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Trait-specific characterization of rice landraces has significant potential for germplasm management, varietal identification and mining of novel gene/allele for various traits. In the current study, we have characterized 98 unique rice landraces collected from coastal regions of India, affected by submergence and salinity, based on Sub1 and Saltol quantitative trait loci (QTL) linked microsatellite markers. Among these genotypes, four genotypes (IC536558, IC536559, IC536604 and IC536604-1) collected from Kerala and two genotypes (AC34902 and IC324589) collected from West Bengal were identified with tolerance to submergence and salinity stress. A high level of genetic diversity of He = 0.349 and 0.529 at Sub1 and Saltol QTL region was detected by QTL-linked microsatellite markers, respectively. At Sub1 region one genotype, AC34902, was detected with maximum allelic similarity with FR13A, a known submergence tolerant variety. Besides, five genotypes (IC211188-1, IC536604-1, IC536604, IC536558 and IC536559) showed comparatively close genetic relationship with the salt tolerant variety FL478 for Saltol QTL and were clustered together in the neighbour joining dendrogram. Considering the haplotype structure, five genotypes (IC203801, IC203778, IC324584, IC413608 and IC413638) were identified which did not contain any common allele similar to FR13A but were still tolerant to submergence. These individuals need further characterization for identification of new alleles responsible for their tolerance.
Multi–frequency Observations of Solar Microwave bursts recorded during solar maximum period 1980–81 are analysed and compared with x–ray data for studying the nature of microwave emissions from active regions. Most of the microwave burst spectra showed that the spectral index below the peak frequency is always less than 2.
The magneto-ionic conditions of the burst sources and the electron energies as obtained from these multi-frequency observations of the bursts showed that the centimetric and x-ray observations are satisfactorily explained, if the emitting regions are dense, hot and compact associated with strong magnetic fields of a few hundred gauss, suggesting that the thermal gyroresonance process is the most likely emission mechanism involved in the emission of microwave and x-ray radiations from the active regions of sun.
CCD imaging and BVRI photometry of 14 IRAS sources with far-IR colours similar to planetary nebulae and post-AGB stars are presented. Also results of optical and near-IR spectroscopy of 10 of these candidates are given. Based on the spectral energy distribution from 0.4 μm to 100 μm, the sample of program stars are put into two groups. The sources IRAS 08187-1905, IRAS 05238-0626 and IRAS 17086-2403 present similar flux distributions. These three sources have detached cold dust components with dust radii Rd ≈ 1000 R∗. The low infrared variability of theses sources suggests that the intense mass loss has been ceased. All three sources are at high galactic latitude (1>9°) suggesting that these are old low-mass evolved stars. In the IRAS colour-colour diagram of Likkel et al (1991) these sources fall in the region where most of the stars are evolved stars and PNe but without CO detection. This is consistent with at least one source IRAS 17086-2403, in which OH and CO molecular features are not detected. The far-IR excess, non-variability and high latitude of these objects suggest that these are post-AGB supergiants, slowly evolving towards planetary nebula phase.
An abundance analysis of the photosphere of the F-type Post-AGB candidate IRAS 05341-+0852 is presented. It shows that the star is metal-poor ([Fe/H]=–1.0) and carbon-rich (C/0≈2.2). Carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, silicon, and possibly lithium and aluminum are found to be over abundant. Most importantly this star has large overabundance of s-process elements which are as follows: [Y/Fe]= 1.80, [Ba/Fe]= 2.58, [La/Fe]= 2.86, [Ce/Fe]= 2.95, [Pr/Fe]= 2.27, [Nd/Fe]= 1.97, and [Sm/Fe]= 0.86. The overabundances of s-process elements and carbon in IRAS 05341+0852 is direct evidence for the association of s-process enhancements with shell-flashes and dredge-up. These are likely responsible for the increase in C/O. The possible overabundance of Li ([Li/Fe]≤2.5) and Al ([Al/Fe]≤ 1.1) in IRAS 05341+0852 could indicate that there was Hot Bottom Burning (HBB), where the base of the convective envelope is hot enough for nucleosynthesis to occur (Lattanzio 1993). HBB has been suggested as the mechanism responsible for the production of Li in the Li-rich AGB stars discovered by Smith and Lambert (1989). In fact these are bright AGB stars which are oxygen-rich rather than carbon-rich. Recent calculations by Sackmann and Boothroyd (1992) showed that Li-rich and O-rich AGB stars are the result of HBB. In the HBB models temperatures of the order of 0.5–1 × 108 K are encountered at the base of the convective envelope (Blöcker and Schönberner 1991). This is hot enough for the reaction 25Mg(p,γ) 26 Al resulting in the production of Al.
