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Global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities are investigated in a computationally tractable two-dimensional model of the solar tachocline. The model’s differential rotation yields stability in the absence of a magnetic field, but if a magnetic field is present, a joint instability is observed. We analyse the nonlinear development of the instability via fully nonlinear direct numerical simulation, the generalized quasi-linear approximation (GQL) and direct statistical simulation (DSS) based upon low-order expansion in equal-time cumulants. As the magnetic diffusivity is decreased, the nonlinear development of the instability becomes more complicated until eventually a set of parameters is identified that produces a previously unidentified long-term cycle in which energy is transformed from kinetic energy to magnetic energy and back. We find that the periodic transitions, which mimic some aspects of solar variability – for example, the quasiperiodic seasonal exchange of energy between toroidal field and waves or eddies – are unable to be reproduced when eddy-scattering processes are excluded from the model.
Laser-based compact MeV X-ray sources are useful for a variety of applications such as radiography and active interrogation of nuclear materials. MeV X rays are typically generated by impinging the intense laser onto ~mm-thick high-Z foil. Here, we have characterized such a MeV X-ray source from 120 TW (80 J, 650 fs) laser interaction with a 1 mm-thick tantalum foil. Our measurements show X-ray temperature of 2.5 MeV, flux of 3 × 1012 photons/sr/shot, beam divergence of ~0.1 sr, conversion efficiency of ~1%, that is, ~1 J of MeV X rays out of 80 J incident laser, and source size of 80 m. Our measurement also shows that MeV X-ray yield and temperature is largely insensitive to nanosecond laser contrasts up to 10−5. Also, preliminary measurements of similar MeV X-ray source using a double-foil scheme, where the laser-driven hot electrons from a thin foil undergoing relativistic transparency impinging onto a second high-Z converter foil separated by 50–400 m, show MeV X-ray yield more than an order of magnitude lower compared with the single-foil results.
X-ray micro-computed tomography (μCT) is a technique which can obtain three-dimensional images of a sample, including its internal structure, without the need for destructive sectioning. Here, we review the capability of the technique and examine its potential to provide novel insights into the lifestyles of parasites embedded within host tissue. The current capabilities and limitations of the technology in producing contrast in soft tissues are discussed, as well as the potential solutions for parasitologists looking to apply this technique. We present example images of the mouse whipworm Trichuris muris and discuss the application of μCT to provide unique insights into parasite behaviour and pathology, which are inaccessible to other imaging modalities.
Individuals who have experienced high levels of childhood stress are at increased risk for a wide range of behavioral problems that persist into adulthood, yet the neurobiological and molecular mechanisms underlying these associations remain poorly understood. Many of the difficulties observed in stress-exposed children involve problems with learning and inhibitory control. This experiment was designed to test individuals' ability to learn to inhibit responding during a laboratory task. To do so, we measured stress exposure among a community sample of school-aged children, and then followed these children for a decade. Those from the highest and lowest quintiles of childhood stress exposure were invited to return to our laboratory as young adults. At that time, we reassessed their life stress exposure, acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging data during an inhibitory control task, and assayed these individuals' levels of methylation in the FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5) gene. We found that individuals who experienced high levels of stress in childhood showed less differentiation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex between error and correct trials during inhibition. This effect was associated only with childhood stress exposure and not by current levels of stress in adulthood. In addition, FKBP5 methylation mediated the association between early life stress and inhibition-related prefrontal activity. These findings are discussed in terms of using multiple levels of analyses to understand the ways in which adversity in early development may affect adult behavioral adaptation.
To evaluate the agreement between the current National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) definition for ventriculitis and others found in the literature among patients with an external ventricular drain (EVD)
Retrospective cohort study from January 2009 to December 2014
Neurology and neurosurgery intensive care unit of a large tertiary-care center
Patients with an EVD were included. Patients with an infection prior to EVD placement or a permanent ventricular shunt were excluded.
We reviewed the charts of patients with positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures and/or abnormal CSF results while they had an EVD in place and applied various ventriculitis definitions.
We identified 48 patients with a total of 52 cases of ventriculitis (41 CSF culture-positive cases and 11 cases based on abnormal CSF test results) using the NHSN definition. The most common organisms causing ventriculitis were gram-positive commensals (79.2%); however, 45% showed growth of only 1 colony on 1 piece of media. Approximately 60% of the ventriculitis cases by the NHSN definition met the Honda criteria, approximately 56% met the Gozal criteria, and 23% met Citerio’s definition. Cases defined using Honda versus Gozal definitions had a moderate agreement (κ=0.528; P<.05) whereas comparisons of Honda versus Citerio definitions (κ=0.338; P<.05) and Citerio versus Gozal definitions (κ=0.384; P<.05) had only fair agreements.
The agreement between published ventriculostomy-associated infection (VAI) definitions in this cohort was moderate to fair. A VAI surveillance definition that better defines contaminants is needed for more homogenous application of surveillance definitions between institutions and better comparison of rates.
