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Research on functional performance of individuals with schizophrenia and substance use is limited, focusing primarily on cognitive impairments. Research findings are conflicting, making it difficult to understand how these individuals function despite their cognitive impairments. There is a need to use performance-based assessments to understand how individuals with a dual-diagnosis accomplish their daily living activities.
To describe the functional performance of individuals with a dual-diagnosis in two activities of daily living, using a performance-based assessment.
To compare the functional performance of individuals with a dual-diagnosis, in grocery shopping and budgeting.
This descriptive cross-sectional study included ten participants with a dual-diagnosis of schizophrenia and substance-use disorder, aged 21 to 35, living independently in the community. They were evaluated on two tasks, budgeting and grocery shopping, using the Perceive-Recall-Plan-Perform (PRPP) system of task analysis (Chapparo & Ranka, 2005). The PRPP is a standardized criterion-referenced task-based assessment, and is valuable in describing individuals’ community functioning with regards to information-processing difficulties. Substance use was evaluated with the Addiction Severity Index (McLellan et al., 1989).
Preliminary results indicate lower scores on both tasks, in the planning quadrant of the PRPP, particularly the evaluating sub-quadrant, which involves cognitive monitoring and appraisal processes. This trend occurs despite the participant's prior familiarity with tasks. Conclusions: This study is a first step in describing the functional performance of individuals with a dual diagnosis of schizophrenia and substance use in activities of daily living. This information will lead to improved rehabilitation for these clients.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. A patient was recently found to be HCV seropositive during hemodialysis follow-up.
To determine whether nosocomial transmission had occurred and which viral populations were transmitted.
HCV transmission case.
A dialysis unit in a French hospital.
Molecular and epidemiologic investigations were conducted to determine whether 2 cases were related. Risk analysis and auditing procedures were performed to determine the transmission pathway(s).
Sequence analyses of the NS5b region revealed a 5a genotype in the newly infected patient. Epidemiologic investigations suggested that a highly viremic genotype 5a HCV-infected patient who underwent dialysis in the same unit was the source of the infection. Phylogenetic analysis of NS5b and hypervariable region-1 sequences revealed a genetically related virus (>99.9% nucleotide identity). Deep sequencing of hypervariable region-1 indicated that HCV quasispecies were found in the source whereas a single hypervariable region-1 HCV variant was found in the newly infected patient, and that this was identical to the major variant identified in the source patient. Risk analysis and auditing procedures were performed to determine the transmission pathway(s). Nosocomial patient-to-patient transmission via healthcare workers’ hands was the most likely explanation. In our dialysis unit, this unique incident led to the adjustment of infection control policy.
The data support transmission of a unique variant from a source with a high viral load and genetic diversity. This investigation also underlines the need to periodically evaluate prevention and control practices.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2016;37(2):134–139
We address the problem of computing the hydrodynamic forces and torques among
solid spherical particles moving with given rotational and translational velocities in Stokes flow. We consider the original fluid–particle model without introducing new hypotheses or models. Our method includes the singular lubrication interactions which may occur when some particles come close to one another. The main new feature is that short-range interactions are propagated to the whole flow, including accurately the many-body lubrication interactions. The method builds on a pre-existing fluid solver and is flexible with respect to the choice of this solver. The error is the error generated by the fluid solver when computing non-singular flows (i.e. with negligible short-range interactions). Therefore, only a small number of degrees of freedom are required and we obtain very accurate simulations within a reasonable computational cost. Our method is closely related to a method proposed by Sangani & Mo (Phys. Fluids, vol. 6, 1994, pp. 1653–1662) but, in contrast with the latter, it does not require parameter tuning. We compare our method with the Stokesian dynamics of Durlofsky et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 180, 1987, pp. 21–49) and show the higher accuracy of the former (both by analysis and by numerical experiments).
