chemical and crystallographic changes as a function of treatment parameters. Electrical tests that link the device performance with the micro-structural properties of the cells have also been undertaken. Techniques used include Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) for sub-grain analysis and XPS for composition-depth profiling. The study provides a new insight in to the mechanisms involved in the initiation and the subsequent complete re-crystallization of the cadmium telluride layer.
The appearance of a further instalment of these ‘Studies’ has been regrettably delayed, owing to several reasons. The present article is planned on different lines from its predecessor (JHS li (1931), 139–63), for, instead of offering a comprehensive study of one reconstructed stele, it attempts to review the post-Euclidean Hekatompedon-lists down to 390/89 as a group, and to establish their chronological sequence, in the light of fresh discoveries. It is proposed, also, to deal in subsequent articles with the corresponding lists for the Parthenon and the Opisthodomos in this period, and to continue the study of the later lists both of the Treasures of Athena and of those of the ‘Other Gods’ into the second half of the fourth century.
The opportunity of working continuously in the Epigraphical Museum for several weeks during the summer of 1931 enabled me to recognise that in many instances two or more fragments of these Traditiones which had been published separately could be assigned to one stele, and also to identify a few still unpublished pieces belonging to this series.
Lurasidone is an atypical antipsychotic medication approved for the treatment of schizophrenia over a dose range of 40–160 mg/day. This study examined D2 receptor occupancy and its association with clinical improvement and side effects in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder following repeated doses of 80, 120, or 160 mg/day of lurasidone.
Twenty-five patients with The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. (DSM-IV) diagnoses of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were washed out of their antipsychotic medications (5 half-lives) and randomly assigned to 80, 120, or 160 mg/day of lurasidone. Subjects were imaged with 18F-fallypride at baseline and at steady-state lurasidone treatment to determine D2 receptor occupancy.
Blood lurasidone concentration (plus major metabolite), but not dose, significantly correlated with D2 receptor occupancy. D2 receptor occupancy in several subcortical structures is associated with positive but not negative symptom improvement or the presence of movement symptoms.
Blood concentrations greater than 70 ng/mL may be required to achieve a 65% occupancy level in subcortical areas. Intersubject blood concentrations at fixed dose were highly variable and may account for the lack of dose correlations.
Positron emission tomography (PET) occupancy data suggest that greater than 65% occupancy can be achieved across the dose range of 80–160 mg/day and that some patients require higher doses to achieve antipsychotic efficacy; this finding supports prior randomized clinical trial results.
It is well known that the cadmium chloride annealing treatment is an essential step in the manufacture of efficient thin film cadmium telluride solar cells. It has been recognized that the combination of annealing at ∼4000C together with the addition of cadmium chloride at the surface induces re-crystallisation of the cadmium telluride layer and also affects the n-type cadmium sulfide. We have applied advanced micro-structural characterization techniques to distinguish the effect of the annealing and the cadmium chloride treatments on the properties of the cadmium telluride deposited via close space sublimation (CSS) and relate these observations to device performance. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has shown a variation in stacking fault density with annealing temperature and annealing time. Stacking faults observed within the cadmium telluride grains in TEM were partially removed post annealing; these findings show that temperature alone has a role in the reduction of stacking faults. However, since we have previously observed almost complete removal of stacking faults with annealing in combination with cadmium chloride, the cadmium chloride is essential to defect removal and high efficiency cells.
The solar cells employed in low to medium (50 to 200 suns) concentration photovoltaic (CPV) are usually mono-crystalline silicon. Laser Groove Buried Contacts (LGBC) are preferred to screen printing in these cells due to the high currents generated in the system. In this paper, we report on the use of Coherence Correlation Interferometry (CCI) to accurately measure the width and depth of the laser-ablated grooves. In addition, the technique is also used to measure the surface roughness at the bottom of the trenches, since this can determine the success of the subsequent plating process, and at the top surface to optimize the debris control and obtain clean surfaces and well-shaped groove edges. The laser ablation process was also optimized to obtain the groove aspect ratio and surface quality required. Process parameters to be controlled include laser power, pulse energy, stage speed and focal length. The CCI technique is capable of providing all the groove and surface metrology required for this process optimization.
A new magnetron sputtering strategy is introduced that utilizes high plasma density (~5mA.cm-2) to avoid or reduce high temperature processing. The technique uses magnetrons of opposing magnetic polarity to create a “closed field” in which the plasma density is enhanced without the need for high applied Voltages. A batch system has been used which employs a rotating vertical drum as the substrate carrier and a symmetrical array of linear magnetrons. The magnetrons are fitted with target materials for each of the thin films required in the photovoltaic (PV) stack including the CdTe absorber layer, CdS window layer, metal contact using the conventional superstrate configuration. The “closed field” sputtering technology allows scale up not only for larger batch system designs but it is also configurable for “in-line” or “roll to roll” formats for large scale production. The morphology of each of the layers is characterized using a variety of structural and optical techniques including Field Emission Gun SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD).