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Foodborne non-typhoidal salmonellosis causes approximately 1 million illnesses annually in the USA. In April 2015, we investigated a multistate outbreak of 65 Salmonella Paratyphi B variant L(+) tartrate(+) infections associated with frozen raw tuna imported from Indonesia, which was consumed raw in sushi. Forty-six (92%) of 50 case-patients interviewed ate sushi during the week before illness onset, and 44 (98%) of 45 who specified ate sushi containing raw tuna. Two outbreak strains were isolated from the samples of frozen raw tuna. Traceback identified a single importer as a common source of tuna consumed by case-patients; this importer issued three voluntary recalls of tuna sourced from one Indonesian processor. Four Salmonella Weltevreden infections were also linked to this outbreak. Whole-genome sequencing was useful in establishing a link between Salmonella isolated from ill people and tuna. This outbreak highlights the continuing foodborne illness risk associated with raw seafood consumption, the importance of processing seafood in a manner that minimises contamination with pathogenic microorganisms and the continuing need to ensure imported foods are safe to eat. People at higher risk for foodborne illness should not consume undercooked animal products, such as raw seafood.
For the first time, to our knowledge, a scientific study of the formation and evolution of waterfall ice, the ephemeral ice structures that form from the freezing of liquid water seeping on steep rock, was performed. We surveyed and analysed three waterfall ice structures near Glacier d’Argentière, Mont Blanc massif, France, between winter 2007 and spring 2009. We reconstruct the global evolution of two vertical ice structures using automatic digital cameras, while the internal ice microstructure was analysed using ice coring and sampling. Macro- and microstructural observations are considered, along with temperature conditions recorded at a nearby meteorological station and directly within the ice structure. They reveal that vertical structures initially grow rapidly from the aggregation of stalactites with microstructures indicative of temperature conditions during their crystallization. After this initial stage, the volume of the ice structure reaches an asymptotic value, as water continues to flow inside the structure, isolated from the outside cold ice; the outer surface remains dry. At the end of the season, the collapse of the free-standing structure does not occur by progressive melting, but is initiated by a horizontal crack propagation at the top. The initiation of this crack seems to be triggered by a drastic temperature decrease.
We present a study of the mechanical (in)stability of the ephemeral waterfall ice structures that form from the freezing of liquid water seeping on steep rock. Three vertical structures were studied, two near Glacier d’Argentière, France, and one in the Valsavarenche valley, northern Italy. The generation of internal stresses in the ice structure in relation to air- and ice-temperature conditions is analyzed from pressure sensor records. Their role in the mechanical instability of the structures is discussed from a photographic survey of these structures. The main result is that dramatic air cooling (several °Ch−1 over several hours) and low temperatures (<−10°C), generating tensile stresses and brittleness, can trigger a spontaneous or climber-induced mechanical collapse, leading to unfavorable climbing conditions. Ice internal pressure fluctuations are also associated with episodes of marked diurnal air-temperature cycle, with mild days (few above 0) and cool nights (few below 0), through the occurrence of water ↔ ice phase transitions within the structure. These ice internal stress fluctuations seem, however, to have a local influence, are associated with warm (near 0), wet and therefore particularly soft ice and do not trigger a collapse of the structure.
Approximately half of the variation in wellbeing measures overlaps with variation in personality traits. Studies of non-human primate pedigrees and human twins suggest that this is due to common genetic influences. We tested whether personality polygenic scores for the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) domains and for item response theory (IRT) derived extraversion and neuroticism scores predict variance in wellbeing measures. Polygenic scores were based on published genome-wide association (GWA) results in over 17,000 individuals for the NEO-FFI and in over 63,000 for the IRT extraversion and neuroticism traits. The NEO-FFI polygenic scores were used to predict life satisfaction in 7 cohorts, positive affect in 12 cohorts, and general wellbeing in 1 cohort (maximal N = 46,508). Meta-analysis of these results showed no significant association between NEO-FFI personality polygenic scores and the wellbeing measures. IRT extraversion and neuroticism polygenic scores were used to predict life satisfaction and positive affect in almost 37,000 individuals from UK Biobank. Significant positive associations (effect sizes <0.05%) were observed between the extraversion polygenic score and wellbeing measures, and a negative association was observed between the polygenic neuroticism score and life satisfaction. Furthermore, using GWA data, genetic correlations of -0.49 and -0.55 were estimated between neuroticism with life satisfaction and positive affect, respectively. The moderate genetic correlation between neuroticism and wellbeing is in line with twin research showing that genetic influences on wellbeing are also shared with other independent personality domains.