We investigated the effect of maternal sire on early pregnancy failure (between D0, day of insemination and D90) in their progeny during the first and second lactations (n=3508) in the Holstein breed. The estimated breeding value (EBV) for cow fertility of 12 bulls (reliability⩾0.95) was used to create the following three groups: low, medium and high EBV (EBV from −0.7 to 1 expressed as genetic standard deviation relative to the mean of the breed). In their daughters (93 to 516 per bull), progesterone measurement was carried out on the day of artificial insemination (AI; D0) to check whether the cows were in the follicular phase and on D18 to 25 to assess non-fertilisation-early embryonic mortality (NF-EEM). Late embryonic mortality (LEM) and early foetal death (FD) were determined by ultrasonography on D45 and D90 and by the return to oestrus after the first AI. Frequencies of NF-EEM, LEM, FD and pregnancy were 33.3%, 11.7%, 1.4% and 48.5% and incidences were 35.1, 19.0, 2.7 and 51.1, respectively. Sire EBV was significantly related to the incidences of pregnancy failure between D0 and D90, fertilisation failure-early embryonic mortality (FF-EEM) and LEM but not to the incidence of FD between D45 and D90 of pregnancy. The relative risk (RR) of FF-EEM was significantly higher (RR=1.2; P<0.05) for the progeny group of low EBV bulls when compared with high EBV bulls. The same effect was observed when comparing LEM of the progeny groups from the low EBV bulls to those from moderate and high EBV bulls (RR, respectively, of 1.3 and 1.4; P<005). The incidence of FF-EEM was significantly higher when cows were inseminated before 80 days postpartum compared with later, and for the extreme values of the difference between milk fat and protein content measured during the first 3 months of lactation. FF-EEM was also significantly related to the year of observation. The incidence of LEM was higher for the highest producing cows and was influenced by interaction between milk yield×lactation rank and milk yield×milk protein content. In conclusion, this study showed large differences in early pregnancy failure between progeny groups and highlights the interest of accurate characterisation of embryonic death in order to identify potential candidate genes for female fertility.
In response to the ‘oldest ice’ challenge initiated by the International Partnerships in Ice Core Sciences (IPICS), new rapid-access drilling technologies through glacier ice need to be developed. These will provide the information needed to qualify potential sites on the Antarctic ice sheet where the deepest section could include ice that is >1Ma old and still in good stratigraphic order. Identifying a suitable site will be a prerequisite for deploying a multi-year deep ice-core drilling operation to elucidate the cause and mechanisms of the mid-Pleistocene transition from 40 ka glacial–interglacial cycles to 100 ka cycles. As part of the ICE&LASERS/SUBGLACIOR projects, we have designed an innovative probe, SUBGLACIOR, with the aim of perforating the ice sheet down to the bedrock in a single season and continuously measuring in situ the isotopic composition of the melted water and the methane concentration in trapped gases. Here we present the general concept of the probe, as well as the various technological solutions that we have favored so far to reach this goal.
New multiple layered perovskites with general formula RbLaNaxNb2+xO7+3x, x = 1 and 2, were synthesized via a ceramic method. While the triple layered compound could be obtained by simple direct reaction, the quadruple layered one was synthesized using a two-step solid state approach. The compounds were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction; the newly obtained compounds appear to be isostructural with the previously reported RbCa2Nb3O10 and RbCa2NaNb4O13 for RbLaNaNb3O10 and RbLaNa2Nb4O13, respectively. Preliminary results show that the new compounds can undergo ion exchange reactions involving alkali metals and transition metal chlorides.
Electron self-injection and acceleration until dephasing in the blowout regime is studied for a set of initial conditions typical of recent experiments with 100-terawatt-class lasers. Two different approaches to computationally efficient, fully explicit, 3D particle-in-cell modelling are examined. First, the Cartesian code vorpal (Nieter, C. and Cary, J. R. 2004 VORPAL: a versatile plasma simulation code. J. Comput. Phys.196, 538) using a perfect-dispersion electromagnetic solver precisely describes the laser pulse and bubble dynamics, taking advantage of coarser resolution in the propagation direction, with a proportionally larger time step. Using third-order splines for macroparticles helps suppress the sampling noise while keeping the usage of computational resources modest. The second way to reduce the simulation load is using reduced-geometry codes. In our case, the quasi-cylindrical code calder-circ (Lifschitz, A. F. et al. 2009 Particle-in-cell modelling of laser-plasma interaction using Fourier decomposition. J. Comput. Phys.228(5), 1803–1814) uses decomposition of fields and currents into a set of poloidal modes, while the macroparticles move in the Cartesian 3D space. Cylindrical symmetry of the interaction allows using just two modes, reducing the computational load to roughly that of a planar Cartesian simulation while preserving the 3D nature of the interaction. This significant economy of resources allows using fine resolution in the direction of propagation and a small time step, making numerical dispersion vanishingly small, together with a large number of particles per cell, enabling good particle statistics. Quantitative agreement of two simulations indicates that these are free of numerical artefacts. Both approaches thus retrieve the physically correct evolution of the plasma bubble, recovering the intrinsic connection of electron self-injection to the nonlinear optical evolution of the driver.
