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Persistent complex bereavement disorder (PCBD) is a protracted form of grief included in DSM Section 3 indicating a need for more research. Two other criteria sets [prolonged grief disorder (PGD) and complicated grief (CG) disorder] are also currently in use by researchers. This study evaluates rates of diagnosis of each proposed criteria set in a clinical sample of bereaved individuals participating in clinical research.
Two groups in which persistent grief was judged to be present or absent completed an assessment instrument that included items needed to diagnose PCBD as well as PGD and CG. One group included grief treatment-seeking participants in our multicenter National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-sponsored study who scored ⩾30 on the Inventory of Complicated Grief (ICG) and the other comprised bereaved adults enrolled in clinical research studies who scored <20 on the ICG. Rates of diagnosis were determined for proposed PCBD, PGD and CG criteria.
PCBD criteria diagnosed 70 [95% confidence interval (CI) 64.2–75.8] % of the grief treatment-seeking group, PGD criteria identified 59.6 (95% CI 53.4–65.8) % of these individuals and CG criteria identified 99.6 (95% CI 98.8–100.0) %. None of the three proposed criteria identified any cases in the bereaved comparison group.
Both proposed DSM-5 criteria for PCBD and criteria for PGD appear to be too restrictive as they failed to identify substantial numbers of treatment-seeking individuals with clinically significant levels of grief-related distress and impairment. Use of CG criteria or a similar algorithm appears to be warranted.
This study aimed to investigate the utility of three-dimensional reconstructions of paranasal sinus computed tomography data in depicting the anatomy of the frontal sinus drainage pathway.
Twenty-nine patients underwent imaging of the sinuses for various clinical indications. Variations in frontal sinus recess anatomy were determined from 0.75-mm thick coronal, axial and sagittal computed tomography images. Three-dimensional, reformatted images were generated from manually segmented volumes of interest. Observations were made on the variation and usefulness of these reconstructions.
Three-dimensional, reformatted images of segmented volumes aided delineation of the spatial relationships of the frontal sinus, frontal sinus drainage pathway, infundibular and meatal direction of drainage, agger nasi cells, ethmoid bulla cells, supraorbital cells, and suprabullar cells.
Three-dimensional, reformatted images of frontonasal anatomy enable improved understanding of the frontal sinus drainage pathway anatomy and of the spatial relationships between ethmoid air cells in this region. Such images may provide a useful adjunct to surgical planning and education.
We report a case of allergic fungal sinusitis causing bone erosion and diplopia.
A 43-year-old man presented with a four-month history of increased nasal congestion and progressive diplopia. Clinical examination revealed bilateral nasal polyposis and a right lateral gaze deficit, consistent with a VIth cranial nerve palsy. Computed tomography of the paranasal sinuses demonstrated a large sellar mass with extensive bony erosion and both supra- and infra-sellar extension. An endoscopic approach to the sphenoid sinus, clivus and posterior cranial fossa with image guidance was performed, enabling surgical treatment involving nasal polypectomy, wide marsupialisation of the sphenoid sinus and removal of the extensive allergic fungal mucin. The patient awoke from anaesthesia with complete resolution of his diplopia.
Otolaryngologists should be aware that approximately 20 per cent of patients with allergic fungal sinusitis demonstrate paranasal sinus expansion and bone erosion involving surrounding anatomical structures. Such patients may have clinical findings involving the orbit and cranial vault.
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