Understanding of biological impact of proteome profile on meat quality is vital for developing different approaches to improve meat quality. Present study was conducted to unravel the differences in biochemical, ultrastructural and proteome profile of longissimus dorsi muscle between buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) of different age groups (young v. old). Higher (P<0.05) myofibrillar and total protein extractability, muscle fibre diameter, and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values was observed in old buffalo meat relative to meat from young buffaloes. Scanning electron microscopy photographs revealed reduced fibre size with increased inter-myofibrillar space in young compared with old buffalo meat. Transmission electron microscopy results revealed longer sarcomeres in young buffalo meat relative to meat from old buffaloes. Proteomic characterization using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) found 93 differentially expressed proteins between old and young buffalo meat. Proteome analysis using 2DE revealed 191 and 95 differentially expressed protein spots after 6 days of ageing in young and old buffalo meat, respectively. The matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of flight/time-of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) analysis of selected gel spots helped in identifying molecular markers of tenderness mainly consisting of structural proteins. Protein biomarkers identified in the present study have the potential to differentiate meat from young and old buffaloes and pave the way for optimizing strategies for improved buffalo meat quality.
Climate risk assessment in cropping is generally undertaken in a top-down approach using climate records while critical farmer experience is often not accounted for. In the present study, set in south India, farmer experience of climate risk is integrated in a bottom-up participatory approach with climate data analysis. Crop calendars are used as a boundary object to identify and rank climate and weather risks faced by smallhold farmers. A semi-structured survey was conducted with experienced farmers whose income is predominantly from farming. Interviews were based on a crop calendar to indicate the timing of key weather and climate risks. The simple definition of risk as consequence × likelihood was used to establish the impact on yield as consequence and chance of occurrence in a 10-year period as likelihood. Farmers’ risk experience matches well with climate records and risk analysis. Farmers’ rankings of ‘good’ and ‘poor’ seasons also matched up well with their independently reported yield data. On average, a ‘good’ season yield was 1·5–1·65 times higher than a ‘poor’ season. The main risks for paddy rice were excess rains at harvesting and flowering and deficit rains at transplanting. For cotton, farmers identified excess rain at harvest, delayed rains at sowing and excess rain at flowering stages as events that impacted crop yield and quality. The risk assessment elicited from farmers complements climate analysis and provides some indication of thresholds for studies on climate change and seasonal forecasts. The methods and analysis presented in the present study provide an experiential bottom-up perspective and a methodology on farming in a risky rainfed climate. The methods developed in the present study provide a model for end-user engagement by meteorological agencies that strive to better target their climate information delivery.
Public health and environmental protection concerns provoked by phenolic compounds pollution impose the development of sensitive, rapid and cost effective methods for in situ phenols monitoring. Given that biosensors based techniques could face these challenges, a variety of such devices was suggested and applied for phenolic compounds quantification. Their majority are based on the polyphenol oxidase (PPO) catalyzed phenols oxidation to catechol and then, to quinones, coupled with the registration of the quinones reduction current. Nevertheless, quinoid products polymerization involving electrode passivation corrupts the biosensors operational stability. Thus, to avoid this drawback, in this work is proposed another approach for phenolic compounds quantification based on the electrochemical detection of the oxygen depletion during PPO catalyzed catechol oxidation using a Clark type electrode with a disposable active enzyme membrane. The oxygen probe was modified in comparison to the commercial ones: its flat front allowed ensuring a good contact with the active enzyme membrane and the gold multicathode uniformly dislocated on the surface of the flat front permitted eliminating O2 diffusional constraints. The active enzyme membrane was prepared by drop-coating of a mixture of PPO and gelatin onto a gelatin-saturated cellulose filter. A linear calibration graph for catechol determination was obtained in the range up to 0.7 mM with a slope of 0.902 μA/mM, at pH 6.5 and ambient temperature. The steady-state response to catechol of the biosensor was reached in 120 s. The biosensor had an excellent reproducibility (RSD<3%) due to the reliable enzyme immobilization technique, allowing the preparation of active enzyme membranes with identical characteristics. The proposed biosensor provided stable response and free of interferences measurements since the unique possible electrochemical reaction is O2 reduction. Another biosensor advantage is associated with the use of disposable prefabricated active enzyme membranes.
