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In many applications, x-ray mulhilayer mirrors are exposed to high peak fluxes of x-rays with subsequent damage to the mirror. Mirror damage is a particularly severe problem with the use of multilayers as cavity optics for short wavelength x-ray lasers. Intense optical and x-ray radiation, from the x-ray laser plasma amplifier, often damages the multilayer mirror on time scales of hundreds of picoseconds. The phenomenon of multilayer mirror damage by pulsed xray emission has been studied using short duration (500 psec) bursts of soft x-rays from a laser produced gold plasma. The results of the experiments will be compared with some simple models and the possibility of increasing the damage thresholds of short wavelength multilayer mirrors will be discussed.
We present some significant results of collisional excitation X-ray laser experiments in plasmas produced by a laser. We studied the amplification in Ne- and Ni-like ions by varying both the nature and the thickness of targets, the irradiation, and the wavelength of the driving laser. Some potentially interesting scalings as a function of the atomic number of the lasing element are demonstrated in the Ne-like system. An order-of-magnitude increase in gain in the Ni-like experiments was determined.
Recent advances in X-ray laser research have significantly increased the possibilities for X-ray laser applications. In this paper, we report the first demonstration of pointing and focusing of a soft X-ray laser beam. A LLNL selenium soft X-ray laser at 206 and 209 Å was used in these experiments. Two state of the art 76 mm diameter multilayer mirrors were used to collimate and refocus the laser onto a set of cross hairs which were constructed from 100 μm diameter wires. The cross hairs were located 4.6 m from the X-ray laser source. Results show that the laser can be pointed to within 75 μrad and focused to a 235 μm diameter spot. It is expected that eventually spot sizes near 100 μm and flux levels of 100J/cm2 at X-ray irradiances up to 1012W/cm2 can be provided to a remote application, using a similar beam relaying system.
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