Sporadic community-acquired legionellosis (SCAL) can be acquired through contaminated aerosols from residential potable water. Electricity-dependent hot-water tanks are widely used in the province of Quebec (Canada) and have been shown to be frequently contaminated with Legionella spp. We prospectively investigated the homes of culture-proven SCAL patients from Quebec in order to establish the proportion of patients whose domestic potable hot-water system was contaminated with the same Legionella isolate that caused their pneumonia. Water samples were collected in each patient's home. Environmental and clinical isolates were compared using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Thirty-six patients were enrolled into the study. Legionella was recovered in 12/36 (33%) homes. The residential and clinical isolates were found to be microbiologically related in 5/36 (14%) patients. Contaminated electricity-heated domestic hot-water systems contribute to the acquisition of SCAL. The proportion is similar to previous reports, but may be underestimated.
In France, haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is endemic along the Belgian border. However, this rodent-borne zoonosis caused by the Puumala virus has recently spread south to the Franche-Comté region. We investigated the space–time distribution of HFRS and evaluated the influence of environmental factors that drive the hantavirus reservoir abundance and/or the disease transmission in this area. A scan test clearly indicated space–time clustering, highlighting a single-year (2005) epidemic in the southern part of the region, preceded by a heat-wave 2 years earlier. A Bayesian regression approach showed an association between a variable reflecting biomass (normalized difference vegetation index) and HFRS incidence. The reasons why HFRS cases recently emerged remain largely unknown, and climate parameters alone do not reliably predict outbreaks. Concerted efforts that combine reservoir monitoring, surveillance, and investigation of human cases are warranted to better understand the epidemiological patterns of HFRS in this area.
We report continuous wave and time resolved photoluminescence studies of
self-assembled InP quantum dots grown by metalorganic chemical vapor
deposition. The quantum dots are embedded into indirect band-gap
In0.5Al0.5P layers or In0.5Al0.3Ga0.2P layers with
a conduction band line-up close to the direct-to-indirect crossover. As
revealed by photoluminescence spectra, efficient interdiffusion of species
from the barrier layers produces (Al,In)P or (Al,Ga,In)P-dots. This
interdiffusion creates potential barriers that are repulsive for electrons
of X valleys around the QDs. Both samples show a fast exponential decay
component with a time constant between 0.5 and 0.7 ns. In addition, the
sample with indirect band gap matrix shows a slow non-exponential
time-decay, which is still visible after more than 100 µs. The fast
component is attributed to direct recombination of electron-hole pairs in
the dots whilst the slow component, which follows a power law t−0.75
results from recombination of holes in the dots and electrons in metastable
states around the dots.
Solar coronal heating is a complex problem due to the variety of scales and physical phenomena involved, and intricacy of “boundary conditions”. Lattice models and self-organized criticality provide means to model phenomenologically some of the physics involved over a wide range of scales, and reproduce certain statistical features of solar flares. Furthermore, these models offer a basis for the study of Parker's hypothesis of coronal heating by nanoflares. We provide a short review of this approach pioneered by Lu & Hamilton (1991) and related more recent works involving lattice models.
The leaching behavior of nuclear wastes embedded in bitumen has been extensively studied for a decade by many teams of researchers. The main conclusion is that both water uptake and salts release obey to a diffusive regime. The most preponderant parameters of the Bituminized Waste Products (BWPs) leaching are, on the one hand, the nature and the content of the salts that are embedded in the bitumen, and on the other hand, the microstructure of bitumen and the external constraint applied to this confining material.