This investigation introduces a new very simple and efficient approach for QCM sensor response amplification, developed for hydrolases activity determination. For this purpose, the QCM crystal surface was modified with nanoparticles loaded enzyme substrate. During the enzymatic substrate degradation, the heavier nanoparticles were also released from the sensitive layer together with the substrate degradation products. Nanoparticles removal resulted in QCM signal amplification due to the higher nanoparticles specific mass compared with the specific mass of the substrate.
The suggested concept was successfully applied for creating of simple biosensing platforms for trypsin and lipase activity determination in real time using respectively SiO2 nanoparticles loaded olive oil and Ag nanoparticles loaded gelatin as enzyme substrates. Up to 10 times amplification of the QCM signal was reached applying the proposed approach compared with the common one.
Long-term tillage and fertilizer experiments were conducted in rice in kharif followed by lentil in dry subhumid Inceptisols at Varanasi and Faizabad; horse gram at Phulbani and linseed at Ranchi in moist subhumid Alfisols in rabi during 2001 to 2010. The study was conducted to assess the effect of conventional tillage (CT), low tillage + interculture (LT1) and low tillage + herbicide (LT2) together with 100% N (organic) (F1), 50% N (organic) + 50% N (inorganic) (F2) and 100% N (inorganic) (F3) on productivity, profitability, rainwater and energy use efficiencies. The results at Varanasi revealed that CT was superior with mean yield of 2389 kg ha−1, while F1 was superior with 2378 kg ha−1 in rice. At Faizabad, CT was superior with mean rice yield of 1851 kg ha−1 and lentil yield of 977 kg ha−1, while F1 was superior with 1704 and 993 kg ha−1 of rice and lentil, respectively. At Phulbani, F2 was superior with rice yield of 1170 kg ha−1. At Ranchi, F2 with rice yield of 986 kg ha−1 and F3 with linseed yield of 224 kg ha−1 were superior. The regression model of crop seasonal rainfall and yield deviations indicated an increasing trend in rice yield over mean (positive deviation) with increase in rainfall at all locations; while a decreasing trend (negative deviation) was found for lentil at Faizabad, horse gram at Phulbani and linseed at Ranchi. Based on economic analysis, CTF1 at Varanasi and Faizabad, CTF2 at Phulbani and LT2F2 at Ranchi were superior.
This experiment was conducted to study the long-term effect of soil management treatments on crop yields, sustainability yield indices (SYI) and soil fertility in rainfed semi-arid tropical Alfisol at Hayathnagar Research Farm, Hyderabad, India, during the period 1995 to 2009. The experiment was conducted in a split–split plot design with conventional tillage (CT) and minimum tillage (MT) as main factors, surface application of sorghum stover @ 2 t ha−1 (SS), fresh Gliricidia loppings @ 2 t ha−1 (GL) and ‘no’ residue (NR) as sub-factors and levels of N viz. 0 (N0), 30 (N30), 60 (N60) and 90 (N90) kg N ha−1 as sub–sub factors in a castor–sorghum two-year rotation. On an average, CT maintained 30.4 and 57.0% higher grain yields of sorghum and castor, respectively, over MT. Between two residues, GL performed well in both the crops. The highest yields of sorghum (1425 kg ha−1) and castor (876 kg ha−1) were recorded at 90 kg N ha−1. CT maintained higher SYI of 0.44 compared to MT (0.38) and higher agronomic efficiency (AE) of 13.5 and 6.76 kg grain kg−1 N for sorghum and castor crop, respectively. Use of crop residue as mulch had an advantage in increasing the yield of both the crops with increase in rainfall under CT even without N application (control), probably by making the soil more receptive to water infiltration, better moisture storage and by reducing the evaporative losses. Using response functions, the optimum fertilizer N requirement was also computed for a given set of tillage and residue combinations. The revised optimum fertilizer N doses for sorghum and castor varied from 45 to 56 kg ha−1 and 46 to 74 kg ha−1, respectively, under different tillage and residue combinations and could be recommended depending upon the soil management practices.
