Understanding of biological impact of proteome profile on meat quality is vital for developing different approaches to improve meat quality. Present study was conducted to unravel the differences in biochemical, ultrastructural and proteome profile of longissimus dorsi muscle between buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) of different age groups (young v. old). Higher (P<0.05) myofibrillar and total protein extractability, muscle fibre diameter, and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values was observed in old buffalo meat relative to meat from young buffaloes. Scanning electron microscopy photographs revealed reduced fibre size with increased inter-myofibrillar space in young compared with old buffalo meat. Transmission electron microscopy results revealed longer sarcomeres in young buffalo meat relative to meat from old buffaloes. Proteomic characterization using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) found 93 differentially expressed proteins between old and young buffalo meat. Proteome analysis using 2DE revealed 191 and 95 differentially expressed protein spots after 6 days of ageing in young and old buffalo meat, respectively. The matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of flight/time-of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) analysis of selected gel spots helped in identifying molecular markers of tenderness mainly consisting of structural proteins. Protein biomarkers identified in the present study have the potential to differentiate meat from young and old buffaloes and pave the way for optimizing strategies for improved buffalo meat quality.