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An investigation for search of correlation between the daily observations of mean magnetic field and daily flare count number in different class is studied here. The daily observations for mean magnetic field presented here are taken by Wilcox Solar observatory and daily flare count in different X-ray class is provided by National Centers For Environmental Information.
Crab Pulsar (PSR B0531+21) is known to emit pulsed emission in all bands of the electromagnetic spectrum. It also emits giant radio pulses (GRPs) frequently, which are roughly a hundred to million times brighter than the normal pulses. We aim to study whether there is a significant X-ray enhancement correlated with the occurrence of GRPs, using simultaneous observations with the ASTROSAT, the Giant Meterwave Radio telescope (1300 MHz) and the Ooty Radio telescope (325 MHz). This required determination of fixed pipeline offsets between different instruments. We find the offset between ASTROSAT and GMRT to be −30.181 ± 0.095 ms and that between ASTROSAT and ORT to be −18.4 ± 0.2 ms. Our preliminary results with 1300 MHz data also show a break in pulse intensity distribution at ~ 33 Jy in the main pulse and ~ 28 Jy in the inter-pulse.
Deriving glacier outlines from satellite data has become increasingly popular in the past decade. In particular when glacier outlines are used as a base for change assessment, it is important to know how accurate they are. Calculating the accuracy correctly is challenging, as appropriate reference data (e.g. from higher-resolution sensors) are seldom available. Moreover, after the required manual correction of the raw outlines (e.g. for debris cover), such a comparison would only reveal the accuracy of the analyst rather than of the algorithm applied. Here we compare outlines for clean and debris-covered glaciers, as derived from single and multiple digitizing by different or the same analysts on very high- (1 m) and medium-resolution (30 m) remote-sensing data, against each other and to glacier outlines derived from automated classification of Landsat Thematic Mapper data. Results show a high variability in the interpretation of debris-covered glacier parts, largely independent of the spatial resolution (area differences were up to 30%), and an overall good agreement for clean ice with sufficient contrast to the surrounding terrain (differences ∼5%). The differences of the automatically derived outlines from a reference value are as small as the standard deviation of the manual digitizations from several analysts. Based on these results, we conclude that automated mapping of clean ice is preferable to manual digitization and recommend using the latter method only for required corrections of incorrectly mapped glacier parts (e.g. debris cover, shadow).
Monitoring the glacier mass balance of summer-accumulation-type Himalayan glaciers is critical to not only assess the impact of climate change on the volume of such glaciers but also predict the downstream water availability and the global sea-level change in future. To better understand the change in meteorological parameters related to glacier mass balance and runoff in a glacierized basin and to assess the highly heterogeneous glacier responses to climate change in the Nepal Himalaya and nearby ranges, the Cryosphere Monitoring Project (CMP) carries out meteorological observations in Langtang Valley and mass-balance measurements on Yala Glacier, a debris-free glacier in the same valley. A negative annual mass balance of –0.89m w.e. and the rising equilibrium-line altitude of Yala Glacier indicate a continuation of a secular trend toward more negative mass balances. Lower temperature lapse rate during the monsoon, the effect of convective precipitation associated with mesoscale thermal circulation in the local precipitation and the occurrence of distinct diurnal cycles of temperature and precipitation at different stations in the valley are other conclusions of this comprehensive scientific study initiated by CMP which aims to yield multi-year glaciological, hydrological and meteorological observations in the glacierized Langtang River basin.
Pulsation is ubiquitous among chemically normal A-type stars, but comparatively rare among chemically peculiar Am and Ap stars of the same temperature range. The conventional explanation for this is that diffusion produces the surface abundance anomalies in the Am and Ap stars, and also drains He from the He-II ionisation zone, thus quenching the κ-mechanism that drives δ Scuti pulsation. The pulsating Am and Ap stars exhibit dichotomous pulsation characteristics. The Am stars (and related stars) exhibit low-overtone δ Scuti pulsation, with amplitudes ranging from a few mmag to 0.1 mag. The pulsating Ap stars exhibit high-overtone pulsation with periods in the range 6-16 min and Johnson B semi-amplitudes typically ≤ 5 mmag. These stars are referred to as rapidly oscillating Ap stars, or ‘roAp’ stars (the see review by Martinez & Kurtz 1995).
