To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The radiocarbon (14C) calibration curve so far contains annually resolved data only for a short period of time. With accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) matching the precision of decay counting, it is now possible to efficiently produce large datasets of annual resolution for calibration purposes using small amounts of wood. The radiocarbon intercomparison on single-year tree-ring samples presented here is the first to investigate specifically possible offsets between AMS laboratories at high precision. The results show that AMS laboratories are capable of measuring samples of Holocene age with an accuracy and precision that is comparable or even goes beyond what is possible with decay counting, even though they require a thousand times less wood. It also shows that not all AMS laboratories always produce results that are consistent with their stated uncertainties. The long-term benefits of studies of this kind are more accurate radiocarbon measurements with, in the future, better quantified uncertainties.
Collaborative care is a community based intervention which typically consists of a number of components. The intervention aims to improve the physical and/or mental health and health care of people with a severe mental illness (SMI).
To explore how collaborative care is implemented.
To assess the effectiveness of collaborative care approaches in comparison to standard care for people with SMI who are living in the community.
A Cochrane Review: The Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Specialised register was searched in April 2011. Fifty one experts in the field of SMI and collaborative care were also contacted.
We included one RCT (306 participants; US veterans with bipolar disorder I or II) in this review. The trial provides data for one comparison: collaborative care versus standard care The reanalysis of data from the one included study indicated that collaborative care significantly reduced psychiatric admissions at year 2 in comparison to standard care (N= 306, 1 RCT, RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.57 to 0.99). Direct intervention (all-treatment) costs of collaborative care at the three year follow up did not differ significantly from standard care,mean difference -$2981.00 (N= 306, 1 RCT95% CI $16934.93 to $10972.93).
One trial at moderate risk of bias suggests that collaborative care may significantly reduce psychiatric admissions. More large, well designed, conducted and reported trials may be required to determine the effects of collaborative care and help inform healthcare professionals and policy makers about the value of collaborative care for people with SMI
Public Health England has set a definition for free sugars in the UK in order to estimate intakes of free sugars in the National Diet and Nutrition Survey. This follows the recommendation from the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition in its 2015 report on Carbohydrates and Health that a definition of free sugars should be adopted. The definition of free sugars includes: all added sugars in any form; all sugars naturally present in fruit and vegetable juices, purées and pastes and similar products in which the structure has been broken down; all sugars in drinks (except for dairy-based drinks); and lactose and galactose added as ingredients. The sugars naturally present in milk and dairy products, fresh and most types of processed fruit and vegetables and in cereal grains, nuts and seeds are excluded from the definition.
The 6 GHz transitions of the 2π3/2, J = 5/2 excited state of OH are present in emission in the direction of several OH-emission regions (Rickard et al. 1975; Knowles et al. 1976), and in absorption in compact thermal sources (Gardner and Whiteoak 1975). This has suggested that transitions in the next highest state near 13 GHz (J = 7/2) might also be widely observable. A single detection has already been reported in W3OH by Turner et al. (1970). In this paper we report the observation of narrow-band emission in several other sources.
In this paper, flow control effectiveness of a passive device in relation to open cavity flowfield is investigated computationally and compared with experimental work. Specifically the modification in the cavity flowfield due to the presence of a spoiler is studied in details to explain the physics behind the flow control effects. A combination of 2D and 3D flow visualisation tools are used to understand the flow behaviour inside the cavity and the quantitative analysis of the unsteady pressure fluctuations is also performed to assess the unsteady effects. Flow simulations with a turbulence model based on a hybrid RANS/LES (commonly known as Detached-Eddy Simulation (DES)) are used in this study. The time-mean flow visualisation clearly showed the presence of three dimensional effects inside the empty cavity whereas the 3D effects were found to diminish in the presence of a spoiler. In the unsteady flow analysis, near-field acoustic spectra were computed for empty cavity as well as cavity-with-spoiler cases. Study of unsteady pressure spectra for the cavity-with-spoiler case was found to record the complete suppression of the dominant tones in the presence of the spoiler. The analysis has indicated that the main reason behind this suppression is due to the inability of faintly energised vortical structures (faintly energised as a result of the extraction of turbulent kinetic energy by the spoiler) to maintain the unsteady flapping of the separated shear layer.
In this paper, the results of computational studies on the unsteady flow features in three-dimensional empty cavities and cavities with a representative store are presented. Flow simulations with a turbulence model based on a hybrid method, which behaves as a standard Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) model within the attached boundary layer and as a Large-Eddy Simulation LES sub-grid scale model in the rest of the flow (commonly known as Detached-Eddy Simulation (DES)) are used in this study. The time-mean flow study showed the presence of three-dimensional effects inside the cavities. The mean flowfield visualisation also clearly showed the presence of a pair of ‘tornado-like’ vortices in the upstream half of the cavity which merge to a single, large recirculation further downstream. Visualisation for the cavity-with-store case revealed that the mean flowfield was effectively divided into two halves with significant reduction of the spanwise flow across the cavity width. In the unsteady flow study, near-field acoustic spectra were computed for the empty cavity and cavity-with-store cases. Study of unsteady pressure spectra for the cavity-with-store case found the presence of many peaks and the corresponding mode frequencies were found to agree well with the Rossiter modes. The blockage effect of store and strut on the spanwise flow is thought to have reduced the interaction, and subsequent non-linear coupling, between the Rossiter modes. This may be the reason for the co-existence of multiple modes without the coupling among them.