The Dawn spacecraft orbited Asteroid (4) Vesta for a year, and returned disk-resolved images and spectra covering visible and near-infrared wavelengths at scales as high as 20 m/pix. The visible geometric albedo of Vesta is ~ 0.36. The disk-integrated phase function of Vesta in the visible wavelengths derived from Dawn approach data, previous ground-based observations, and Rosetta OSIRIS observations is consistent with an IAU H-G phase law with H=3.2 mag and G=0.28. Hapke's modeling yields a disk-averaged single-scattering albedo of 0.50, an asymmetry factor of -0.25, and a roughness parameter of ~20 deg at 700 nm wavelength. Vesta's surface displays the largest albedo variations observed so far on asteroids, ranging from ~0.10 to ~0.76 in geometric albedo in the visible wavelengths. The phase function of Vesta displays obvious systematic variations with respect to wavelength, with steeper slopes within the 1- and 2-micron pyroxene bands, consistent with previous ground-based observations and laboratory measurement of HED meteorites showing deeper bands at higher phase angles. The relatively high albedo of Vesta suggests significant contribution of multiple scattering. The non-linear effect of multiple scattering and the possible systematic variations of phase function with albedo across the surface of Vesta may invalidate the traditional algorithm of applying photometric correction on airless planetary surfaces.
High chemical purity is essential for achieving satisfactory device yield in submicron CMOS processing. Reprocessing of liquid chemicals to maintain high purity can drastically reduce both environmental impact and cost of ownership (CoO) of wafer cleaning operations. We propose the use of a novel membrane Filter technology for control of contamination spikes and reduction of liquid chemical usage in pre‐gate HF cleaning. To ensure filter effectiveness, we have developed an in‐process sensor that monitors solution cleanliness by measuring the deposition rate of reducible ions on silicon. Metals are detected through their effect on the surface recombination of photoexcited carriers. This detection method allows quantification of copper and noble metal ions down to 108 atoms/cm2 levels. We have investigated the effect of chemical purity during HF cleaning on the gate oxide integrity (GOI) of 70–200 Å gate oxides. A significant increase in the low‐field breakdown is observed for HF‐last cleaning using chemicals containing more than 10 ppt Cu. We present the results of Cu spiking experiments to evaluate our ability to quantify contamination down to the stringent levels required for an industrial scale wet‐bench. We observe a linear correlation between metal deposition rate and Cu concentration in the 1–5 ppb range.
High-pressure studies have been performed on heavy rare earth metals Terbium (Tb) to 155 GPa and Holmium (Ho) to 134 GPa in a diamond anvil cell at room temperature. The following crystal structure sequence was observed in both metals hcp ⟶ Sm-type ⟶ dhcp ⟶ distorted fcc (hR-24) ⟶ monoclinic (C2/m) with increasing pressure. The last transformation to a low symmetry monoclinic phase is accompanied by a volume collapse of 5 % for Tb at 51 GPa and a volume collapse of 3 % for Ho at 103 GPa. This volume collapse under high pressure is reminiscent of f-shell delocalization in light rare earth metal Cerium (Ce), Praseodymium (Pr), and heavy actinide metals Americium (Am) and Curium (Cm). The orthorhombic Pnma phase that has been reported in Am and Cm after f-shell delocalization is not observed in heavy rare earth metals under high pressures.
The Rank Forum on Vitamin D was held on 2nd and 3rd July 2009 at the University of Surrey, Guildford, UK. The workshop consisted of a series of scene-setting presentations to address the current issues and challenges concerning vitamin D and health, and included an open discussion focusing on the identification of the concentrations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) (a marker of vitamin D status) that may be regarded as optimal, and the implications this process may have in the setting of future dietary reference values for vitamin D in the UK. The Forum was in agreement with the fact that it is desirable for all of the population to have a serum 25(OH)D concentration above 25 nmol/l, but it discussed some uncertainty about the strength of evidence for the need to aim for substantially higher concentrations (25(OH)D concentrations>75 nmol/l). Any discussion of ‘optimal’ concentration of serum 25(OH)D needs to define ‘optimal’ with care since it is important to consider the normal distribution of requirements and the vitamin D needs for a wide range of outcomes. Current UK reference values concentrate on the requirements of particular subgroups of the population; this differs from the approaches used in other European countries where a wider range of age groups tend to be covered. With the re-emergence of rickets and the public health burden of low vitamin D status being already apparent, there is a need for urgent action from policy makers and risk managers. The Forum highlighted concerns regarding the failure of implementation of existing strategies in the UK for achieving current vitamin D recommendations.
Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis of monazite requires a comparison of empirically collected electron backscatter patterns (EBSPs) with theoretical diffraction data, or ‘match units’, derived from known crystallographic parameters. Published crystallographic data derived from compositionally varying natural and synthetic monazite are used to calculate ten different match units for monazite. These match units are used to systematically index EBSPs obtained from four natural monazite samples with different compositions. Analyses of EBSD data, derived from the indexing of five and six diffraction bands using each of the ten match units for 10,000 EBSPs from each of the four samples, indicate a large variation in the ability of the different match units to correctly index the different natural samples. However, the use of match units derived from either synthetic Gd or Eu monazite crystallographic data yield good results for three of the four analysed monazites. Comparison of sample composition with published monazite compositions indicates that these match units are likely to yield good results for the EBSD analysis of metamorphic monazite. The results provide a clear strategy for optimizing the acquisition and analysis of EBSD data from monazite but also indicate the need for the collection of new crystallographic structure data and the subsequent generation of more appropriate match units for natural monazite.
The International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) genebank in India holds the world's largest collection of 21,594 pearl millet germplasm accessions including 18,447 landraces from 50 countries. West and Central Africa (WCA) region, which is considered as the centre of diversity for pearl millet, is also an important pearl millet germplasm source for resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. A total of 7372 landraces were assembled from WCA countries. Out of which, 6434 landraces have the georeference data. The geographic origins of these landraces were analyzed using geographic information system tools to identify gaps in the collection. Geographical distribution of existing collections, type of vegetation, land cover and the high probability (>70%) for the occurrence of pearl millet estimated using the FloraMap software in different countries show that 62 districts in 13 provinces of Nigeria, 50 districts in 16 provinces of Burkina Faso, 9 districts in 6 provinces each of Mali and Mauritania, 8 districts in 8 provinces of Chad and 7 districts in 3 provinces of Ghana as the major geographical gaps in the pearl millet collection at the ICRISAT genebank. In view of this, we suggest that the final areas for exploration in these districts should be decided prior to the launch of the collection missions in consultation with local government officials and extension officers, who have the knowledge of pearl millet cultivation in the districts identified.
A large outbreak of hepatitis E occurred in 2005 in Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. A total of 1611 cases were reported between 1 March and 31 December 2005 (attack rate 40/100 000). The epidemic curve suggested a continuing common source outbreak. Cases were centred around open sewage drains that crossed the old city. The attack rate was significantly higher in neighbourhood blocks supplied by water supply lines that crossed open drains (203/100 000) than in blocks supplied by non-crossing water pipes with a linear trend (38/100 000, P<0·00001). Crossing water pipelines were repaired and the attack rates declined.
Background: Pleural effusions after bidirectional cavopulmonary anastomosis remain a significant cause of morbidity. Prolonged effusions in such patients have been associated with persistent elevations in plasma renin and angiotensin II. Methods: We conducted a controlled study in 36 patients (median age 8 months) undergoing bidirectional cavopulmonary anastomosis. Enalapril (5 mcg/kg) was administered intravenously within 1 hour of surgery and every 12 hours thereafter in 18 patients; when these patients were tolerating feeds, enalapril was switched to enteral captopril (3 mg/kg/day) every 8 hours. The other 18 patients did not receive perioperative angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. Using standardized criteria for discontinuation of chest tubes (< 2 mL/kg/day), volume and duration of pleural drainage were compared between groups. Results. There were no differences between groups in demographic, diagnostic, or hemodynamic factors. There was no difference in cardiopulmonary bypass time between groups and no difference in postoperative pulmonary arterial pressures. The duration of pleural drainage was shorter (2.2 ± 1.4 vs 5.9 ± 1.4 days, p< 0.001) and the volume less during the first 24 hours (4.7 ± 1.2 vs 7.7 ± 2.1 mL/kg, p< 0.001) and overall (10.6 ± 2.4 vs 19.6 ± 4.5 mL/kg, p< 0.001) in patients who received angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors than those who did not. Readmission for persistent effusions was required in 3 patients who did not receive angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and none who did (p= 0.11). Conclusions. Perioperative administration of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors is associated with decreased severity and duration of pleural effusions following bidirectional cavopulmonary anastomosis.