A regional, multistate investigation into a June–August 2013 cyclosporiasis outbreak was conducted in Nebraska, Iowa, and neighbouring states. Cases were confirmed on the basis of laboratory and clinical findings. Of 227 cases in Iowa (n = 140) and Nebraska (n = 87) residents, 162 (71%) reported dining at chain A/B restaurants – 96% reported house salad consumption. A case-control study identified chain A/B house salad as the most likely vehicle. Traceback was conducted to ascertain production lot codes of bagged salad mix (iceberg and romaine lettuce, red cabbage, and carrots) served as house salad in implicated restaurants. A single production lot code of salad mix supplied by both a common producer and distributor was linked to the majority of confirmed cases in persons reporting regional chain A/B exposure. The salad mix linked to illnesses contained imported romaine lettuce from two separate single-grower fields-of-origin and ⩾1 additional field from another grower.
To explore the treatment outcomes of patients treated with re-irradiation for recurrent or second primary head and neck cancer.
An analysis was performed of 79 head and neck cancer patients who underwent re-irradiation for second primaries or recurrent disease from January 1999 to December 2011.
Median time from previous radiation to re-irradiation for second primary or recurrence was 53.6 months (range, 2.7–454.7 months). Median age at diagnosis of first primary was 54 years. Median re-irradiation dose was 45 Gy (range, 45–60 Gy). Acute grade 3 or worse toxicity was seen in 30 per cent of patients. Median progression-free survival for recurrent disease was 15.0 months (95 per cent confidence interval, 8.33–21.66). The following factors had a statistically significant, positive impact on progression-free survival: patient age of less than 50 years (median progression-free survival was 29.43, vs 13.9 months for those aged 50 years or older; p = 0.004) and disease-free interval of 2 years or more (median progression-free survival was 51.66, vs 13.9 months for those with less than 2 years disease-free interval).
Re-irradiation of second primaries or recurrences of head and neck cancers with moderate radiation doses yields acceptable progression-free survival and morbidity rates.
Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK, EC 22.214.171.124) is an essential regulatory enzyme of glycolysis in helminths in contrast to its role in gluconeogenesis in their host. Previously we have reported that phytochemicals from Flemingia vestita (Family: Fabaceae), genistein in particular, have vermifugal action and are known to affect carbohydrate metabolism in the cestode, Raillietina echinobothrida. In order to determine the functional differences of PEPCK from the parasite and its avian host (Gallus domesticus), we purified the parasite enzyme apparently to homogeneity, and characterized it. The native PEPCK is a monomer with a subunit molecular weight of 65 kDa. The purified enzyme displayed standard Michaelis-Menten kinetics with Km value of 42·52 μM for its substrate PEP. The Ki for the competitive inhibitors GTP, GMP, ITP and IMP for the carboxylation reaction were determined and discussed. In order to identify putative modulators from plant sources, phytochemicals from F. vestita and Stephania glabra were tested on the purified PEPCK, which resulted in alteration of its activity. From our results, we hypothesize that PEPCK may be a potential target site for anthelmintic action.
The implementation of SiC based sensors and electronics for operation in chemically harsh, high temperature environments depends on understanding the SiO2/SiC interface in field effect devices. We have developed a technique to fabricate wedge polished samples (angle ∼ 1×10−4 rad) that provides access to the SiO2/SiC interface via a surface sensitive probe such as xray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Lateral scanning along the wedge is equivalent to depth profiling. Spatially resolved XPS images of the O 1s and Si 2p core levels were obtained of the interfacial region. Samples consist of device-quality thermally grown oxides on 4H-SiC single crystal substrates. The C 1s spectrum suggests the presence of a graphitic layer on the nominally bare SiC surface following thermal oxidation.
This paper gives physical and chemical properties of some Canadian fly ashes. Specific surface area, magnetic fraction, water soluble fraction and fraction finer than 45 μm were determined as part of the physical tests. Thermo-gravimetric analyses (TGA) in oxygen and nitrogen were conducted on raw ash samples. The change of pH with time in suspensions of the different ashes in water was also determined. Pozzolanic activity of the ashes with lime for all the ashes was evaluated to measure ash reactivity.
