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The search for life in the Universe is a fundamental problem of astrobiology and modern science. The current progress in the detection of terrestrial-type exoplanets has opened a new avenue in the characterization of exoplanetary atmospheres and in the search for biosignatures of life with the upcoming ground-based and space missions. To specify the conditions favourable for the origin, development and sustainment of life as we know it in other worlds, we need to understand the nature of global (astrospheric), and local (atmospheric and surface) environments of exoplanets in the habitable zones (HZs) around G-K-M dwarf stars including our young Sun. Global environment is formed by propagated disturbances from the planet-hosting stars in the form of stellar flares, coronal mass ejections, energetic particles and winds collectively known as astrospheric space weather. Its characterization will help in understanding how an exoplanetary ecosystem interacts with its host star, as well as in the specification of the physical, chemical and biochemical conditions that can create favourable and/or detrimental conditions for planetary climate and habitability along with evolution of planetary internal dynamics over geological timescales. A key linkage of (astro)physical, chemical and geological processes can only be understood in the framework of interdisciplinary studies with the incorporation of progress in heliophysics, astrophysics, planetary and Earth sciences. The assessment of the impacts of host stars on the climate and habitability of terrestrial (exo)planets will significantly expand the current definition of the HZ to the biogenic zone and provide new observational strategies for searching for signatures of life. The major goal of this paper is to describe and discuss the current status and recent progress in this interdisciplinary field in light of presentations and discussions during the NASA Nexus for Exoplanetary System Science funded workshop ‘Exoplanetary Space Weather, Climate and Habitability’ and to provide a new roadmap for the future development of the emerging field of exoplanetary science and astrobiology.
Sudden unexpected infant death, including sudden infant death syndrome, is the leading cause of death in infants one month to one year of age, in the developed world. A thorough investigation is crucial for accurate diagnosis. As part of the Diagnostic Pediatric Pathology Series, this book provides a detailed guide to various diagnoses and strong frameworks across continents, for strong support in conducting a multi-professional approach to the physiopathological mechanisms behind SIDS. Offering sensitive consideration for parents in mourning, this book rigorously explores current standards of police investigation and post-mortem, incorporating all aspects of the investigation, including the home visit, medical history and autopsy findings. Written by multidisciplinary experts, this vital guide uses clear reference tables and diagrams to present cutting-edge knowledge for use by paediatric and general pathologists, paediatricians, medico-legal practitioners, and all involved in the investigation of sudden infant death.
Measurements on the heat affected zone of a weldment are presented using a gas filled position sensitive detector and a normal diffractometer equipped with a scintillation detector and a solid state detector. The sample, a surface ground titanium alloy, provided a difficult application for the X-ray technique from which a test of the real usefulness of the position sensitive detector could be made. The diffraction profile from the Ti alloy is very broad and the fluorescence produces a high background. The fluorescence is easily rejected using a solid state detector; however, the time of analysis is very long. With the position sensitive detector, the combination of increased energy discrimination over the scintillation detector and the simultaneous measurement of many data points over the broad peak enabled the measurements to be made for the same accuracy in much shorter times than for either the solid state detector or the scintillation detector.
In order to convert residual strains measured by x-ray diffraction techniques into residual stresses, appropriate x-ray elastic constants have to be measured. Since these x-ray elastic constants may depend on the metallurgical state, deformation, and entire specimen history, errors in stress values may result if the constants are not measured for representative material states. In the present work, it is shown that in same cases these errors may be large.
To achieve increased case and precision of alignment, and to allow for convenient alteration between normal usage with filtered radiation and crystalmonochromated radiation, the G. E. goniometer has been mounted on milling machine beds allowing for x-y translation and 360° rotation; in addition the tube mount was repositioned. The usefulness of this apparatus has been demonstrated by accurately aligning the goniometer for usage with filtered radiation, with a new alignment procedure. As a demonstration of the accuracy and precision of alignment, the lattice parameter of silicon was determined from a powder sample. A least-squares analysis of the data gave a0 = 5.43046 Å with a standard deviation of ±0.00005 Å, in excellent agreement with the value of 5.43054 ± 0.00017 Å determined in a recent International Union of Crystallography test in many laboratories.
A monochromator housing has been built for use with all types of direct-beam monochromators and all radiations. This apparatus attaches to the new tube mount and was used to determine the optimum procedure for preparing the doubly bent LiF monochromator crystals designed by Warren to minimize the volume sampled in the reciprocal space of a single crystal. According to a suggestion made by Chipman, a doubly bent monochromator for use with poly crystalline specimens has been formed and its geometry and applications are presented. This monochromator gives about one-half as much intensity as that obtainable using filtered radiation and similar operating conditions ; this type of monochromator is therefore a powerful tool for use with powder specimens. A transmission diffracted-beam monochromator has also been constructed which attaches in a simple manner under the counter tube housing. Under similar operating conditions with a LiF monochromator, this yields intensities only one-tenth of those obtained using filtered radiation.
Software is described for complete computer control of residual stress measurements. One program (that incorporates either the two tilt method, the sins| procedure, or the Cohen-Marion technique) has been developed for use with either a normal detector or a position sensitive detector. The operator inputs the desired error in stress and various instrumental parameters that determine systematic errors. The counting strategy to obtain the total error is then determined by the software.
Employing this automated system, an investigation of a parabolic fit to the top of a diffraction profile indicates that a three point fit is satisfactory only for sharp profiles.
The physical meaning of non-linearities in “d” vs. sin2ψ lines, encountered in X-ray measurements of surface residual stresses in polycrystalline materials is investigated. It is shown that when oscillations are present in any one reflection, switching to another reflection to obtain a straight line in “d“ vs. sin2.ψ is feasible only under very special conditions. We also discuss the effect of “quasi-homogeneous” strain distributions and investigate the effects of ψ-range on the accuracy of X-ray residual stress measurements when ψ-splitting” is present. A new geometric error is also discussed that can not be detected by the “annealed powder” method often used for alignment.