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Twin and family studies using Western samples have established that child and adolescent anxiety and depression are under substantial genetic, modest shared environmental, and substantial non-shared environmental influences. Generalizability of these findings to non-Western societies remains largely unknown, particularly regarding the changes of genetic and environmental influences with age. The current study examined changes in genetic and environmental influences on self-reported anxiety and depression from late childhood to mid-adolescence among a Chinese twin sample. Sex differences were also examined.
Self-reported anxiety and depression were collected from 712 10- to 12-year-old Chinese twins (mean = 10.88 years, 49% males) and again 3 years later. Quantitative genetic modeling was used to examine developmental changes in genetic and environmental influences on anxiety and depression, and sex differences.
Heritability of anxiety and depression in late childhood (23 and 20%) decreased to negligible in mid-adolescence, while shared environmental influences increased (20 and 27% to 57 and 60%). Shared environmental factors explained most of the continuity of anxiety and depression (75 and 77%). Non-shared environmental factors were largely time-specific. No sex differences were observed.
Shared environmental influences might be more pronounced during the transition period of adolescence in non-Western societies such as China. Future research should examine similarities and differences in the genetic and environmental etiologies of child and adolescent internalizing and other psychopathology in development between Western and non-Western societies.
Helicobacter pylori infection is a major cause of peptic ulcer and is also associated with chronic gastritis, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, and adenocarcinoma of the stomach. Guidelines have been developed in the United States and Europe (areas with low prevalence) for the diagnosis and management of this infection, including the recommendation to ‘test and treat’ those with dyspepsia. A group of international experts performed a targeted literature review and formulated an expert opinion for evidenced-based benefits and harms for screening and treatment of H. pylori in high-prevalence countries. They concluded that in Arctic countries where H. pylori prevalence exceeds 60%, treatment of persons with H. pylori infection should be limited only to instances where there is strong evidence of direct benefit in reduction of morbidity and mortality, associated peptic ulcer disease and MALT lymphoma and that the test-and-treat strategy may not be beneficial for those with dyspepsia.
We performed a study to determine rates of reinfection in three groups followed for 2 years after successful treatment: American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) persons living in urban (group 1) and rural (group 2) communities, and urban Alaska non-Native persons (group 3). We enrolled adults diagnosed with H. pylori infection based on a positive urea breath test (13C-UBT). After successful treatment was documented at 2 months, we tested each patient by 13C-UBT at 4, 6, 12 and 24 months. At each visit, participants were asked about medication use, illnesses and risk factors for reinfection. We followed 229 persons for 2 years or until they became reinfected. H. pylori reinfection occurred in 36 persons; cumulative reinfection rates were 14·5%, 22·1%, and 12·0% for groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Study participants who became reinfected were more likely to have peptic ulcer disease (P = 0·02), low education level (P = 0·04), or have a higher proportion of household members infected with H. pylori compared to participants who did not become reinfected (P = 0·03). Among all three groups, reinfection occurred at rates higher than those reported for other US populations (<5% at 2 years); rural AI/AN individuals appear to be at highest risk for reinfection.
The Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland has monitored levels of anthropogenic radionuclides in the Irish marine environment for over 20 years. While the primary objective of the monitoring programme is to assess the exposure of the Irish population resulting from the presence of these radionuclides in the marine environment, the programme also aims to assess the geographical distribution and temporal variations of the radionuclides. The programme involves the routine sampling of and testing for radioactivity in fish, shellfish, seaweed, sediments and seawater. The data generated in the course of this programme, as well as in a separate study of changing plutonium isotopic ratios in Fucus vesiculosus from the west coast of Ireland, were used to estimate transport times from the Sellafield nuclear fuel reprocessing plant to various locations on the Irish coastline. For conservative radionuclides, transit times of 5-6 months to the NE coast of Ireland, 1-3 years to the south coast of Ireland and 3-8 years to the west coast were calculated. In contrast, for plutonium, the Sellafield signal was not observed on the west coast until the late 1980s/early 1990s.
Cardiac rhabdomyoma represents the commonest primary cardiac tumour. Its natural history is generally favourable, with resolution in the majority of cases. Surgical resection has been described for intractable arrhythmia, severe obstruction of the inflow or outflow tracts sufficient to compromise cardiac output, and systemic embolization. We describe an alternative palliative strategy, which was associated with regression of the tumour.
To evaluate collaborative efforts and intervention strategies by peer-review organizations (PROs) and long-term-care facilities (LTCFs) for improving pneumococcal vaccination rates among residents of LTCFs.
Baseline pneumococcal vaccination rates were determined by medical-record review, self-reporting by patient or family members, and review of Medicare claims information. Remeasurement of vaccination rates was accomplished from documentation of vaccination of eligible residents by each LTCF.
133 LTCFs with 7,623 residents from Alaska, Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming participated in this quality-improvement project. This accounted for 41% (133/321) of the potential nursing homes and resident population in the participating states. Baseline overall vaccination rates were 40% (3,050/7,589). The overall vaccination rate improved to 75% (5,720/7,623, P<.001). The number of facilities meeting the Healthy People 2000 vaccination goal of 80% improved from 18% (24/133) to 62% (83/133, P<.001). Initial use of chart stickers and implementation of standing orders led to similar increases in vaccination rates, but the standing-order strategy required commitment of fewer PRO resources at a statewide level. Remeasurement of vaccination rates in a subset of participating Idaho LTCFs 1 year after initial vaccination efforts demonstrated a sustained vaccination rate of 70% in facilities enforcing a standing-order policy.
Simple and straightforward vaccination strategies implemented in LTCFs over a short period of time can have a significant impact on vaccination rates. Collaborative efforts between state PROs and LTCFs enhance implementation of these strategies and can result in the achievement of national vaccination objectives. Standing orders appear to be one intervention effective in sustaining successful vaccination efforts. Regardless of the specific interventions employed, PROs played a significant role in facilitating vaccination program development and intervention implementation.
Tuning the degree of bond-length alternation in organic nonlinear optical materials is a powerful paradigm for the design of organic materials with large molecular hyperpolarizabilities (β). Several research groups have employed this paradigm in the design and synthesis of NLO materials incorporating donor-acceptor polyenes. Increased bond-length alternation in polyenes leads to decreased barriers to rotation about C=C bonds and, hence, increased conformational flexibility. Since the degree of bond-length alternation is solvent dependent, so is the degree of conformational flexibility. In an effort to probe the influence of conformational flexibility on NLO response, we synthesized a series of simple donor-acceptor polyenes that are either conformationally flexible (la, 2a, 3a) or rigid (1b, 2b, 3b). For each pair of molecules ZINDO sum-over-states calculations predict a larger value of βμ, for the conformationally flexible isomer, but EFISH measurements (CHCl3) display mixed results. Various explanations for this behavior will be considered.
I describe a project to survey ∼ 13 square degrees of the sky at 15μm and 90μm with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). The European Large Area ISO Survey (ELAIS) is a collaboration involving 19 European institutes (in addition to the authors and others at their institutes the following people and others their institutes are involved I. Gonzalez-Serrano, E. Kontizas, K. Mandolesi, J. Masegosa, K. Mattila, H. Norgaard-Nielsen, I. Perez-Fournon, M. Ward) and is the largest open time project being undertaken by ISO. We expect to detect at least 1000 extra-galactic objects and a similar number of Galactic sources.
Surveys with ISO (Kessler et al 1996), in particular with the CAM (Cesarsky et al 1996) and PHOT (Lemke et al 1996) instruments, will greatly extend our understanding of extra-galactic populations and their cosmological evolution. The main advantages that ISO surveys have over e.g IRAS are increased sensitivity/depth and wavelength coverage. Within the Guaranteed and Open Time programmes there are many field surveys which will efficiently map the limits in these parameters. In this talk I will briefly overview those surveys before concentrating in more detail on one survey in particular, the ISO survey of the Hubble Deep Field (HDF), to illustrate the kind of results that can be expected.
