To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The Pueblo population of Chaco Canyon during the Bonito Phase (AD 800–1130) employed agricultural strategies and water-management systems to enhance food cultivation in this unpredictable environment. Scepticism concerning the timing and effectiveness of this system, however, remains common. Using optically stimulated luminescence dating of sediments and LiDAR imaging, the authors located Bonito Phase canal features at the far west end of the canyon. Additional ED-XRF and strontium isotope (87Sr/86Sr) analyses confirm the diversion of waters from multiple sources during Chaco’s occupation. The extent of this water-management system raises new questions about social organisation and the role of ritual in facilitating responses to environmental unpredictability.
There is evidence for four types of dark matter: (1) the local d.m. in the galactic disc; (2) the d.m. associated with galactic halos; (3) the d.m. in clusters; and (4) a background closure density of d.m. required if the Universe undergoes an inflationary phase. There are three types of explanation: (1) remnants of a first generation of Population III stars, including black holes (SMOs, VMOs or MOs), neutron stars, white dwarfs, or LMOs (M-dwarfs and Jupiters); (2) elementary particle relicts of the Big Bang (inos), usefully classified - according to their mass - as hot, warm, or cold, since this determines the scale on which they can cluster; and (3) primordial black holes, formed from density perturbations or phase transitions in the early Universe. Various constraints on the d.m. candidates are indicated by the shaded regions in the Figure below. The conventional model of cosmological nucleosynthesis precludes Population III remnants providing the closure and perhaps cluster d.m., while stellar nucleosynthesis constraints preclude neutron stars from explaining anything and allow white dwarfs to provide only the local d.m. Source counts exclude M-dwarfs from providing the local or halo d.m., while gravitational lensing effects exclude SMOs larger than 108M⊙ from explaining anything and LMOs or VMOs from having the closure density. Dynamical considerations imply M<2M⊙ for the local d.m., M<106M⊙ for the halo d.m., and M<109M⊙ for the cluster d.m.; they also imply that the local d.m. cannot be inos and that the halo d.m. cannot be a hot ino. The table suggests the following conclusions: (1) no single candidate can explain all four d.m. problems; (2) the best candidate for the closure d.m. is an ino; (3) the best candidates for the local d.m. are white dwarfs or Jupiters; (4) the halo (and possibly cluster) d.m. could plausibly be black holes or Jupiters.
Cosmological arguments suggest that a large fraction of the baryons in the Universe are dark. Although the background dark matter required to make up the critical density would have to consist of some kind of elementary particle, the dark matter in galactic halos could be baryonic. In particular, we argue that it could consist of jupiters made in pregalactic or protogalactic cooling flows. These would be analagous to the cluster cooling flows observed at the present epoch but on a smaller scale.
Fasting heat production (FHP) is used for characterizing the basal metabolic rate of animals and the corresponding maintenance energy requirements and in the calculation of net energy value of feeds. In broilers, the most recent FHP estimates were obtained in the 1980s in slow-growing and fatter birds than nowadays. The FHP values (n=73; six experiments) measured in 3 to 6-week-old modern lines of broilers weighing 0.6 to 2.8 kg and growing at 80 to 100 g/day were used to update these literature values. Each measurement was obtained in a group of fasting broilers (5 to 14 birds) kept in a respiration chamber for at least 24 h. The FHP estimate corresponds to the asymptotic heat production corrected for zero physical activity obtained by modeling the decrease in heat production during the fasting day. The compilation of these data indicates that FHP was linearly related to the BW0.70 (in kg), which can be considered as the metabolic BW of modern broilers. The 0.70 exponent differs from the conventional value of 0.75 used for mature animals. The FHP per kg of BW0.70 ranged between 410 and 460 kJ/day according to the experiment (P<0.01). An experiment conducted with a shorter duration of fasting (16 h) indicated that FHP values are higher than those obtained over at least 24 h of fasting. Our values are similar to those obtained previously on fatter and slow-growing birds, even though the comparison is difficult since measurement conditions and methodologies have changed during the last 30 years. The FHP values obtained in our trials represent a basis for energy nutrition of modern broilers.
There are insufficient data from nationwide surveys on the prevalence of specific psychotic disorders and associated co-morbidities.
The 2010 Australian national psychosis survey used a two-phase design to draw a representative sample of adults aged 18–64 years with psychotic disorders in contact with public treatment services from an estimated resident population of 1 464 923 adults. This paper is based on data from 1642 participants with an International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 psychotic disorder. Its aim is to present estimates of treated prevalence and lifetime morbid risk of psychosis, and to describe the cognitive, physical health and substance use profiles of participants.