Despite high levels of mental illness, Vietnamese youth have limited access to mental health care. Internet interventions, evidence-based psychotherapy treatments delivered through the internet, have the potential to increase access to mental health for youth in Vietnam. This study explored the perceptions of youths and parents toward internet interventions for youth mental health.
Four focus groups were conducted with youths (n = 20) and parents (n = 20) in Danang, Vietnam. The Technology Acceptance Model was used a framework for focus group questions. The data were analyzed using direct content analysis.
Most youths and parents agreed that the internet serves well as a care delivery model. Participants expressed that the web would be useful for psychoeducation and sharing and receiving information with others. Both groups reported lack of awareness of web-based interventions and logistical concerns regarding access as main barriers. In addition, many parents were concerned about internet addiction. Specific adaptations in Vietnam such as standalone internet service centers and partnering with local organizations may benefit uptake of internet interventions.
This study suggests that internet-based programs for youth mental health, particularly interventions incorporating psychoeducation and social networking components, will be well received in Vietnam. Barriers need to be addressed to successfully implement internet-based treatment. Future initiatives should incorporate acceptance models to improve development of internet interventions for youth.
The Cosmic Background Explorer, launched November 18, 1989, has nearly completed its first full mapping of the sky with all three of its instruments: a Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) covering 0.1 to 10 mm, a set of Differential Microwave Radiometers (DMR) operating at 3.3, 5.7, and 9.6 mm, and a Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) spanning 1 to 300 µm in ten bands. A preliminary map of the sky derived from DIRBE data is presented. Initial cosmological implications include: a limit on the Comptonization y parameter of 10−3, on the chemical potential μ parameter of 10−2, a strong limit on the existence of a hot smooth intergalactic medium, and a confirmation that the dipole anisotropy has the spectrum expected from a Doppler shift of a blackbody. There are no significant anisotropies in the microwave sky detected, other than from our own galaxy and a cosθ dipole anisotropy whose amplitude and direction agree with previous data. At shorter wavelengths, the sky spectrum and anisotropies are dominated by emission from ‘local’ sources of emission within our Galaxy and Solar System. Preliminary comparison of IRAS and DIRBE sky brightnesses toward the ecliptic poles shows the IRAS values to be significantly higher than found by DIRBE at 100 μm. We suggest the presence of gain and zero-point errors in the IRAS total brightness data. The spacecraft, instrument designs, and data reduction methods are described.
Multi-line data of ammonia (NH3) are presented for Maffei 2, IC 342, and the starburst galaxies NGC 253 and M 82. While in M 82 the NH3 emitting gas is cool, presumably arising from well shielded dense cores deeply embedded in an environment dominated by Photon Dominated Regions, the other galaxies show ‘warm’ and ‘hot’ components that may be heated by shocks, ion-slip or cosmic rays. Interferometric observations show the detailed large scale distribution of NH3 in galaxies for the first time. The first multi-line studies of ammonia at significant redshifts (z = 0.65 and 0.89) are also reported and rotational temperatures, measures of the kinetic temperature of the emitting gas, are derived for all sources.
Genius is 1% inspiration and 99% perspiration. Accordingly a genius is often merely a talented person who has done all of his or her homework.
Launching your business beyond the friends and family stage will require you to rewrite your business plan, probably for the umpteenth time! I will guarantee you one thing: the circle of professional acquaintances that you had thought might invest in your company … well, most won’t … and the ones who do invest, will have a lot of advice for you, and probably more than you want! Advice can be a good thing, but when one investor says, “Go right,” and the next investor says, “Go left,” you’ll likely find yourself wondering which direction is correct. But, you must do something!