We examine the effectiveness of the generalised quasilinear (GQL) approximation introduced by Marston et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 116 (21), 2016, 214501). This approximation splits the variables into large and small scales in directions where there is a translational symmetry and removes nonlinear interactions involving only small scales. We utilise as a paradigm problem three-dimensional, turbulent, rotating Couette flow. We compare the results obtained from direct numerical solution of the equations with those from quasilinear (QL) and GQL calculations. In this three-dimensional setting, there is a choice of cutoff wavenumber for the GQL approximation both in the streamwise and in the spanwise directions. We demonstrate that the GQL approximation significantly improves the accuracy of mean flows, spectra and two-point correlation functions over models that are quasilinear in any of the translationally invariant directions, even if only a few streamwise and spanwise modes are included. We argue that this provides significant support for a programme of direct statistical simulation utilising the GQL approximation.
Ice cores provide a robust reconstruction of past climate. However, development of timescales by annual-layer counting, essential to detailed climate reconstruction and interpretation, on ice cores collected at low-accumulation sites or in regions of compressed ice, is problematic due to closely spaced layers. Ice-core analysis by laser ablation–inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) provides sub-millimeter-scale sampling resolution (on the order of 100 μm in this study) and the low detection limits (ng L−1) necessary to measure the chemical constituents preserved in ice cores. We present a newly developed cryocell that can hold a 1 m long section of ice core, and an alternative strategy for calibration. Using ice-core samples from central Greenland, we demonstrate the repeatability of multiple ablation passes, highlight the improved sampling resolution, verify the calibration technique and identify annual layers in the chemical profile in a deep section of an ice core where annual layers have not previously been identified using chemistry. In addition, using sections of cores from the Swiss/Italian Alps we illustrate the relationship between Ca, Na and Fe and particle concentration and conductivity, and validate the LA-ICP-MS Ca profile through a direct comparison with continuous flow analysis results.
Whole-grain intake has been reported to be associated with a lower risk of several lifestyle-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes, CVD and some types of cancers. As measurement errors in self-reported whole-grain intake assessments can be substantial, dietary biomarkers are relevant to be used as complementary tools for dietary intake assessment. Alkylresorcinols (AR) are phenolic lipids found almost exclusively in whole-grain wheat and rye products among the commonly consumed foods and are considered as valid biomarkers of the intake of these products. In the present study, we analysed the plasma concentrations of five AR homologues in 2845 participants from ten European countries from a nested case–control study in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. High concentrations of plasma total AR were found in participants from Scandinavia and Central Europe and lower concentrations in those from the Mediterranean countries. The geometric mean plasma total AR concentrations were between 35 and 41 nmol/l in samples drawn from fasting participants in the Central European and Scandinavian countries and below 23 nmol/l in those of participants from the Mediterranean countries. The whole-grain source (wheat or rye) could be determined using the ratio of two of the homologues. The main source was wheat in Greece, Italy, the Netherlands and the UK, whereas rye was also consumed in considerable amounts in Germany, Denmark and Sweden. The present study demonstrates a considerable variation in the plasma concentrations of total AR and concentrations of AR homologues across ten European countries, reflecting both quantitative and qualitative differences in the intake of whole-grain wheat and rye.
Recent advances in multiscale manufacturing enable fabrication of hollow-truss based lattices with dimensional control spanning seven orders of magnitude in length scale (from ∼50 nm to ∼10 cm), thus enabling the exploitation of nano-scale strengthening mechanisms in a macroscale cellular material. This article develops mechanical models for the compressive strength of hollow microlattices and validates them with a selection of experimental measurements on nickel microlattices over a wide relative density range (0.01–10%). The limitations of beam-theory-based analytical approaches for ultralight designs are emphasized, and suitable numerical (finite elements) models are presented. Subsequently, a novel computational platform is utilized to efficiently scan the entire design space and produce maps for optimally strong designs. The results indicate that a strong compressive response can be obtained by stubby lattice designs at relatively high densities (∼10%) or by selectively thickening the nodes at ultra-low densities.
Rigorous finite element optical simulations have been used to examine the absorption of light in various crystalline silicon based, nanostructured solar cell architectures. The compared structures can all be produced on glass substrates using a periodically structured dielectric coating and a combination of electron-beam evaporation of silicon and subsequent solid phase crystallization. A required post-treatment by selective etching of non-compact silicon regions results in an absorber material loss. We show that by adequately tailoring the optical design around the processed silicon layer, the absorptance loss due to material removal can be completely overcome. The resulting silicon structure, which is an array of holes with non-vertical sidewalls, shows promising light path enhancement and features an even higher absorptance than the initial nanodome structure of the unetched absorber.
Different methods for Na incorporation are known for the use of Na-free substrates like stainless steel or polyimide foil. In this work Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) absorber layers with different amounts of Na are investigated. The CIGS samples were prepared via a roll-to-roll deposition process with ion beam assistance (Solarion) and by a multi-stage low temperature co-evaporation process (HZB). Na was either incorporated via in-situ co-evaporation of NaF (for roll-to-roll deposition) or by a Na-containing precursor (for multi-stage deposition).
With increasing amounts of Na an increase of VOC is observed for both deposition tech-niques. In contrast, within the deposition parameters used, jSC decreases with increasing Na amount for co-evaporation of NaF while it seems unaffected when using a NaF precursor layer. The elemental depth profiles of the different CIGS thin films were studied via secondary ion mass spectroscopy and were found to depend strongly on the deposition technique.
It seems that beneficial effects of the addition of Na are independent of the method of in-corporation, even if the distribution of Na in the CIGS layer is different due to different methods of incorporation and CIGS deposition processes.