The 1-month treated prevalence of psychotic disorders was 3.10 cases per 1000 population aged 18–64 years, not accounting for people solely accessing primary care services; lifetime morbid risk was 3.45 per 1000. Mean premorbid intelligence quotient was approximately 0.5 s.d.s below the population mean; current cognitive ability (measured with a digit symbol coding task) was 1.6 s.d.s below the population mean. For both cognitive tests, higher scores were significantly associated with better independent functioning. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was high, affecting 60.8% of participants, and pervasive across diagnostic groups. Of the participants, two-thirds (65.9%) were current smokers, 47.4% were obese and 32.4% were sedentary. Of the participants, half (49.8%) had a lifetime history of alcohol abuse/dependence and 50.8% lifetime cannabis abuse/dependence.
Our findings highlight the need for comprehensive, integrative models of recovery to maximize the potential for good health and quality of life for people with psychotic illness.
The PULSE@Parkes project has been designed to monitor the rotation of radio pulsars over time spans of days to years. The observations are obtained using the Parkes 64-m and 12-m radio telescopes by Australian and international high school students. These students learn the basis of radio astronomy and undertake small projects with their observations. The data are fully calibrated and obtained with the state-of-the-art pulsar hardware available at Parkes. The final data sets are archived and are currently being used to carry out studies of 1) pulsar glitches, 2) timing noise, 3) pulse profile stability over long time scales and 4) the extreme nulling phenomenon. The data are also included in other projects such as gamma-ray observatory support and for the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array project. In this paper we describe the current status of the project and present the first scientific results from the Parkes 12-m radio telescope. We emphasise that this project offers a straightforward means to enthuse high school students and the general public about radio astronomy while obtaining scientifically valuable data sets.
A laser scanning system has been developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory for the rapid characterization of crystal defects in single- and poly-crystalline semiconductors. The scanning defect mapping system has been commercialized by Labsphere, Inc. as the PVScan 5000. In the unprocessed material, the system produces digital color maps of the spatial distributions of dislocations and grain boundaries simultaneously. After device fabrication, the PVScan 5000 is used to produce photoresponsivity maps of the light beam induced current (LBIC) on a photovoltaic device such as a solar cell or a photodetector. An additional feature is that it also measures the spatial distributions of optical reflectance, both specular and diffuse, which can be applied to the LBIC maps to determine the internal responsivity of the device. The internal responsivity is proportional to the minority carrier diffusion length of silicon devices. It may be possible, therefore, to determine the diffusion length for certain devices.
The annealing behavior of shock modified rutile (TiO2) powder was studied by transmission electron microscopy, x-ray line broadening, and electron spin resonance. Specimens were examined in the as-received and as-shocked conditions, and in shocked and annealed conditions after one hour at 475° or 1000°C. The dislocations generated by the shock treatment were found to persist essentially unaltered through the 475°C anneal. Substantial recovery was observed after the 1000°C anneal.
A method is described for the production of collagen constructs formed from densely packed, native-banded collagen fibrils. This “Dense Fibrillar Collagen” is formed by concentrating collagen in situ prior to self assembly of the collagen into fibrils. The effect of altering the pH, ionic strength, and osmolarity of the concentrating solution was measured. Increasing the ionic strength and osmolarity of the concentrating solution increased the burst strength of the constructs; increasing the pH from 3.8 to 7.1 reduced the surface fibrillarity, degree of platelet uptake and “short term in vivo thrombogenicity. This construct is being considered as the basis of a small-caliber vascular prosthesis to support guided tissue regeneration.
Diamond films synthesized using Microwave Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition (MWCVD) were evaluated for use as dielectric material for high power and high temperature capacitors. The effect that the deposition parameters and annealing have on the frequency and temperature stability of the electronic properties was investigated. Dielectric constants ranging between 8.0 and 4.2 and resistivities between 1× 108 ohm-cm and 5×1014 ohm-cm were obtained. Diamond produced using less than 6.6% methane had very stable dielectric constants over the frequency range of 100 Hz to IMHz, and the loss tangent was less than 0.01. Adding oxygen to the precursor gas increased the dielectric constant and lowered the loss tangent of CVD diamond, but the resistivity was also lowered. As the temperature increased to 300°C, the dielectric constant and loss tangent increased. However, when diamond was annealed to 700°C, there was less than a 5% change in the dielectric constant from 23°C to 300°C.