Proteins are complex systems that share essential properties with viscous liquids and polymers. Structure, dynamics, and function of proteins are strongly interrelated, and structural and dynamic aspects can be revealed by studying protein function. Here we report measurements of the kinetics of intramolecular electron transfer (ET) from the primary quinone (QA) to the special pair (P) of reaction center (RC) proteins from Rhodobacter sphaeroides as a function of temperature (5 to 300 K) and illumination protocol (cooled in the dark and under illumination from 280 K). From the data, information about structural heterogeneity, relaxations and fluctuations of these molecules is obtained.
I. M. Hook, Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3OHA,
R. G. McMahon, Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3OHA,
B. J. Boyle, Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3OHA,
M. J. Irwin, Royal Greenwich Observatory, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0EZ
The variability properties of a sample of over 300 optically–selected quasars near the South Galactic Pole (SGP) have been studied using a series of eleven UKST Bj plates at seven epochs, spanning 16 years. Quasars of high luminosity show significantly less variation than those with low luminosity. A similar, though much weaker, trend with redshift was found; lower redshift quasars varying proportionally more than high redshift quasars. The observed trends are a consequence of an intrinsic dependence of quasar variability on luminosity combined with the effects of time–dilation and have strong implications for quasar samples selected solely on variability.
Variability provides a simple yet powerful means for investigating the physical processes at work in the inner regions of AGN. The primary diagnostics for optical variability are: the dependence on absolute magnitude and redshift, the timescale of variations in the quasar rest frame and the degree of coherence of individual quasar light curves — in our case taken as an ensemble. In addition to providing insight into quasar models an important feature of such a study is the ability to predict selection effects for quasar samples chosen purely on the basis of variability (e.g., Hawkins 1986). In this paper we summarise our method and results: a more detailed account is given in Hook et al. (1991) and Hook et al. (1992).
The sample of quasars was taken principally from the catalogue of Hewitt & Burbidge (1989) with additional objects from other surveys.
We present images of the neutral hydrogen (H I) in the direction of the compact groups of galaxies, HCG 31, HCG 44, and HCG 79. We find in HCG 31 and HCG 79, emission contained within a cloud much larger than the galaxies as well as the entire group. The H I emission associated with HCG 44 is located within the individual galaxies but shows definite signs of tidal interactions. We have imaged the distribution and kinematics of neutral hydrogen at the two extremes of group sizes represented in Hickson’s sample. HCG 44 is at the upper limit while HCG 18, HCG 31, and HCG 79 are at the lower end. Although the number of groups that have been imaged is still very small, there may be a pattern emerging which describes the H I morphology of compact groups. The true nature of compact groups has been the subject of considerable debate and controversy. The most recent observational and theoretical evidence strongly suggest that compact groups are physically dense, dynamical systems that are in the process of merging into a single object (Williams and Rood 1987, Hickson and Rood 1988, Barnes 1989). The neutral hydrogen deficiency observed by Williams and Rood (1987) is consistent with a model in which frequent galactic collisions and interactions have heated some of the gas during the short lifetime of the group. The H I disks which are normally more extended than the luminous ones are expected to be more sensitive to collisions and to trace the galaxy’s response to recent interactions. Very Large Array observations can provide in most cases the spatial resolution needed to confirm the dynamical interactions in these systems.
A case of pericentric inversion chromosome 9 with an associated personality disorder is reported. There is justification for a more widespread cytogenetic screening of psychiatric disorders of this type.
A dual electron beam machine has been used to anneal boron implanted layers in order to study the diffusion and activation behaviour over a wide range of doses. The annealed implants have been characterized by spreading resistance profiling and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). Carrier concentration profiles show that millisecond duration anneals can activate boron implants. A boron dose of 1E16 ions/cm2 was annealed to give a sheet resistance of 30 Ωsq with 40% of the implant activated. The SIMS technique showed there were no significant differences between the atomic profiles of the as-implanted samples and specimens subjected to a millisecond anneal or to a low temperature 850°C rapid isothermal anneal for 10s.