Experts have proposed removing obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) from the anxiety disorders section and grouping it with putatively related conditions in DSM-5. The current study uses co-morbidity and familiality data to inform these issues.
Case family data from the OCD Collaborative Genetics Study (382 OCD-affected probands and 974 of their first-degree relatives) were compared with control family data from the Johns Hopkins OCD Family Study (73 non-OCD-affected probands and 233 of their first-degree relatives).
Anxiety disorders (especially agoraphobia and generalized anxiety disorder), cluster C personality disorders (especially obsessive–compulsive and avoidant), tic disorders, somatoform disorders (hypochondriasis and body dysmorphic disorder), grooming disorders (especially trichotillomania and pathological skin picking) and mood disorders (especially unipolar depressive disorders) were more common in case than control probands; however, the prevalences of eating disorders (anorexia and bulimia nervosa), other impulse-control disorders (pathological gambling, pyromania, kleptomania) and substance dependence (alcohol or drug) did not differ between the groups. The same general pattern was evident in relatives of case versus control probands. Results in relatives did not differ markedly when adjusted for demographic variables and proband diagnosis of the same disorder, though the strength of associations was lower when adjusted for OCD in relatives. Nevertheless, several anxiety, depressive and putative OCD-related conditions remained significantly more common in case than control relatives when adjusting for all of these variables simultaneously.
On the basis of co-morbidity and familiality, OCD appears related both to anxiety disorders and to some conditions currently classified in other sections of DSM-IV.
With the increased availability of multilocus sequence data, the lack of concordance of gene trees estimated for independent loci has focused attention on both the biological processes producing the discord and the methodologies used to estimate phylogenetic relationships. What has emerged is a suite of new analytical tools for phylogenetic inference – species tree approaches. In contrast to traditional phylogenetic methods that are stymied by the idiosyncrasies of gene trees, approaches for estimating species trees explicitly take into account the cause of discord among loci and, in the process, provides a direct estimate of phylogenetic history (i.e. the history of species divergence, not divergence of specific loci). We illustrate the utility of species tree estimates with an analysis of a diverse group of feather mites, the pinnatus species group (genus Proctophyllodes). Discord among four sequenced nuclear loci is consistent with theoretical expectations, given the short time separating speciation events (as evident by short internodes relative to terminal branch lengths in the trees). Nevertheless, many of the relationships are well resolved in a Bayesian estimate of the species tree; the analysis also highlights ambiguous aspects of the phylogeny that require additional loci. The broad utility of species tree approaches is discussed, and specifically, their application to groups with high speciation rates – a history of diversification with particular prevalence in host/parasite systems where species interactions can drive rapid diversification.
Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is probably an etiologically heterogeneous condition. Many patients manifest other psychiatric syndromes. This study investigated the relationship between OCD and co-morbid conditions to identify subtypes.
Seven hundred and six individuals with OCD were assessed in the OCD Collaborative Genetics Study (OCGS). Multi-level latent class analysis was conducted based on the presence of eight co-morbid psychiatric conditions [generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), major depression, panic disorder (PD), separation anxiety disorder (SAD), tics, mania, somatization disorders (Som) and grooming disorders (GrD)]. The relationship of the derived classes to specific clinical characteristics was investigated.
Two and three classes of OCD syndromes emerge from the analyses. The two-class solution describes lesser and greater co-morbidity classes and the more descriptive three-class solution is characterized by: (1) an OCD simplex class, in which major depressive disorder (MDD) is the most frequent additional disorder; (2) an OCD co-morbid tic-related class, in which tics are prominent and affective syndromes are considerably rarer; and (3) an OCD co-morbid affective-related class in which PD and affective syndromes are highly represented. The OCD co-morbid tic-related class is predominantly male and characterized by high conscientiousness. The OCD co-morbid affective-related class is predominantly female, has a young age at onset, obsessive–compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) features, high scores on the ‘taboo’ factor of OCD symptoms, and low conscientiousness.
OCD can be classified into three classes based on co-morbidity. Membership within a class is differentially associated with other clinical characteristics. These classes, if replicated, should have important implications for research and clinical endeavors.
Capital punishment continues to operate in Caribbean countries which were formerly part of the British Empire and which now enjoy independent status within the Commonwealth. Although the substantive law and procedure relating to the death penalty in each of the states differs to some extent, the death penalty in these countries still bears many of the hallmarks of the English practice of capital punishment. Moreover, the vast majority of Caribbean Commonwealth countries retain the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (or ‘Privy Council’) in London as their highest court. It is therefore possible to generalise about the operation of the death penalty in the region in terms of both procedure and jurisprudence.
This chapter will consider the use of the death penalty in the Caribbean from an historical and jurisprudential perspective, focusing in particular on selected important constitutional law appeals to the Privy Council. It will also consider the political response to the growing international scrutiny of the death penalty in the region. Before considering these issues, however, it is necessary to consider the procedural steps between conviction and execution in the Caribbean.
The capital punishment process in the Caribbean
The death penalty is available in the Caribbean as a punishment upon conviction for murder and a limited number of other offences (for example, treason). Until 2001, the death sentence was mandatory upon conviction of a capital offence.
A new technique is presented which gives conditions under which perturbations of certain base potentials are uniquely determined from the location of eigenvalues and resonances in the context of a Schrödinger operator on a half line. The method extends to complex-valued potentials and certain potentials whose first moment is not integrable.Research supported in part by the US National Science Foundation under grants DMS-9970299 and DMS-0107492 and by the UK EPSRC.