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GravityCam is a new concept of ground-based imaging instrument capable of delivering significantly sharper images from the ground than is normally possible without adaptive optics. Advances in optical and near-infrared imaging technologies allow images to be acquired at high speed without significant noise penalty. Aligning these images before they are combined can yield a 2.5–3-fold improvement in image resolution. By using arrays of such detectors, survey fields may be as wide as the telescope optics allows. Consequently, GravityCam enables both wide-field high-resolution imaging and high-speed photometry. We describe the instrument and detail its application to provide demographics of planets and satellites down to Lunar mass (or even below) across the Milky Way. GravityCam is also suited to improve the quality of weak shear studies of dark matter distribution in distant clusters of galaxies and multiwavelength follow-ups of background sources that are strongly lensed by galaxy clusters. The photometric data arising from an extensive microlensing survey will also be useful for asteroseismology studies, while GravityCam can be used to monitor fast multiwavelength flaring in accreting compact objects and promises to generate a unique data set on the population of the Kuiper belt and possibly the Oort cloud.
Solar radiation was measured above and in the snowpack on Svalbard using a spectroradiometer and a quantum meter measuring average photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). In order to specify the effect of melting on the snow’s radiation properties, all measurements were performed before and during the melt season in May and June 1997 and 1998. Along with the radiation measurements, physical and structural snow properties were logged in snow pits. A physically based model was used to simulate the penetration of radiation into the snow The model formulation accounts for the spectrally dependent interactions between the radiation and snow grains, and requires inputs of the incoming solar radiation spectrum and the vertical snow density and grain-size. The vertical radiation-flux profile was computed using a two-stream radiation approximation where the absorption and reflection coefficients are related to the surface albedo, solar spectrum, grain-size and number of grains per unit volume. In general, snow before the onset of melt attenuates solar radiation more than coarser-grained snow that has been exposed to melting conditions. Quantum-meter measurements of PAR before and during melt can be explained by model outputs using both constant and variable extinction coefficients. Spectroradiometer measurements at fixed depth levels showed, in addition, that impurities in the snow reduce its transparency and therefore have the opposite effect to aging.
Charge carrier trapping in diamond surface conduction field effect transistors (FETs) has been analyzed. For these devices two methods were used to obtain a negative electron affinity diamond surface; either plasma hydrogenation or annealing in an H2 environment. In both cases the Al2O3 gate dielectric can trap both electrons and holes in deep energy levels with emission timescales of seconds, while the diamond – Al2O3 interface traps exhibit much shorter time scales in the microsecond range. Capacitance-Voltage (CV) analysis indicates that these interface traps exhibit acceptor-like characteristics. Correlation with CV based free hole density measurements indicates that the conductance based interface trap analysis provides a method to quantify surface characteristics that lead to surface conduction in hydrogenated diamond where atmospheric adsorbates provide the acceptor states for transfer doping of the surface.
An analysis of the behaviour of the He II 5411 line wings is presented. The spectral classification of the companion is discussed on the basis of a simple geometric model of the colliding stellar winds zone.
This report has been prepared by the President with the assistance of the Vice-President, the Members of the Organizing Committee, V. V. Ivanov, P. Conti and of D. G. Hummer. The work of Commission 36 comes in contact with that of many commissions. Some subjects may be dealt with more fully in those reports; some subjects may have been “unlawfully” included here. Considerable choice has been exercised by the President about what to mention and in which section of the report to place it. The final product is only indicative of the large amount of work going on. An extensive bibliography has been compiled and will be distributed to commission members.
Commissions 12, 27, 29, 44 and 45 deal with observational material which our theories attempt to interpret, thus it is essential to study the reports of these commissions to appreciate the diversity of material for which theories are needed and against which theories may be checked. The theoretical treatment of the problems of planetary atmospheres, Commission 16, is not entirely divorced from that of stellar atmospheres. To set realistic inner boundary conditions on our atmosphere models and on our thinking, we must consider the material of Commission 35 while to set the outer boundary conditions we may consider the physical state of planetary nebulae which is one subject of Commission 34. When we wish to apply ideas about the interactions between radiation, atoms, ions and molecules we use material which lies in the province of Commission 14.
We conducted infrared spectroscopic observations of bright stars in the direction of the molecular clouds W33 and GMC G23.3 − 0.3. We compared stellar spectro-photometric distances with parallactic distances to these regions, and we were able to assess the association of the detected massive stars with these molecular complexes. The spatial and temporal distributions of the detected stars enabled us to locate sources of ionizing radiation and to gather precise information on the star formation history of these clouds. The studied clouds present different distributions of massive stars.
This report summarizes epidemiological data on nephropathia epidemica (NE) in the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia. NE cases identified in the period 1997–2013 were investigated in parallel with the hantavirus antigen prevalence in small rodents in the study area. A total of 13 930 NE cases were documented in all but one district of Tatarstan, with most cases located in the central and southeastern districts. The NE annual incidence rate exhibited a cyclical pattern, with the highest numbers of cases being registered once in every 3–5 years. The numbers of NE cases rose gradually from July to November, with the highest morbidity in adult males. The highest annual disease incidence rate, 64·4 cases/100 000 population, was observed in 1997, with a total of 2431 NE cases registered. NE cases were mostly associated with visiting forests and agricultural activities. The analysis revealed that the bank vole Myodes glareolus not only comprises the majority of the small rodent communities in the region, but also consistently displays the highest hantavirus prevalence compared to other small rodent species.