The ash activity seems to be related to fineness of the ash measured by the Blaine air permeability method, but not to the fineness measured by nitrogen sorption. Generally the greater the specific surface area, the higher the reactivity of the ash. The correlation was, however, not strong and no other physical or chemical parameter measured in this investigation seems to be related to pozzolanic activity.
The results of pH and TGA tests indicated that the ashes differ in many respects from each other. The TGA data suggest that loss on-ignition in many of the ashes is not entirely due to the presence of unburned carbon. Specific surface area determined by various methods seems to provide different values. No characterization parameter was found that was uniquely related to coal type.
Pore structures of portland and blended cement mortars prepared with sea water were assessed by mercury intrusion porosimetry. Comparison is made with similar mortars made with fresh water. Mortars were made using cement containing 0%, 25% or 50% (by volume) of one of two Alberta fly ashes. They were tested after 90 days of continuous immersion in sea water at 5°C or 20° C. Results show that the mortars made with sea water generally contained a much higher volume of fine pores although the porosity was, in some cases, greater than that of mortars made with fresh water. Nevertheless, the volume of larger pores was lower in the mortars made with sea water. The pore structure of the various mortars is discussed in relation to potential durability.
Lithium niobate films were deposited on amorphous carbon, silicate glass, (0001) sapphire, and (100) silicon by spin or dip coating double metal ethoxide sols. The crystallinity and microstructure of the deposited films were examined by XRD and TEM. Crystallization behavior and resulting microstructure were strongly influenced by the type of substrate. The formation of crystalline LiNbO3 on amorphous carbon was detected at room temperature. Randomly oriented polycrystalline films were obtained on glass at 400°C. Choice of one mole of water per mole of ethoxide generated heteroepitaxial growth of LiNbO3 thin films on (0001) sapphire. Oriented but polycrystalline films were obtained on silicon. The electrical behavior of film on silicon was evaluated in metal-ferroelectric-semiconductor configuration. A dielectric constant of 35 and a dissipation factor of 0.004 was measured at 100 KHz.
Non-equilibrium electron distributions as well as phonon dynamics in wurtzite GaN have been measured by subpicosecond time-resolved Raman spectroscopy. Our experimental results have demonstrated that for electron densities n ≥ 5 × l017cm−3, the non-equilibrium electron distributions in wurtzite GaN can be very well described by Fermi-Dirac distribution functions with the temperature of electrons substantially higher than that of the lattice. The population relaxation time of longitudinal optical phonons was directly measured to be τ ≅ 5 ± 1 ps at T = 25 K. The experimental results on the temperature dependence of the lifetime of longitudinal optical phonons suggest that the primary decay channels for these phonons are the decay into (1) one transverse optical phonon and one high energy, longitudinal or transverse acoustical phonons; and (2) one transverse optical phonon and one E2 phonon.
This research investigates the potential of pulsed laser deposition to create reliable high current ohmic contacts of Ni2Si on single crystal 4H-SiC. Since this stoichiometry is the stable interphase in the nickel-silicon carbide diffusion couple, direct deposition eliminates the detrimental excess carbon normally formed by direct sintering Ni on SiC, the surface roughening that results from this sintering as well as the need for post-deposition high-temperature (900°C) anneals that are required in complex multi-component contacts. This study examines the processing parameters that must be used during deposition to obtain the desired microstructural characteristics for the contact. Pulsed laser deposition of nickel silicide produces smooth films with an amorphous or nanocrystalline structure interspersed with macroparticles. Macroparticle formation on the resulting films appear in the form of solidified droplets of the eutectic composition nickel silicide (3:1) that form during the long term target processing. The dependence of the number and size distributions of these droplets on laser fluence sample temperature is examined.
