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A gyrokinetic Coulomb collision operator is derived, which is particularly useful to describe the plasma dynamics at the periphery region of magnetic confinement fusion devices. The derived operator is able to describe collisions occurring in distribution functions arbitrarily far from equilibrium with variations on spatial scales at and below the particle Larmor radius. A multipole expansion of the Rosenbluth potentials is used in order to derive the dependence of the full Coulomb collision operator on the particle gyroangle. The full Coulomb collision operator is then expressed in gyrocentre phase-space coordinates, and a closed formula for its gyroaverage in terms of the moments of the gyrocentre distribution function in a form ready to be numerically implemented is provided. Furthermore, the collision operator is projected onto a Hermite–Laguerre velocity space polynomial basis and expansions in the small electron-to-ion mass ratio are provided.
Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) due to Staphylococcus aureus have become increasingly common in the outpatient setting; however, risk factors for differentiating methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) SSTIs are needed to better inform antibiotic treatment decisions. We performed a case-case-control study within 14 primary-care clinics in South Texas from 2007 to 2015. Overall, 325 patients [S. aureus SSTI cases (case group 1, n = 175); MRSA SSTI cases (case group 2, n = 115); MSSA SSTI cases (case group 3, n = 60); uninfected control group (control, n = 150)] were evaluated. Each case group was compared to the control group, and then qualitatively contrasted to identify unique risk factors associated with S. aureus, MRSA, and MSSA SSTIs. Overall, prior SSTIs [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 7·60, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3·31–17·45], male gender (aOR 1·74, 95% CI 1·06–2·85), and absence of healthcare occupation status (aOR 0·14, 95% CI 0·03–0·68) were independently associated with S. aureus SSTIs. The only unique risk factor for community-associated (CA)-MRSA SSTIs was a high body weight (⩾110 kg) (aOR 2·03, 95% CI 1·01–4·09).
Most of Southern California's wetlands have disappeared despite being critical ecosystems with many valuable attributes. Many of the wetlands that remain are in relatively urban areas, are severely degraded, and may not function properly. Using hedonic spatial error models, we measure the economic value of living near an urban multi-use wetland in Long Beach, California. Both sales prices and estimated values are used in the analysis. Results show that proximity to wetlands increases residential property values in the focus area. This analysis provides important information for policymakers to justify ongoing restoration projects and prevent further degradation of urbanized natural resources.
NanoGrande is the culmination of an art-science effort that brought undergraduate students and faculty from science, engineering, and the visual arts together with professional microscopists of the Capital District Microscopy and Microanalysis Society for electron microscopy education and outreach. Students from two independent undergraduate courses, an advanced photography course and a microscopy laboratory course, collaborated on the project. The participants represented a wide range of majors, including chemistry, biology, electrical engineering, computer engineering, mechanical engineering, bioengineering, psychology, neuroscience, sociology/social sciences, history, and the visual arts. Emphasis was placed on both the scientific and the artistic aspects of the imaging process. The creation of electron microscopy images that were at the same time scientifically meaningful and visually compelling depended critically on communication of insights and ideas between paired students. The collaboration generated an art-science exhibition, NanoGrande, that has been presented to over four-thousand K through 12 students.
The Walnut Husk Fly, Rhagoletis completa Cresson (Diptera: Tephritidae), is native to North America (Midwestern US and north-eastern Mexico) and has invaded several European countries in the past decades by likely crossing the alpine divide separating most parts of Switzerland from Italy. Here, we determined its current distribution in Switzerland by sampling walnuts (Juglans regia L.) in ecologically and climatically distinct regions along potential invasion corridors. R. completa was found to be firmly established in most low altitude areas of Switzerland where walnuts thrive, but notably not a single parasitoid was recovered from any of the samples. Infested fruit was recovered in 42 of the 71 localities that were surveyed, with mean fruit infestation rate varying greatly among sites. The incidence of R. completa in Switzerland is closely related to meteorological mean spring temperature patterns influencing growing season length, but not to winter temperatures, reflecting survival potential during hibernation. Importantly, areas in which the fly is absent correspond with localities where the mean spring temperatures fall below 7°C. Historical data records show that the natural cold barrier around the Alpine divide in the central Swiss Alps corresponding to such minimal temperatures has shrunk significantly from a width of more than 40 km before 1990 to around 20 km after 2000. We hypothesize on possible invasion/expansion routes along alpine valleys, dwell on distribution patterns in relation to climate, and outline future research needs as the incursion of R. completa into Switzerland; and, more recently, other European countries, such as Germany, Austria, France and Slovenia, represent an example of alien species that settle first in the Mediterranean Basin and from there become invasive by crossing the Alps.