The crystal structure and surface morphology of hydride vapour phase epitaxy grown thick (12-105 μm) GaN layers have been investigated as a function of growth rate using several structure sensitive techniques like atomic force microscopy (AFM), x-ray diffraction (XRD) in ω-2θ and ω-rocking curve measurements as well as low temperature photoluminescence (PL). PL and XRD measurements reveal rather narrow lines: full width at half maximum (FWHM) values of the strongest donor-bound exciton line are in the range from 6.0 to1.8 meV and ω-2θ FWHM values are between 80 and 23 arcsec indicating good structural quality of the films. The ω-rocking curves show a single peak for the thinnest films with a FWHM of 250 arcsec and multiple peaks with FWHM of about 250-350 arcsec in thicker films indicating the formation of several high-quality domains when increasing either thickness or growth rate. Optical microscopy and AFM images reveal a domain type of morphology and also show an appearance of spiral hillocks in layers grown at growth rates exceeding a critical value. We interpret these results as dominating 2D multilayer growth at low growth rates, and competing 2D multilayer and spiral growth mechanisms at high growth rates.
Optical properties of the GaNxAs1−x layers grown on (001) GaAs substrates by molecular beam epitaxy have been studied. The samples can be classified into three categories with respect to the concentration of N, as determined by x-ray diffraction and secondary-ion mass spectrometry: (i) with doping nitrogen concentration, (ii) with average content of N less than 30 %, and (iii) with x close to 100 %. From optical measurements of photoluminescence and Raman scattering, combined with analysis of x-ray diffraction spectra, different phases are observed in the GaNxAs1−x layers: GaAs, GaN and the solid ternary solution GaNxAs1−x. We have estimated the fundamental band-gap energy in the GaNxAs1−x alloy with low nitrogen concentration (up to x = 0.04) from absorption measurements, and in GaNxAs1−x with low arsenic concentration (up to 1−x = 0.04) - from photoluminescence spectra. An analysis of the dependence of the experimental values of the GaNxAs1−x band-gap energy on the nitrogen composition indicates a constant bowing parameter b as large as b = -18 eV.
The Magellanic System represents one of the best places to study the formation and evolution of galaxies. Photometric surveys of various depths, areas and wavelengths have had a significant impact on our understanding of the system; however, a complete picture is still lacking. VMC (the VISTA near-infrared YJKs survey of the Magellanic System) will provide new data to derive the spatially resolved star formation history and to construct a three-dimensional map of the system. These data combined with those from other ongoing and planned surveys will give us an absolutely unique view of the system opening up the doors to truly new science!
Continuous decrease of the feature size of transistors in modern integrated circuits (ICs) constrains thickness of auxiliary dielectric layers in interconnects because of their relatively high dielectric constant, which reduces the efficiency of low-k material integration. Dielectric materials used today as barrier or etch-stop layers are usually SiN (k ∼ 7.0) and SiCN (k ∼ 4.8), which k-value significantly exceeds that of recent ultra low-k materials (k < 2.2). In our work we have investigated thin films of rigid-chain polyimide (PI) with a k-value of about 3.2-3.3. This film was deposited using a Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique and can be as thin as several monolayers. The intermolecular interaction of densely packed precursor macromolecules within a monolayer formed at the water-air interface makes it possible to avoid penetration of precursor material inside the pores. The latter peculiarity of the deposition process results in a pore sealing effect using a 4 nm PI film.
Experimental investigation of thermoelectric properties of nanowires with diameter of about 5 nm was carried out. Chrysotile asbestos (a natural mineral) was used for a sample preparation. Its nano-sized channels were filled under pressure by melted InSb or Te. The measurements showed that temperature dependences of electrical resistance and thermopower of produced quantum wires differ considerably from corresponding dependences of bulk materials. It is possible to conclude that the results obtained are better described by Lattinger liquid model than by usual Fermi gas one.
A hybrid double heterostructure with large asymmetric band offsets, combining AlAsSb/InAs (as a III–V part) and CdMgSe/CdSe (as a II–VI part), has been proposed as a basic element of a mid-infrared laser structure design. The p-i-n diode structure has been successfully grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and exhibited an intense long-wavelength electroluminescence at 3.12 μm (300K). A II–VI MBE growth initiation with a thin ZnTe buffer layer prior to the CdMgSe deposition results in a dramatic reduction of defect density originating at the II–VI/III–V interface, as demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy. A less than 10 times reduction of electroluminescence intensity from 77 to 300K indicates an efficient carrier confinement in the InAs active layer due to high potential barriers in conduction and valence bands, estimated as ΔEC = 1.28 eV and ΔEV ∼ 1.6 eV. An increase in the pumping current results in a super-linear raising the EL intensity. The type of band line up at the coherent InAs/Cd1−xMgxSe interface is discussed for 0≤x≤0.2, using experimental data and theoretical estimations within a model-solid theory.