The experiment consisted of a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design testing the two D+ and D− chicken lines selected for divergent digestion efficiency (fifth selection generation), xylanase (with or without) and ampicillin and collistin (with or without) supplementations. From 8 to 22 days, 144 chickens (18 birds per treatment) were fed a diet containing 55% wheat from a high-viscosity cultivar (Rialto). Effects of treatments were evaluated on individual growth performance (8 to 19 days), digestibilities of lipids and dry matter, dietary energy value (apparent metabolisable energy corrected to zero-nitrogen retention (AMEn)), digestive organ and breast sizes, and intestinal bile acids at 3 weeks of age. Individual variabilities were much lower in D+ than in D− birds for feed : gain ratios, digestibilities and AMEn values. In all cases, feed : gain ratios were lower in the D+ than in the D− line (P < 0.001), and D+ birds showed 22% to 86% higher values than in D− birds (P < 0.001) for digestibilities and AMEn. In D− birds, antibiotics but not xylanase supplementation had significant effects on lipid digestibility (P < 0.01) and AMEn (P < 0.05), whereas both supplements improved these parameters in D+ birds (P < 0.001 for both additives on lipids digestibility, P < 0.05 for xylanase and P < 0.01 for antibiotics on AMEn). Relative weights of gizzard and proventriculus, and gizzard : intestine weight ratio were higher in D+ than in D− birds, while relative weight of intestine was increased in D− birds compared with D+ birds. Antibiotics reduced intestine relative weight in D+ (P < 0.001) and D− (P < 0.01) lines. AMEn variations were efficiently predicted by the gizzard : intestine weight ratio. In conclusion, antibiotics were very efficient for improving growth performance, AMEn and digestibility values in both chicken lines. Xylanase was less efficient than antibiotics. Because of their low individual variabilities, D+ birds were much more efficient than D− ones for the detection of significant effects induced by xylanase supplementation. Differences between lines in feed : gain ratio, digestibilities and AMEn were reduced when xylanase and antibiotics were added together. Effects of xylanase supplementation and animal genetics on lipid digestibility could not be entirely explained in terms of intestinal bile acids. Other factors should be involved, especially for the lipid digestibility difference induced by animal genetics. The gizzard : intestine weight ratio was an efficient parameter for predicting AMEn variations due to animal genetics and additives.
In this article, we demonstrate the generation of four phase-locked
harmonic pulses separated in time using frequency-domain
interferometry. The spectra present a high sensitivity to a change of
the relative phase on an attosecond time scale. The spectral resolution
and the control of this relative phase could be used to perform high
The artistlike pictures of vortex flows presented here have been produced by the flow itself. The method of this “natural” flow visualization can be described briefly as follows: The working fluid is water mixed with some paste in order to increase the viscosity. Vortex flows are produced by pulling a stick or similar devices through the fluid or by injecting fluid through a nozzle into the working tank.
The flow visualization is performed in the following way: the surface of the fluid at rest is sparkled with oil paint of different colors diluted with some evaporating chemical. After the vortex structures have formed due to wakes or jets, a sheet of white paper is placed on the surface of the working fluid, where the oil color is attached to the paper immediately. The final results are artistlike paintings of vortex flows which exhibit a rich variety of flow structures.
Mixing in regular and chaotic flows
These photographs show the time evolution of two passive tracers in a low Reynolds number two-dimensional timeperiodic flow. The initial condition corresponds to two blobs of dye, green and orange, located below the free surface of a cavity filled with glycerine. The flow is induced by moving the top and bottom walls of the cavity while the other two walls are fixed. In this experiment the top wall moves from left to right and the bottom wall moves from right to left; both velocities are of the form Usin2(2πt/T), with the same U and the same period T, but with a phase shift of 90°.
This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of three doses of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A; Dysport®) in 125 patients (mean age 5.2 years, SD 2; 54% male)with dynamic equinus spasticity during walking. Participants were randomized to receive Dysport (10, 20, or 30 units/kg) or placebo to the gastrocnemius muscle of both legs. Muscle length was calculated from electrogoniometric measurements and the change in the dynamic component of gastrocnemius shortening at four weeks was prospectively identified as the primary outcome measure. All treatment groups showed statistically significant decreases in dynamic component compared with placebo at 4 weeks. Mean improvement in dynamic component was most pronounced in the 20 units/kg group, being equivalent to an increase in dorsiflexion with the knee extended at 19°, and was still present at 16 weeks. The safety profile of the toxin appears satisfactory.