Magnetic refrigeration based on the magnetocaloric effect (MCE) has been proposed as an attractive alternative to gas compression technology. Some calculations suggest that MCE can be obtained with higher efficiencies than compressor driven refrigeration. We examine the MCE in a system of nickel ferrite nanoparticles with size range of 6 to 15 nm. A peak in the MCE at 55 K is observed that increases with higher magnetic fields. This gives this system a relatively high peak entropy change compared to other ferrite systems. A sensitive radio-frequency (RF) transverse susceptibility measurement has also been used to study the magnetic anisotropy. We show that the MCE peak is not associated with the blocking temperature and is likely a field-driven surface spin reorientation which also has a signature in the transverse susceptibility. Work supported by NSF-CTS-0408933 and ARO- W911NF-05-1-0354
The Fourier-Kelvin Stellar Interferometer (FKSI) is a mission concept for a spacecraft-borne imaging and nulling interferometer for the near to mid-infrared spectral region. FKSI is a scientific and technological pathfinder to the Darwin and Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) missions and will be a high angular resolution system complementary to the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). There are four key scientific issues the FKSI mission is designed to address. These are: 1.) characterization of the atmospheres of the known extra-solar giant planets, 2.) assay of the morphology of debris disks to look for resonant structures characteristic of the presence of extrasolar planets, 3.) study of circumstellar material around a variety of stellar types to better understand their evolutionary state, and in the case of young stellar systems, their planet forming potential, and 4.) measurement of detailed structures inside active galactic nuclei. We report results of simulation studies of the imaging capabilities of the FKSI, current progress on our nulling testbed, results from control system and residual jitter analysis, and selection of hollow waveguide fibers for wavefront cleanup.
An updated compilation of published and new data of major-ion (Ca, Cl, K, Mg, Na, NO3, SO4) and methylsulfonate (MS) concentrations in snow from 520 Antarctic sites is provided by the national ITASE (International Trans-Antarctic Scientific Expedition) programmes of Australia, Brazil, China, Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, New Zealand, Norway, the United Kingdom, the United States and the national Antarctic programme of Finland. The comparison shows that snow chemistry concentrations vary by up to four orders of magnitude across Antarctica and exhibit distinct geographical patterns. The Antarctic-wide comparison of glaciochemical records provides a unique opportunity to improve our understanding of the fundamental factors that ultimately control the chemistry of snow or ice samples. This paper aims to initiate data compilation and administration in order to provide a framework for facilitation of Antarctic-wide snow chemistry discussions across all ITASE nations and other contributing groups. The data are made available through the ITASE web page (http://www2.umaine.edu/itase/content/syngroups/snowchem.html) and will be updated with new data as they are provided. In addition, recommendations for future research efforts are summarized.
Residual clays that developed on Permian and Carboniferous glass-rich silicic volcanic rocks (pitchstones, ignimbrites) at the Seilitz and Kemmlitz kaolin deposits, Saxony, Eastern Germany, contain locally abundant lath-shaped illite-rich illite-smectite mixed-layer minerals (I-S). Analyses by XRD and TEM-AES reveal a large illite percentage (>∼90%) and R3 ordering in I-S from Seilitz (>∼90%) and smaller illite percentage (∼70%) and R1 ordering in I-S from Kemmlitz. The clays never suffered a deep burial and there is no geological, petrographic or fluid inclusion evidence for aeolian input or hydrothermal origin of I-S at either deposit. The I-S formed exclusively at the expense of volcanic glass and not from K-feldspar. Residual quartz phenocrysts in the clays still preserve primary glassy silicate melt inclusions and lack secondary aqueous fluid inclusion trails. The dD and δ18O values of kaolinite and I-S are suggestive of low formation temperatures (<40ºC). Rb-Sr and K-Ar dating of I-S-bearing clay separates yield Lower Cretaceous ages at Seilitz and indicates the presence of excess or inherited 40Ar in illite-rich I-S. In contrast, Triassic to Jurassic Rb-Sr ages are obtained for I-S from the Kemmlitz kaolin deposit.
A 2,3-dibutoxy-1,4-phenylenevinylene comonomer was incorporated into a distyrylbenzene derivative 11. Novel 1,2-disubstituted-3,6-dibromobenzene comonomers 15 and 18 were prepared by directed metallation. Copolymerization of 11with a 9,9-dioctylfluorene-2,7-diboronate ester 1 yielded a green fluorescent polymer while copolymerization of 15 and 18 with the 9,9-dihexylfluorene-2,7-diboronate 22 afforded promising blue fluorescent polymers 23 and 24 respectively.
Mg doped cubic GaN layers were studied by steady state and time resolved photoluminescence. The blue emission due to Mg doping can be decomposed in three bands. The decay curves and the spectral shift with time delays indicates donor-acceptor pair behaviour. This can be confirmed by excitation density dependent measurements. Furthermore temperature dependent analysis shows that the three emissions have one impurity in common. We propose that this is an acceptor level related to the Mg incorporation and the three deep donor levels are due to compensation effects.
