To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
X-ray microscopy is a field that has developed rapidly in recent years. Two different approaches have been used. Zone plates have been employed to produce focussed beams with sizes as low as 0.07 pm for x-ray energies below 1 keV. Images of biological materials and elemental maps for major and minor low Z have been produced using above and below absorption edge differences. At higher energies collimators and focussing mirrors have been used to make small diameter beams for excitation of characteristic K— or L-x rays of all elements in the periodic
Herbicide resistance is ‘wicked’ in nature; therefore, results of the many educational efforts to encourage diversification of weed control practices in the United States have been mixed. It is clear that we do not sufficiently understand the totality of the grassroots obstacles, concerns, challenges, and specific solutions needed for varied crop production systems. Weed management issues and solutions vary with such variables as management styles, regions, cropping systems, and available or affordable technologies. Therefore, to help the weed science community better understand the needs and ideas of those directly dealing with herbicide resistance, seven half-day regional listening sessions were held across the United States between December 2016 and April 2017 with groups of diverse stakeholders on the issues and potential solutions for herbicide resistance management. The major goals of the sessions were to gain an understanding of stakeholders and their goals and concerns related to herbicide resistance management, to become familiar with regional differences, and to identify decision maker needs to address herbicide resistance. The messages shared by listening-session participants could be summarized by six themes: we need new herbicides; there is no need for more regulation; there is a need for more education, especially for others who were not present; diversity is hard; the agricultural economy makes it difficult to make changes; and we are aware of herbicide resistance but are managing it. The authors concluded that more work is needed to bring a community-wide, interdisciplinary approach to understanding the complexity of managing weeds within the context of the whole farm operation and for communicating the need to address herbicide resistance.
Seven half-day regional listening sessions were held between December 2016 and April 2017 with groups of diverse stakeholders on the issues and potential solutions for herbicide-resistance management. The objective of the listening sessions was to connect with stakeholders and hear their challenges and recommendations for addressing herbicide resistance. The coordinating team hired Strategic Conservation Solutions, LLC, to facilitate all the sessions. They and the coordinating team used in-person meetings, teleconferences, and email to communicate and coordinate the activities leading up to each regional listening session. The agenda was the same across all sessions and included small-group discussions followed by reporting to the full group for discussion. The planning process was the same across all the sessions, although the selection of venue, time of day, and stakeholder participants differed to accommodate the differences among regions. The listening-session format required a great deal of work and flexibility on the part of the coordinating team and regional coordinators. Overall, the participant evaluations from the sessions were positive, with participants expressing appreciation that they were asked for their thoughts on the subject of herbicide resistance. This paper details the methods and processes used to conduct these regional listening sessions and provides an assessment of the strengths and limitations of those processes.
The study objective was to determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus colonisation in the nares and oropharynx of healthy persons and identify any risk factors associated with such S. aureus colonisation. In total 263 participants (177 adults and 86 minors) comprising 95 families were enrolled in a year-long prospective cohort study from one urban and one rural county in eastern Iowa, USA, through local newspaper advertisements and email lists and through the Keokuk Rural Health Study. Potential risk factors including demographic factors, medical history, farming and healthcare exposure were assessed. Among the participants, 25.4% of adults and 36.1% minors carried S. aureus in their nares and 37.9% of adults carried it in their oropharynx. The overall prevalence was 44.1% among adults and 36.1% for minors. Having at least one positive environmental site for S. aureus in the family home was associated with colonisation (prevalence ratio: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.07–1.66). The sensitivity of the oropharyngeal cultures was greater than that of the nares cultures (86.1% compared with 58.2%, respectively). In conclusion, the nares and oropharynx are both important colonisation sites for healthy community members and the presence of S. aureus in the home environment is associated with an increased probability of colonisation.
Adverse psychosocial working environments characterized by job strain (the combination of high demands and low control at work) are associated with an increased risk of depressive symptoms among employees, but evidence on clinically diagnosed depression is scarce. We examined job strain as a risk factor for clinical depression.
We identified published cohort studies from a systematic literature search in PubMed and PsycNET and obtained 14 cohort studies with unpublished individual-level data from the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-analysis in Working Populations (IPD-Work) Consortium. Summary estimates of the association were obtained using random-effects models. Individual-level data analyses were based on a pre-published study protocol.