The diffusion and activation of implanted boron in silicon during rapid thermal annealing (RTA) has been studied using the analytical techniques of SIMS, TEM, and sheet resistance measurements. Both crystalline and pre-amorphised silicon substrates were investigated. Data analysis in conjunction with a range of numerical models indicates some novel features of boron RTA, as well as accounting for previously observed features. In particular, a large transient diffusion enhancement coupled with an increase of electrical activity, are seen at short anneal times, in the case of crystalline silicon substrates. A non-equilibrium diffusion enhancement of a different type is also seen at much longer times, in both crystalline and pre-amorphised samples implanted to high doses. This second enhancement persists after all the precipitated boron formed on implantation has become substitutional. TEM studies show that the transient enhancement may be associated with the evolution of extended defect structures during the early stages of annealing. Both types of enhancement can be well represented by multiplying the ‘normal’ concentration-dependent diffusivity (with β=0.5) by a factor f>1.
The rate and direction of regrowth of amorphous layers, created by self-implantation, in silicon-on-sapphire (SOS) have been studied using time
resolved reflectivity (TRR) experiments performed simultaneously at two wavelengths. Regrowth of an amorphous layer towards the surface was observed in specimens implanted with 3.1015Si+/cm2 at 50keV and regrowth of a buried amorphous layer, from a surface seed towards the sapphire, was observed in specimens implanted with 1.1015Si+/cm2 at 175keV. Rapid isothermal heating to regrow the layers was performed in an electron beam annealing system. The combination of 514.5nm and 632.8nm wavelengths was found to be particularly useful for TRR studies since the high absorption in amorphous silicon, at the shorter wavelength, means that the TRR trace is not complicated by reflection from the silicon-sapphire interface until regrowth is nearly complete. The dual wavelength method removes ambiguity about the position of the amorphous to crystalline interface and the direction of regrowth. The temperature dependence of the refractive index of silicon leads to large changes in the reflectivity of SOS films as they are heated. The combination of regrowth rate observations and reflectivity measurements during heating has been used to characterize the isothermal heating cycle, avoiding the difficulties of using pyrometers operating at the useful near infra-red wavelengths, where sapphire is transparent.
1. Three methods of measuring changes in body fat were compared in seventeen patients undergoing a 2-week course of intravenous nutrition. Patients received all nutrition intraveneously at a steady rate of infusion, calculated to supply energy at a rate equal to 1.5 times the resting metabolic expenditure measured before feeding. Fat change was estimated from measurements of skinfold thickness, by isotopic methods (neutron-activation analysis and dilution of tritiated water) and by daily analysis of expired gases.
2. The mean (with 1 SEM) gain in fat over the 2-week period was 1.14 (0.30) kg for skinfold measurement, 0.53 (0.62) kg for isotopic determination and 1.29 (0.22) kg for expired-gas analysis. There were no significant differences between the mean gains in fat measured by the three methods.
3. The results show that expired-gas analysis is the most sensitive technique, measuring change in fat content with an estimated precision of 0.26 kg. The isotopic method is less sensitive, with a precision of 2.38 kg, but provides a detailed description of body composition. In contrast to these highly-specialized techniques, both of which have limited application, the simple technique of measurement of skinfolds occupies an intermediate position of sensitivity, with a precision for measuring change in fat content of 0.85 kg, and also has the potential to measure total body fat content.
Electron beams can transfer energy very efficiently to semiconductors. Systems have been developed for rapid heating to temperature around 1000°C under a variety of conditions from adiabatic to isothermal. Pulsed, focused, line and synthesized shaped beams are used to obtain a wide range of thermal cycles. The following applications are described: the annealing of ion-implanted Si, particularly the activation of As implants and shallow implants (Rp<150Å), the annealing of Si and Se in GaAs, the e-beam processing of implanted silicon devices and the improvement of SOS substrate quality. Localized annealing by a computer controlled e-beam and the recrystallization of deposited films on insulators are also considered.