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A gyrokinetic model is presented that can properly describe large and small amplitude electromagnetic fluctuations occurring on scale lengths ranging from the electron Larmor radius to the equilibrium perpendicular pressure gradient scale length, and the arbitrarily large deviations from thermal equilibrium that are present in the plasma periphery of tokamak devices. The formulation of the gyrokinetic model is based on a second-order accurate description of the single charged particle dynamics, derived from Lie perturbation theory, where the fast particle gyromotion is decoupled from the slow drifts assuming that the ratio of the ion sound Larmor radius to the perpendicular equilibrium pressure scale length is small. The collective behaviour of the plasma is obtained by a gyrokinetic Boltzmann equation that describes the evolution of the gyroaveraged distribution function. The collisional effects are included by a nonlinear gyrokinetic Dougherty collision operator. The gyrokinetic model is then developed into a set of coupled fluid equations referred to as the gyrokinetic moment hierarchy. To obtain this hierarchy, the gyroaveraged distribution function is expanded onto a Hermite–Laguerre velocity-space polynomial basis. Then, the gyrokinetic equation is projected onto the same basis yielding the spatial and temporal evolution of the Hermite–Laguerre expansion coefficients. A closed set of fluid equations for the lowest-order coefficients is presented. The Hermite–Laguerre projection is performed accurately at arbitrary perpendicular wavenumber values. Finally, the self-consistent evolution of the electromagnetic fields is described by a set of gyrokinetic Maxwell equations derived from a variational principle where the velocity integrals are explicitly evaluated.
Methane (CH4) production is a ubiquitous, apparently unavoidable side effect of fermentative fibre digestion by symbiotic microbiota in mammalian herbivores. Here, a data compilation is presented of in vivo CH4 measurements in individuals of 37 mammalian herbivore species fed forage-only diets, from the literature and from hitherto unpublished measurements. In contrast to previous claims, absolute CH4 emissions scaled linearly to DM intake, and CH4 yields (per DM or gross energy intake) did not vary significantly with body mass. CH4 physiology hence cannot be construed to represent an intrinsic ruminant or herbivore body size limitation. The dataset does not support traditional dichotomies of CH4 emission intensity between ruminants and nonruminants, or between foregut and hindgut fermenters. Several rodent hindgut fermenters and nonruminant foregut fermenters emit CH4 of a magnitude as high as ruminants of similar size, intake level, digesta retention or gut capacity. By contrast, equids, macropods (kangaroos) and rabbits produce few CH4 and have low CH4 : CO2 ratios for their size, intake level, digesta retention or gut capacity, ruling out these factors as explanation for interspecific variation. These findings lead to the conclusion that still unidentified host-specific factors other than digesta retention characteristics, or the presence of rumination or a foregut, influence CH4 production. Measurements of CH4 yield per digested fibre indicate that the amount of CH4 produced during fibre digestion varies not only across but also within species, possibly pointing towards variation in microbiota functionality. Recent findings on the genetic control of microbiome composition, including methanogens, raise the question about the benefits methanogens provide for many (but apparently not to the same extent for all) species, which possibly prevented the evolution of the hosting of low-methanogenic microbiota across mammals.
A gyrokinetic Coulomb collision operator is derived, which is particularly useful to describe the plasma dynamics at the periphery region of magnetic confinement fusion devices. The derived operator is able to describe collisions occurring in distribution functions arbitrarily far from equilibrium with variations on spatial scales at and below the particle Larmor radius. A multipole expansion of the Rosenbluth potentials is used in order to derive the dependence of the full Coulomb collision operator on the particle gyroangle. The full Coulomb collision operator is then expressed in gyrocentre phase-space coordinates, and a closed formula for its gyroaverage in terms of the moments of the gyrocentre distribution function in a form ready to be numerically implemented is provided. Furthermore, the collision operator is projected onto a Hermite–Laguerre velocity space polynomial basis and expansions in the small electron-to-ion mass ratio are provided.
Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) due to Staphylococcus aureus have become increasingly common in the outpatient setting; however, risk factors for differentiating methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) SSTIs are needed to better inform antibiotic treatment decisions. We performed a case-case-control study within 14 primary-care clinics in South Texas from 2007 to 2015. Overall, 325 patients [S. aureus SSTI cases (case group 1, n = 175); MRSA SSTI cases (case group 2, n = 115); MSSA SSTI cases (case group 3, n = 60); uninfected control group (control, n = 150)] were evaluated. Each case group was compared to the control group, and then qualitatively contrasted to identify unique risk factors associated with S. aureus, MRSA, and MSSA SSTIs. Overall, prior SSTIs [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 7·60, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3·31–17·45], male gender (aOR 1·74, 95% CI 1·06–2·85), and absence of healthcare occupation status (aOR 0·14, 95% CI 0·03–0·68) were independently associated with S. aureus SSTIs. The only unique risk factor for community-associated (CA)-MRSA SSTIs was a high body weight (⩾110 kg) (aOR 2·03, 95% CI 1·01–4·09).
Most of Southern California's wetlands have disappeared despite being critical ecosystems with many valuable attributes. Many of the wetlands that remain are in relatively urban areas, are severely degraded, and may not function properly. Using hedonic spatial error models, we measure the economic value of living near an urban multi-use wetland in Long Beach, California. Both sales prices and estimated values are used in the analysis. Results show that proximity to wetlands increases residential property values in the focus area. This analysis provides important information for policymakers to justify ongoing restoration projects and prevent further degradation of urbanized natural resources.
NanoGrande is the culmination of an art-science effort that brought undergraduate students and faculty from science, engineering, and the visual arts together with professional microscopists of the Capital District Microscopy and Microanalysis Society for electron microscopy education and outreach. Students from two independent undergraduate courses, an advanced photography course and a microscopy laboratory course, collaborated on the project. The participants represented a wide range of majors, including chemistry, biology, electrical engineering, computer engineering, mechanical engineering, bioengineering, psychology, neuroscience, sociology/social sciences, history, and the visual arts. Emphasis was placed on both the scientific and the artistic aspects of the imaging process. The creation of electron microscopy images that were at the same time scientifically meaningful and visually compelling depended critically on communication of insights and ideas between paired students. The collaboration generated an art-science exhibition, NanoGrande, that has been presented to over four-thousand K through 12 students.
Allostatic load (AL) relates to the neural and bodily “wear and tear” that emerge in the context of chronic stress. This paper aims to provide clinicians with a comprehensive overview of the role of AL in patophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD) and its practical implications.
PubMed searches were conducted on English-language articles published from 1970 to June 2011 using the search terms allostatic load, oxidative stress, staging, and bipolar disorder cross-referenced with cognitive impairment, comorbidity, mediators, prevention.
Progressive neural and physical dysfunction consequent to mood episodes in BD can be construed as a cumulative state of AL. The concept of AL can help to reconcile cognitive impairment and increased rates of clinical comorbidities that occur over the course of cumulative BD episodes.
Data on transduction of psychosocial stress into the neurobiology of mood episodes converges to the concept of AL. Mood episodes prevention would not only alleviate emotional suffering, but also arrest the cycle of AL, cognitive decline, physical morbidities and, eventually, related mortality. These objectives can be achieved by focusing on effective prophylaxis from the first stages of the disorder, providing mood-stabilizing agents and standardized psychoeducation and, potentially, addressing cognitive deficits by the means of specific medication and neuropsychological interventions.
The Walnut Husk Fly, Rhagoletis completa Cresson (Diptera: Tephritidae), is native to North America (Midwestern US and north-eastern Mexico) and has invaded several European countries in the past decades by likely crossing the alpine divide separating most parts of Switzerland from Italy. Here, we determined its current distribution in Switzerland by sampling walnuts (Juglans regia L.) in ecologically and climatically distinct regions along potential invasion corridors. R. completa was found to be firmly established in most low altitude areas of Switzerland where walnuts thrive, but notably not a single parasitoid was recovered from any of the samples. Infested fruit was recovered in 42 of the 71 localities that were surveyed, with mean fruit infestation rate varying greatly among sites. The incidence of R. completa in Switzerland is closely related to meteorological mean spring temperature patterns influencing growing season length, but not to winter temperatures, reflecting survival potential during hibernation. Importantly, areas in which the fly is absent correspond with localities where the mean spring temperatures fall below 7°C. Historical data records show that the natural cold barrier around the Alpine divide in the central Swiss Alps corresponding to such minimal temperatures has shrunk significantly from a width of more than 40 km before 1990 to around 20 km after 2000. We hypothesize on possible invasion/expansion routes along alpine valleys, dwell on distribution patterns in relation to climate, and outline future research needs as the incursion of R. completa into Switzerland; and, more recently, other European countries, such as Germany, Austria, France and Slovenia, represent an example of alien species that settle first in the Mediterranean Basin and from there become invasive by crossing the Alps.