We included six published studies with a total of 27 461 individuals and 914 incident cases of clinical depression. From unpublished datasets we included 120 221 individuals and 982 first episodes of hospital-treated clinical depression. Job strain was associated with an increased risk of clinical depression in both published [relative risk (RR) = 1.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.47–2.13] and unpublished datasets (RR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.04–1.55). Further individual participant analyses showed a similar association across sociodemographic subgroups and after excluding individuals with baseline somatic disease. The association was unchanged when excluding individuals with baseline depressive symptoms (RR = 1.25, 95% CI 0.94–1.65), but attenuated on adjustment for a continuous depressive symptoms score (RR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.81–1.32).
Job strain may precipitate clinical depression among employees. Future intervention studies should test whether job strain is a modifiable risk factor for depression.
This paper briefly describes the principle of operation and science goals of the AMANDA high energy neutrino telescope located at the South Pole, Antarctica. Results from an earlier phase of the telescope, called AMANDA-BIO, demonstrate both reliable operation and the broad astrophysical reach of this device, which includes searches for a variety of sources of ultrahigh energy neutrinos: generic point sources, Gamma-Ray Bursts and diffuse sources. The predicted sensitivity and angular resolution of the telescope were confirmed by studies of atmospheric muon and neutrino backgrounds. We also report on the status of the analysis from AMANDA-II, a larger version with far greater capabilities. At this stage of analysis, details of the ice properties and other systematic uncertainties of the AMANDA-II telescope are under study, but we have made progress toward critical science objectives. In particular, we present the first preliminary flux limits from AMANDA-II on the search for continuous emission from astrophysical point sources, and report on the search for correlated neutrino emission from Gamma Ray Bursts detected by BATSE before decommissioning in May 2000. During the next two years, we expect to exploit the full potential of AMANDA-II with the installation of a new data acquisition system that records full waveforms from the in-ice optical sensors.
To assess nasal morbidity resulting from nasoseptal flap use in the repair of skull base defects in endoscopic anterior skull base surgery.
Thirty-six patients awaiting endoscopic anterior skull base surgery were prospectively recruited. A nasoseptal flap was used for reconstruction in all cases. Patients were assessed pre-operatively and 90 days post-operatively via the Sino-Nasal Outcome Test 20 questionnaire and visual analogue scales for nasal obstruction, pain, secretions and smell; endoscopic examination findings and mucociliary clearance times were also recorded.
Sino-Nasal Outcome Test 20 questionnaire data and visual analogue scale scores for pain, smell and secretions showed no significant differences between pre- and post-operative outcomes, with visual analogue scale scores for nasal obstruction actually showing a significant improvement (p = 0.0007). A significant deterioration for both flap and non-flap sides was demonstrated post-operatively on endoscopic examination (p = 0.002 and p = 0.02 respectively).
Whilst elevation of a nasoseptal flap in endoscopic surgery of the anterior skull base engendered significant clinical deterioration on examination post-operatively, quality of life outcomes showed that no such deterioration was subjectively experienced by the patient. In fact, there was significant nasal airway improvement following nasoseptal flap reconstruction.
Large volumes of depleted natural and low-enriched uranium exist in the UK waste inventory. This work reports on initial investigations of the leaching performance of candidate glass and cement encapsulation matrices containing UO3 powder as well as that of uranium oxide powders. The surface areas of UO3 powder and the monolith samples of UO3 conditioned in the glass and cement matrices were very different making leaching comparisons difficult. The results showed that for both types of monolith conditioned samples a steady increase of uranium concentration in solution with time was generally not observed. The wt.% of uranium leached from UO3 conditioned in the lead borosilicate glass wasteform was approximately five orders of magnitude less than that leached from UO3 powder. Similarly, the quantities of uranium leached from UO3 conditioned in composite cement made with ordinary Portland cement, and from magnesium phosphate cement, were approximately four and three orders of magnitude, respectively, less than that leached from UO3 powder. The performance of a mixed oxide borosilicate glass wasteform was only slightly better than that of UO3 powder. This work shows that wasteforms based on encapsulation in lead borosilicate glass and cement matrices have the greatest potential for further development.
Dysfunctions in the regulation of emotional responses are related to poor psychological well-being and increased impact of cardiovascular disease. It has been suggested that the relationship between negative affect and higher morbidity could be mediated by a dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system (ANS), for example, of heart rate variability (HRV). Neuroticism is a personality trait associated with a maladaptive emotion regulation and also with alterations in ANS function. However, it is unknown whether subjects with high neuroticism present with specific biases in emotion regulation associated with reduced HRV.