Magneto-optical spectroscopy in combination with tunable laser excitation spectroscopy is employed to carry out a detailed study of spin alignment and spin injection in II-VI wide-bandgap semiconductor heterostructures, aiming at optimization of structural design for nano-scale spintronic applications. The use of tunable excitation is shown to provide a valuable opportunity to monitor separately spin relaxation and spin injection processes in the structures. Efficient spin alignment is achieved by using a diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) (a layer of ZnMnSe or a ZnMnSe/CdSe superlattice) as thin as 10 nm. The spin alignment efficiency is shown to depend critically on the ratio between the rates of spin relaxation and spin transport within the DMS layer. This allows the realization of spin alignment and spin switching functions by varying the structural design.
The focused output from a copper laser (λ = 510nm) has been used for direct writing of Al on silicon substrates by pyrolitical decomposition of trimethilaluminum (TMA). These results demonstrate that direct writing can be accomplished at room temperature by a single-step deposition process induced by a single light source. For a laser power density between 5 and 50 kW cm−2, the widths of the stripes varied between 60 and 200 μm with corresponding thickness between 0.5 and 0.8 μm. The width of the stripes proved to be independent of the scanning velocity, Vs, within the range 50 μm s−1 < Vs < 300 μm s−1. The analysis included scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to study the film morphology, a step profiler to evaluate the thicknesses and the profiles of the stripes, and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) to provide their chemical compositions.
Using X-ray structural and transmission electron microscopy analyses, specific features of the phase and structure transformations in armco-iron and steel 45 affected by a high-current electron beam up to 1011 W/cm2 power density have been studied. It was revealed that hardening of steel with martensite structure has a quasi-periodic character that is caused by the action of a shock wave. The action of a shock wave results in formation of a thin layer on the rear side of the samples. The layer is composed of subgrains of ot-ferrite of a regular hexagonal shape with thin layers of graphite on their boundaries.
Using X-ray structural analysis and transmission electron microscopy of thin layers we have studied the mechanism of heat-affected zone formation in as-hardened steel irradiated by a low-energy microsecond high-current electron beam. It has been found that the above zone consists of three characteristic layers. We have analysed the conditions of formation of this layers using thermal calculations.
Maskless deposition of silicon from silane on Si monocrystalline wafer using copper bromide vapor laser (CBVL) is investigated. Morphology and geometric parameters of the stripes obtained are studied and some conclusions for the process mechanism are made. Applying Kirchoff's transform and Green's function analysis nonlinear heat diffusion problem for different pulse shapes was solved. The influence of pulse shape on the temperature distribution and its time evolution was studied. Nonisothermal and non-stationary deposition kinetic models using the obtained results were developed.
The crystal structure and surface morphology of hydride vapour phase epitaxy grown thick (12-105 μm) GaN layers have been investigated as a function of growth rate using several structure sensitive techniques like atomic force microscopy (AFM), x-ray diffraction (XRD) in ω-2Θ and ω-rocking curve measurements as well as low temperature photoluminescence (PL). PL and XRD measurements reveal rather narrow lines: full width at half maximum (FWHM) values of the strongest donor-bound exciton line are in the range from 6.0 to1.8 meV and ω-2Θ FWHM values are between 80 and 23 arcsec indicating good structural quality of the films. The ω-rocking curves show a single peak for the thinnest films with a FWIM of 250 arcsec and multiple peaks with FWHIM of about 250-350 arcsec in thicker films indicating the formation of several high-quality domains when increasing either thickness or growth rate. Optical microscopy and AFM images reveal a domain type of morphology and also show an appearance of spiral hillocks in layers grown at growth rates exceeding a critical value. We interpret these results as dominating 2D multilayer growth at low growth rates, and competing 2D multilayer and spiral growth mechanisms at high growth rates.
The fabrication of sensors and actuators requires new materials with multicomponent stoichiometry as well as new three-dimensional microstructures. We present several potential applications of laser processing for the fabrication of sensors and actuators. The first example concerns gas sensors which require ionic conductor multicomponent ceramics whose stoichiometry is not maintained by conventional sputtering methods. We have successfully employed pulsed laser deposition (PLD) for producing high quality NASICON (Na SuperIonic CONductor) thin films. XPS measurements show that all elements are transferred from a target of Na1+xZr2SixP3-xO12, (where 0 < x < 3 ) to the substrate, and that the composition of the thin film is very close to that of the target. Electrical measurements show good ionic conductivity. Thus, these films are suitable for the fabrication of electrochemical gas sensors. Since such ceramic thin films are very sensitive to liquids, wet etching is prohibited, and patterning is done using laser ablation. For other applications, a laser micromachining technique has been developed to make tunnels and cavities in Si under SiO2 films, based on the laser-induced CI2 etching of Si and high chlorine Si/SiO2 etch rate ratios. Tunnels with length of up to 3 mm and cavities of 100×100 cm2 were successfully fabricated in SiO2/Si bilayer samples. These are usable in microfluidic or gas pressure measurement systems.