I have been pretty successful in raising capital for my start-ups. My business plans were a critical component of my successful fundraising. Were they perfect? No, but these plans raised money! In fact, one of the VC investors said several times that she thought my business plan for my aquaculture tilapia start-up was one of the best business plans she had ever read. Her VC firm required a supporting partner (a proponent was required before this venture firm would make an investment) to make a personal investment in any company that is submitted to the VC group for consideration. After the initial acceptance, the tilapia business several years later ended up under new management and despite the earlier VC’s praise for the original plan, one of the first objectives of the new management team was to write a “really good” business plan. My “best she’d read” plan got tossed out the window. What does this tell you?
Entrepreneurship is the recognition and pursuit of opportunity without regard to the resources you currently control, with confidence that you can succeed, with the flexibility to change course as necessary, and the will to rebound from setbacks.
I remain grateful for some good early advice. I had several inventions that had been taken to financial success by others. The benefactors sometimes said thank you. This made me all the more eager to take one of my own ideas to the real world. I had convinced myself that financial success and glory eagerly awaited me.
About fifteen years ago, I launched my first major entrepreneurial effort that revolved around proprietary technology used to produce seafood indoors in an environmentally responsible manner at a competitive price. The market for such a technology had to be huge I kept reminding myself, because seafood was (and still is) a significant contributor to the U.S. trade deficit.
Associate yourself with men of good quality if you esteem your own reputation. It is better be alone than in bad company.
I was getting pretty close to starting my fish business; I was concluding some final negotiations to secure the capital I needed to implement the business plan strategy (I needed $500,000). As you get involved in this entrepreneurship arena, you’ll quickly discover that there is a lot of parallel processing going on. You will need to juggle several activities concurrently in order to pull this business launch off successfully. My situation was that I knew I was going to need a general manager (GM) about the same day I broke ground on the fish production building. So, about three months before I thought I needed my GM, I initiated a concerted effort to find a competent GM, who would be my first paid employee. I spread the word through my contact list and a national online site for aquaculture. I also received a call from Dr. Tom Fields, a colleague at a private fish farm near Saratoga Springs, New York, with whom we (Cornell University) had done business with over the years.
Raising money is hard work. You have to be prepared. Anytime a potential investor senses that you have not properly prepared for a meeting, you instantly will have lost any chance of landing this person as an investor. When I was raising some stage 2 financing for Fingerlakes Aquaculture, I had a meeting with a group of potential investors in Boston, friends and acquaintances of my angel investor, Peter (I think I’ve mentioned him before). We met in the high-rent financial district. Big buildings … marble hallways … all that type of stuff. I had spent many hours refining my presentation down to about twenty minutes to cover selected details so they would ask for more information that I could tell them was covered in the full business plan and that I had copies with me for them if interested. Part of my presentation was to actually prepare some tilapia fillets from my farm so the guests could really “get a taste of what it was all about.” (This was back in 1999, when most people had no idea what a tilapia fillet tasted like or even what a tilapia was!) The meeting was to start at 11:00 a.m. I was getting ready to start my presentation, including the cooking arrangements for the fillets. The invitees (there were five in total) got there about ten to fifteen minutes early and started chatting with my angel investor Peter. It didn’t take long before they became so curious about the product and what it tasted like that I had no choice (in my opinion) but to go ahead with that segment of the presentation, even though it was supposed to be at the end of my planned presentation right about lunch time (I thought this would be perfect timing). They all loved the product. Two of the people in attendance became investors in my company. I never did get to show them my PowerPoint presentation. But if I had, it was a good one. I was prepared.
Authors, educators and successful entrepreneurs wrote this textbook with the primary goal of maximising your chance of entrepreneurial success. It is designed to encourage those wanting to start a business and those who have already begun. It includes guidance, instruction and practical lessons for the prospective entrepreneur. The book focuses on early stage financing of a start-up company, beginning with an emphasis on constructing an effective business plan, including writing techniques to help convey your message, and preparing solid financial statements. This 'why' and 'how' of writing a business plan is followed by recommendations on raising outside capital. Important topics include developing your marketing strategy, recruiting and managing creatives and managers, and retaining effective employees. Legal structures, negotiation strategies, and economic evaluation of opportunities are also discussed. The book concludes with a chapter on project management. It includes many engineering economy topics, sufficient for those taking the FE exam.