In total, 33 healthy subjects (n=13, highly neurotic) performed an emotion regulation task, during which they were instructed to either passively view negative pictures or attempt to down-regulate the affect elicited by the images. During the task an electrocardiogram was recorded and HRV was measured by calculation of the high frequency spectrum (HF-HRV).
A significant interaction between task condition and personality group was observed on HF-HRV measures (F1,31=6.569, p=0.016). This was driven by subjects with low neuroticism presenting higher HF-HRV during down-regulation compared to passive exposure to negative stimuli, while subjects with high neuroticism reported an opposite tendency.
Our results show reduced HF-HRV during cognitive reappraisal of negative stimuli in high neuroticism and indicate a specific link between loss of flexibility in the parasympathetic cardiovascular tone and emotion regulation, consistent with previous work. Such findings support the importance of exploring the combination of ANS adaptability and emotional dysregulation in neuroticism as different facets of a common psychosomatic vulnerability factor.
An initial uranium phase that has been observed to form during the corrosion of spent nuclear fuel is the uranium oxy-hydroxide metaschoepite. It has been proposed that neptunium(V) solubility can be limited by its association with this uranium phase. Metaschoepite has been synthesized in the presence of neptunium(V) over the pH range modeled in the proposed Yucca Mountain geologic repository. Uranium (VI) phases were synthesized by varying pH and neptunium concentrations. Results of neptunium association with the uranium alteration phases are presented and the relationship to dissolved neptunium concentrations discussed.
Microwave processing techniques were established for all of the thermal treatment steps necessary to prepare high density PZT and PLZT. The microstructure and ferroelectric properties of the microwave processed materials were compared to conventionally sintered and fast fired PZT. Unique high density, small grain size, PZT and PLZT were obtained by microwave sintering either conventionally or fully microwave processed powders. It was estimated that microwave sintering would use only five percent of the energy used by conventional sintering.
The suitability of microwave processing for the production of two modifications (Sr and La) of lead zirconate - lead titanate (PZT) ceramics was investigated in this program. A commercial microwave oven was used to evaluate drying, calcining, binder burnoff, and sintering. These materials were then compared to those produced by fast-firing and conventional sintering methods.
Epitaxially grown oxides of both SrTiO3 (STO) and YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) have been removed from their growth substrate and transferred for integration into other circuits (microwave devices) and onto other substrate material (glass). The enabling element in the separation process is the high selectivity of etching between YBCO and other oxide materials. Thus, a thin layer of YBCO is used as the sacrificial layer in the structure, allowing rapid etchant ingress under the device structures and separation from the growth substrate. Initial demonstrations of microwave device tuning using a lifted-off STO layer is detailed.
The progress that has been made in SiC diodes and GTOs is reviewed. A 100 A/1000 V SiC pi- n diode package, the highest current rating reported for any SiC device, a 69 A conduction/ 11 A turn-off of a SiC GTO and MTOTM, as well as the first all-SiC, 3 phase Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) inverter are reported, herein, for the first time. The inverter achieves voltage controlled turn off with a high temperature capable, hybrid SiC JFET. Material and process technology issues that will need to be addressed before device commercialization can be realized are discussed.
Atomic force microscopy (AFM) phase imaging and tensile stress-strain measurements are used to study a series of model compression molded fumed silica filled polydimethysiloxane (PDMS) samples with filler content of zero, 20, 35, and 50 parts per hundred (phr) to determine the relationship between filler content and stress-strain properties. AFM phase imaging was used to determine filler size, degree of aggregation, and distribution within the soft PDMS matrix. A small tensile stage was used to measure mechanical properties. Samples were not pulled to break in order to study Mullins and aging effects. Several identical 35 phr samples were subjected to an initial stress, and then one each was reevaluated over intervals up to 26 weeks to determine the degree to which these samples recovered their initial stress-strain behavior as a function of time. One sample was tested before and after heat treatment to determine if heating accelerated recovery of the stress-strain behavior. The effect of filler surface treatment on mechanical properties was examined for two samples containing 35 phr filler treated or untreated with hexamethyldisilazane (HMDZ), respectively. Fiduciary marks were used on several samples to determine permanent set. 35 phr filler samples were found to give the optimum mechanical properties. A clear Mullins effect was seen. Within experimental error, no change was seen in mechanical behavior as a function of time or heat-treatment. The mechanical properties of the sample containing the HDMZ treated silica were adversely affected. AFM phase images revealed aggregation and nonuniform distribution of the filler for all samples. Finally, a permanent set of about 3 to 6 percent was observed for the 35 phr samples.