The numerical code COLONBO, designed by the CEA, allows to predict the behavior of the BWPs leaching in the case of salts embedded in soft bitumen and in free swelling conditions (no mechanical constraints during the leaching). This paper intends to achieve two goals: (i) to propose an analytical resolution of the system of equations implemented in COLONBO by using accurate simplification. The validation of this approach relies on the comparison with the predicted solutions of COLONBO and, when available, with the experimental results. (ii) To extend this simplified modeling to the case of restricted swelling conditions. The point is that the validation of this approach would allow us to propose a unified system of equations, allowing to simulate the BWPs leaching in whatever conditions and improving consequently the field of validity of the predictions for the behavior of bituminized waste products.
Through process control, from BOF down to finishing lines, has been developed
and implemented. It features real time on line control of defects, risk assessment
and the prediction of the mechanical properties. This innovative process control makes
it possible to reduce drastically the standard work load of the Metallurgy and
Quality Department. The experienced staff can then be appointed new ambitious objectives
towards the industrial excellence: “The right product at the right time for the right
cost”, “Meeting customer needs” and “Respect the firm's economic objectives”.
To achieve this, business organization must be adapted. Key factors are intelligent
listening to the final customer needs and process route optimization from the BOF to our
customer facilities, paying particular attention to synergies between the hot and the
Today, newly developed 9% Cr-steels, such as T/P911 and T/P92, are used for power
plants with advanced steam parameters, thanks to their high creep rupture strength
values. They show an increase of creep values by around 10 to 25 %, compared with T/P91.
Nevertheless, their range of use is limited for high temperature because their oxidation
resistance is lower than that of the classical 12%Cr-steels, such as X20CrMoV12-1 or
the austenitic steels. In order to meet higher design parameters, a new steel, named VM12,
has been developed by Vallourec and Mannesmann Tubes (V&M). The aim was to keep the high
creep level of the T/P92 together with improvement of the steam oxidation resistance
to fit with design steam temperature up to 650°C.
GaN/sapphire layers have been grown by Metal Organic Vapour Phase Epitaxy (MOVPE). An amorphous silicon nitride layer is deposited using a SiH4/NH3 mixture prior to the growth of the low temperature GaN buffer layer. Such a process induces a 3D nucleation at the early beginning of the growth, resulting in a kind of maskless ELO process with random opening sizes. This produces a significant decrease of the threading dislocation (TD) density compared to the best GaN/sapphire templates. Ultra Low Dislocation density (ULD) GaN layers were obtained with TD density as low as 7×107cm−2 as measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM), cathodoluminescence and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Time-resolved photoluminescence experiments show that the lifetime of the A free exciton is principally limited by capture onto residual donors, similar to the situation for nearly dislocation-free homoepitaxial layers.
Planar InAs/InP quantum dot microcavities using multi-layer SiO2/Ta2O5 Bragg reflectors have been studied in emission. The spectra exhibit collection optics-limited cavity linewidths of ∼1meV with the occasional ∼200μeV single-dot emission. Measurements as a function of incident power show quantum dot saturation behavior, with transfer of oscillator strength to the wetting layer outside the cavity stop band. Saturation behavior at fixed pump power is also observed as a function of decreasing temperature. Dispersion measurements as a function of emission angle show polarization splitting in qualitative agreement with theory.
We have calculated the change of interband absorption spectra of a quantum well based on hexagonal group-III nitride semiconductors under photo-injection of high densities of electron-hole pairs. The screening of internal electric fields by such optical excitation is known to blue-shift and reinforce the ground-state optical transition. Due to the large values of densities of states and of internal fields, we predict novel properties that rather concern optical absorption via transitions between excited states. The absorption coefficient can be strongly enhanced by the optical excitation itself, in this particular spectral region, yielding the possibility for self-induced absorption properties. In other words, if sufficiently intense, an excitation laser can increase the absorption coefficient of the system at its own wavelength, thus providing a strong nonlinear optical response. Finally, we briefly discuss the potential application of these optical phenomena.