Magnetic refrigeration based on the magnetocaloric effect (MCE) has been proposed as an attractive alternative to gas compression technology. Some calculations suggest that MCE can be obtained with higher efficiencies than compressor driven refrigeration. We examine the MCE in a system of nickel ferrite nanoparticles with size range of 6 to 15 nm. A peak in the MCE at 55 K is observed that increases with higher magnetic fields. This gives this system a relatively high peak entropy change compared to other ferrite systems. A sensitive radio-frequency (RF) transverse susceptibility measurement has also been used to study the magnetic anisotropy. We show that the MCE peak is not associated with the blocking temperature and is likely a field-driven surface spin reorientation which also has a signature in the transverse susceptibility. Work supported by NSF-CTS-0408933 and ARO- W911NF-05-1-0354
The Fourier-Kelvin Stellar Interferometer (FKSI) is a mission concept for a spacecraft-borne imaging and nulling interferometer for the near to mid-infrared spectral region. FKSI is a scientific and technological pathfinder to the Darwin and Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) missions and will be a high angular resolution system complementary to the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). There are four key scientific issues the FKSI mission is designed to address. These are: 1.) characterization of the atmospheres of the known extra-solar giant planets, 2.) assay of the morphology of debris disks to look for resonant structures characteristic of the presence of extrasolar planets, 3.) study of circumstellar material around a variety of stellar types to better understand their evolutionary state, and in the case of young stellar systems, their planet forming potential, and 4.) measurement of detailed structures inside active galactic nuclei. We report results of simulation studies of the imaging capabilities of the FKSI, current progress on our nulling testbed, results from control system and residual jitter analysis, and selection of hollow waveguide fibers for wavefront cleanup.
An updated compilation of published and new data of major-ion (Ca, Cl, K, Mg, Na, NO3, SO4) and methylsulfonate (MS) concentrations in snow from 520 Antarctic sites is provided by the national ITASE (International Trans-Antarctic Scientific Expedition) programmes of Australia, Brazil, China, Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, New Zealand, Norway, the United Kingdom, the United States and the national Antarctic programme of Finland. The comparison shows that snow chemistry concentrations vary by up to four orders of magnitude across Antarctica and exhibit distinct geographical patterns. The Antarctic-wide comparison of glaciochemical records provides a unique opportunity to improve our understanding of the fundamental factors that ultimately control the chemistry of snow or ice samples. This paper aims to initiate data compilation and administration in order to provide a framework for facilitation of Antarctic-wide snow chemistry discussions across all ITASE nations and other contributing groups. The data are made available through the ITASE web page (http://www2.umaine.edu/itase/content/syngroups/snowchem.html) and will be updated with new data as they are provided. In addition, recommendations for future research efforts are summarized.
Residual clays that developed on Permian and Carboniferous glass-rich silicic volcanic rocks (pitchstones, ignimbrites) at the Seilitz and Kemmlitz kaolin deposits, Saxony, Eastern Germany, contain locally abundant lath-shaped illite-rich illite-smectite mixed-layer minerals (I-S). Analyses by XRD and TEM-AES reveal a large illite percentage (>∼90%) and R3 ordering in I-S from Seilitz (>∼90%) and smaller illite percentage (∼70%) and R1 ordering in I-S from Kemmlitz. The clays never suffered a deep burial and there is no geological, petrographic or fluid inclusion evidence for aeolian input or hydrothermal origin of I-S at either deposit. The I-S formed exclusively at the expense of volcanic glass and not from K-feldspar. Residual quartz phenocrysts in the clays still preserve primary glassy silicate melt inclusions and lack secondary aqueous fluid inclusion trails. The dD and δ18O values of kaolinite and I-S are suggestive of low formation temperatures (<40ºC). Rb-Sr and K-Ar dating of I-S-bearing clay separates yield Lower Cretaceous ages at Seilitz and indicates the presence of excess or inherited 40Ar in illite-rich I-S. In contrast, Triassic to Jurassic Rb-Sr ages are obtained for I-S from the Kemmlitz kaolin deposit.