Sulfur nanoparticles were synthesized from hazardous H2S gas by desulfurization based on liquid redox process . The use of novel biodegradable iron chelates, in particular, FeCl3-malic acid chelate system has been extensively studied in various aqueous surfactant systems of Tween 80, SDS, CTAB for catalytic oxidation of H2S gas at ambient conditions of temperature, pressure and neutral pH. The structural features of sulfur nanoparticles have been characterized by XRD, TEM, and DLS measurements. XRD analysis indicates the presence of Metal-sulfur (JCPDS-08247). TEM analysis shows that the morphology of sulfur nanoparticles synthesized in aqueous surfactant system of Tween 80 is nearly uniform in size of 12nm average particle size, in SDS surfactant system shows 15nm average particle size, where as sulfur nanoparticles synthesized in CTAB shows average particle size of 7nm. The DLS result shows the mono-dispersity of the sulfur nanoparticles in the aqueous surfactant systems. The described process serves mainly two objectives; (a) waste utilization for preparation of commercially important nano-sulfur product and (b) reduction in environmental pollution. 1. G. Nagal, Chem. Eng. 104, 125 (1997).
Microelectromechanical flexural structures have been fabricated using sandwiched multi-layers consisting of bundled singled walled carbon nanotubes(SWNTs) incorporated into silicon nitride (Si3N4) films. The Si3N4-SWNT composite layer was patterned by reactive ion etching followed by release in XeF2 to create freestanding bridge structures. The mechanical stiffness of the micromechanical bridges was monitored via force-displacement (F-D) curves obtained using an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). Inclusion of SWNTs resulted in an increase in the spring constant of the bridge by as much as 64%, with an average increase of 25%. In a second experiment, micromachined bridges fabricated using dissolved wafer process were coated with debundled SWNTs. The SWNTs suspended in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) solvent were sprayed locally on each bridge using a piezoelectric print head. Resonance frequency measurements were done in vacuum (∼10-4 Torr) on the bridges after successive SWNT depositions. A 20% increase in the resonance frequency of the bridges was observed. The observed increase in stiffness in the first set of experiments as well as the observed increase in the frequency in the second set of experiments can be attributed to the high axial modulus of elasticity (∼1 TPa) of the carbon nanotubes.
Thin films of Ba1-x SrxTiO3 (BST) are being actively investigated for applications in dynamic random access memories (DRAM) because of their properties such as high dielectric constant, low leakage current, and low fatigue. Several approaches have been used to improve the properties of thin films such as doping with aliovalent dopants, graded compositions, and layered structures. We have found that interposing layers of an electronic insulator such as ZrO2 in between BST layers results in a significant reduction in the leakage current. In this paper the low temperature electrical properties of these multilayer structures are reported. The structures consist of alternate layers of Ba0.8Sr0.2TiO3 and ZrO2 deposited by a sol-gel process on platinized Si substrates. The thickness and the number of layers are varied while keeping the total thickness of the film constant. Multiple peaks in the dielectric constant vs temperature plots at all frequencies are observed in the multilayered films. The properties of the multilayer films are a complex function of the number of layers and their thicknesses. A structure with several thin layers of ZrO2 interposed between the BST layers produces smoother plots than a single layer of ZrO2 of same total thickness. This is attributed to more uniform distribution, as determined by XPS, of ZrO2 in the multilayer structure due to smaller diffusion distances.
Optical absorption and photoluminescence techniques were used to investigate the band gap of colloidal CdSe/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals matrixed in a UV curable resin. The band gap was measured for several nanocrystals with size ranging between 1.9 and 4.0 nm. The band gap (Eg) was determined from the first exciton peaks observed in the optical absorption spectra. Both Debye and Einstein temperatures were estimated from fitting the energy band gap vs. temperature using two different empirical expressions.
Thin films of BaZrO3 (BZ) were grown using a pulsed laser deposition technique on platinum coated silicon substrates. Films showed a polycrystalline perovskite structure upon different annealing procedures of in-situ and ex-situ crystallization. The composition analyses were done using Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) and Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The SIMS analysis revealed that the ZrO2 formation at the right interface of substrate and the film leads the degradation of the device on the electrical properties in the case of ex-situ crystallized films. But the in-situ films exhibited no interfacial formation. The dielectric properties have been studied for the different temperatures in the frequency regime of 40 Hz to 100kHz. The response of the film to external ac stimuli was studied at different temperatures, and it showed that ac conductivity values in the limiting case are correspond to oxygen vacancy motion. The electrical modulus is fitted to a stretched exponential function and the results clearly indicate the presence of the non-Debye type of dielectric relaxation in these materials.