Recent near-infrared surveys of the galactic plane have been used to identify new massive cluster candidates. Follow up study indicates about half are not true, gravitationally-bound clusters. These false positives are created by high density fields of unassociated stars, often due to a sight-line of reduced extinction. What is not so easy to estimate is the number of false negatives, clusters which exist but are not currently being detected by our surveys. In order to derive critical characteristics of the Milky Way's massive cluster population, such as cluster mass function and cluster lifetimes, one must be able to estimate the characteristics of these false negatives. Our group has taken on the daunting task of attempting such an estimate by first creating the stellar cluster imaging simulation program, MASSCLEAN. I will present our preliminary models and methods for deriving the biases of current searches.
Twelve grade school and junior high school students had oral exposures to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive saliva via contact with contaminated musical instruments. The 12 exposed students and 18 students who served as age and sex matched controls were tested for the presence of HBsAg and antibody to the hepatitis surface antigen (anti-HBs) at 2 weeks, 8 weeks and 6 months after exposure. All students were negative for HBsAg and anti-HBs on all dates tested and reported no illness during that time suggestive of viral hepatitis. There was no evidence of viral hepatitis, type B transmission from the exposure. The students probably experienced the maximum possible oral exposure from direct or fomites contact, since there was no cleaning of the musical instruments between use by the students and teacher. Based on these results, the risk of transmission of viral hepatitis, type B from oral contact with fomites is unlikely.
There are a few ways to estimate the number of massive open clusters expected in the disk of the Milky Way, such as the total star formation rate of the Galaxy, or the open cluster mass function extrapolated to include the entire Galaxy. Surprisingly, they give similar predictions: the Milky Way should contain about 100 clusters as massive as 30 Doradus. Are we seeing them? We look closely at these predictions and compare them to what has been found so far in our Galaxy. We present sophisticated image simulations our group is developing to estimate the selection biases faced by current infrared searches for these massive clusters.
PUFA and their metabolites are important regulators of bone formation and resorption. The effect of PUFA on bone growth may be especially striking during the perinatal period. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of diets with different n-6:n-3 fatty acid (FA) ratios during the perinatal period on bone parameters in the adult offspring. During late gestation and throughout lactation, rat dams were fed an isoenergetic diet containing 70 g linseed oil (n-3 diet), soyabean oil (n-6+n-3 diet) or sunflower-seed oil (n-6 diet) per kg with n-6:n-3 FA ratios of 0·4, 9 and 216, respectively. The offspring were weaned onto an ordinary chow and followed until 30 weeks of age. Bone parameters were analysed using peripheral quantitative computerised tomography and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Femur length and cortical cross-sectional bone area and bone mineral content were significantly higher in the n-6+n-3 group than in the other groups. Cortical bone thickness in the n-6+n-3 group was increased compared with the n-3 group, but most cortical bone parameters did not differ between the n-3 and n-6 groups. The results suggest that regulatory mechanisms were influenced by the n-6:n-3 FA ratio early in life and not compensated for by the introduction of an ordinary diet after weaning.
Ondansetron 4 mg was compared with metoclopramide 10 mg for prevention of post-operative nausea and emesis in in-patients undergoing major gynaecological surgery in this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicentre study. A total of 1044 patients received a single intravenous (i.v.) injection of study medication immediately before induction of anaesthesia. Nausea and emesis were assessed over the 24 h post-operative period. Significantly more patients who received ondansetron experienced no emetic episodes (44%) compared with those who received metoclopramide (37%, P=0.049) or placebo (25%, P<0.001). No nausea was experienced by significantly more patients who received ondansetron (32%) than with patients who received metoclopramide (24%, P=0.009) or placebo (16%, P<0.001). In addition, fewer emetic episodes, less severe nausea and a reduced need for rescue antiemetics were also observed with ondansetron (P<0.05 vs. metoclopramide and placebo). Metoclopramide and placebo-treated patients were also 1.5 times (95% CI 1.5–4.2) and 2.5 times (95% CI 1.1–2.0) more likely, respectively, to experience nausea post-operatively. Overall, ondansetron was the most effective antiemetic in this patient population.