An understanding of dielectric breakdown mechanisms is critical for continued oxide scaling. Although working transistors have been demonstrated with sub-2nm SiO2 gate dielectrics, the manufacturability of such devices hinges on the reliability of the oxide. As oxides become thinner and operating voltages become lower, a fundamentally different mode of dielectric breakdown occurs. This has been called soft breakdown and is considered to be the formation of a small, localized tunneling path through a dielectric. For transistors with 2-nm gate oxides, threshold voltage and maximum transconductance are not affected by soft breakdown, implying that circuits may continue to operate after soft breakdown. The increase in gate current or voltage noise associated with soft breakdown is not a limiting factor for many applications. However, some cases will be shown in which soft breakdown does degrade device function.
In order to make comparisons of ultra-thin oxide quality, it is important to be able to reliably detect soft breakdown. J-ramp, a commonly used ramped-current measurement to determine oxide quality, is unable to detect soft breakdown in ultra-thin oxides. We will demonstrate the incorporation of noise measurements in a commercial J-ramp algorithm.
The epitaxial growth of zinc-blende (cubic) GaN and InGaN on GaAs with a common cleavage plane and readily high-quality, low-cost wafers may be considered as an alternative approach for the future realization of cleaved laser cavities. To obtain detailed information about the potential of cubic GaN and InGaN for device applications we performed optical gain spectroscopy accompanied by time-integrated and time-dependent photoluminescence measurements at 2 K and 300 K. From intensity-dependent gain measurements, the identification of the gain processes was possible. For moderate excitation levels, the biexciton decay is likely to be responsible for a gain structure at 3.265 eV in cubic GaN . For the highest pump intensities, the electron- hole-plasma is the dominant gain process, providing gain values up to 200 cm −1. Furthermore cubic GaN samples with different cavity lengths from 250 to 600 µm were cleaved to investigate the influence of the sample geometry on the gain mechanisms. In these samples increased gain values up to 150 cm −1 as well as lower threshold excitation densities were observed, indicating the potential of cubic GaN for device applications. The results of GaN will be compared with intensity-dependent gain measurements on InGaN samples, grown on GaAs with varying In-content. The observed gain mechanisms in cubic InGaN will be discussed in detail.
The epitaxial growth of zinc-blende (cubic) GaN and InGaN on GaAs with a common cleavage plane and readily high-quality, low-cost wafers may be considered as an alternative approach for the future realization of cleaved laser cavities. To obtain detailed information about the potential of cubic GaN and InGaN for device applications we performed optical gain spectroscopy accompanied by time-integrated and time-dependent photoluminescence measurements at 2 K and 300 K. From intensity-dependent gain measurements, the identification of the gain processes was possible. For moderate excitation levels, the biexciton decay is likely to be responsible for a gain structure at 3.265 eV in cubic GaN . For the highest pump intensities, the electron- hole-plasma is the dominant gain process, providing gain values up to 200 cm-1. Furthermore cubic GaN samples with different cavity lengths from 250 to 600 mim were cleaved to investigate the influence of the sample geometry on the gain mechanisms. In these samples increased gain values up to 150 cm-1 as well as lower threshold excitation densities were observed, indicating the potential of cubic GaN for device applications. The results of GaN will be compared with intensity-dependent gain measurements on InGaN samples, grown on GaAs with varying In-content. The observed gain mechanisms in cubic InGaN will be discussed in detail.
The purpose of this study was to assess the value of lignocaine biotransformation into monoethylglycinexylidide (MEGX) and conventional liver function tests in the early post-operative period as an indicator of graft function and as a diagnostic tool for complications after hepatic transplantation. Monoethylglycinexylidide formation, plasma bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), alanine amino- transferase (ALAT), factor V index (FVI) and prothrombin time index (PTI) were measured in 71 patients undergoing 80 liver transplantations respectively at 12 (T1), 24 (T2), 48 (T3) and 72 h (T4) after liver graft revascularization. Patients were divided into two group according to the post-operative outcome. Patients with favourable outcome (n = 59) had significantly higher monoethylglycinexylidide synthesis, higher factor V index and prothrombin time index plasma concentrations, lower bilirubin, ASAT and ALAT plasma concentration (P < 0.0001 at T2 and T3) than those with complicated time course (n = 21). Monoethylglycinexylidide synthesis was the best discriminant of a favourable outcome, whereas bilirubin and ALAT concentrations were associated with complications (bilirubin for primary non function [PNF], ALAT for acute rejection). Thus, the combination of parameters at T2 was a very efficient predictor of primary non function, acute rejection and an uncomplicated time course.
Various high-Tc superconductors of the La–(Ba,Sr)–Cu–O and the M–Ba–Cu–O systems with M = Y, Er, and Eu have been prepared by the solid-state reaction method. Single-phase samples with no additional diffraction peaks as verified by x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements have been obtained. Measurements of the electrical resistivity and of the magnetization showed sharp superconducting transitions with a width of 1 K. The measurements of the magnetic susceptibility have been extended above room temperature up to 770 K. There is clear evidence for the formation of a magnetic moment in all M–Ba–Cu–O samples. Monochromated x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (MXPS) valence band and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) core level spectra have been measured on various samples at room temperature and at liquid nitrogen temperature.