A 2,3-dibutoxy-1,4-phenylenevinylene comonomer was incorporated into a distyrylbenzene derivative 11. Novel 1,2-disubstituted-3,6-dibromobenzene comonomers 15 and 18 were prepared by directed metallation. Copolymerization of 11with a 9,9-dioctylfluorene-2,7-diboronate ester 1 yielded a green fluorescent polymer while copolymerization of 15 and 18 with the 9,9-dihexylfluorene-2,7-diboronate 22 afforded promising blue fluorescent polymers 23 and 24 respectively.
Mg doped cubic GaN layers were studied by steady state and time resolved photoluminescence. The blue emission due to Mg doping can be decomposed in three bands. The decay curves and the spectral shift with time delays indicates donor-acceptor pair behaviour. This can be confirmed by excitation density dependent measurements. Furthermore temperature dependent analysis shows that the three emissions have one impurity in common. We propose that this is an acceptor level related to the Mg incorporation and the three deep donor levels are due to compensation effects.
An understanding of dielectric breakdown mechanisms is critical for continued oxide scaling. Although working transistors have been demonstrated with sub-2nm SiO2 gate dielectrics, the manufacturability of such devices hinges on the reliability of the oxide. As oxides become thinner and operating voltages become lower, a fundamentally different mode of dielectric breakdown occurs. This has been called soft breakdown and is considered to be the formation of a small, localized tunneling path through a dielectric. For transistors with 2-nm gate oxides, threshold voltage and maximum transconductance are not affected by soft breakdown, implying that circuits may continue to operate after soft breakdown. The increase in gate current or voltage noise associated with soft breakdown is not a limiting factor for many applications. However, some cases will be shown in which soft breakdown does degrade device function.
In order to make comparisons of ultra-thin oxide quality, it is important to be able to reliably detect soft breakdown. J-ramp, a commonly used ramped-current measurement to determine oxide quality, is unable to detect soft breakdown in ultra-thin oxides. We will demonstrate the incorporation of noise measurements in a commercial J-ramp algorithm.
The epitaxial growth of zinc-blende (cubic) GaN and InGaN on GaAs with a common cleavage plane and readily high-quality, low-cost wafers may be considered as an alternative approach for the future realization of cleaved laser cavities. To obtain detailed information about the potential of cubic GaN and InGaN for device applications we performed optical gain spectroscopy accompanied by time-integrated and time-dependent photoluminescence measurements at 2 K and 300 K. From intensity-dependent gain measurements, the identification of the gain processes was possible. For moderate excitation levels, the biexciton decay is likely to be responsible for a gain structure at 3.265 eV in cubic GaN . For the highest pump intensities, the electron- hole-plasma is the dominant gain process, providing gain values up to 200 cm −1. Furthermore cubic GaN samples with different cavity lengths from 250 to 600 µm were cleaved to investigate the influence of the sample geometry on the gain mechanisms. In these samples increased gain values up to 150 cm −1 as well as lower threshold excitation densities were observed, indicating the potential of cubic GaN for device applications. The results of GaN will be compared with intensity-dependent gain measurements on InGaN samples, grown on GaAs with varying In-content. The observed gain mechanisms in cubic InGaN will be discussed in detail.
We are developing a testbed for automated identification of specimens, and acquisition of high resolution images for 3D macromolecular EM. Several software package which have been developed specifically for acquisition of tomographic data sets have illustrated the benefits of automation. These software packages require the user to identify a specimen of interest and then automatically acquire a single tilt series from the identified specimen. The testbed we are developing will provide a generalized system for specimen identification, image acquisition and image quality assessment. The goals of the testbed are to provide a system that will acquire EM images unattended by an operator.
The testbed integrates a computer controlled TEM with a distributed real-time image processing environment. Computerized control and image acquisition from the TEM uses the emScope software package (1). This is coupled to existing image processing software packages and new software tools developed specifically for this project.