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The contribution of milk and dairy products to daily iodine intake is high but variable in many industrialised countries. Factors that affect iodine concentrations in milk and dairy products are only poorly understood. Our aim was to: (1) assess the effect of feed iodine concentration on milk iodine by supplementing five groups of five cows each with one of five dosages from 0–2 mg iodine/kg DM; (2) quantify iodine losses during manufacturing of cheese and yogurt from milk with varying iodine concentrations and assess the effect of cellar-ripening; and (3) systematically measure iodine partitioning during heat treatment and skimming of milk. Milk iodine reached a near-steady state after 3 weeks of feeding. Median milk iodine (17–302 μg/l for 0–2 mg iodine/kg DM) increased linearly with feed iodine (R2 0·96; P < 0·001). At curd separation, 75–84 % of iodine was lost in whey. Dairy iodine increased linearly with milk iodine (semi-hard cheese: R2 0·95; P < 0·001; fresh cheese and yogurt: R2 1·00; P < 0·001), and cellar-ripening had no effect. Heat treatment had no significant effect, whereas skimming increased (P < 0·001) milk iodine concentration by only 1–2 μg/l. Mean daily intake of dairy products by Swiss adults is estimated at 213 g, which would contribute 13–52 % of the adults’ RDA for iodine if cow feed is supplemented with 0·5–2 mg iodine/kg DM. Thus, modulation of feed iodine levels can help achieve desirable iodine concentrations in milk and dairy products, and thereby optimise their contribution to human iodine nutrition to avoid both deficiency and excess.
This study among 80 dual-earner couples examines the ripple effects of emotional labour – on a daily basis. Specifically, we propose that employees who engage in surface acting at work drain their energetic resources, and undermine their own relationship satisfaction. Drawing upon conservation of resources (COR) theory, we predicted that work-related exhaustion would mediate the relationship between surface acting at work and at home. In addition, we hypothesized that employees’ emotional energy in the evening would mediate the relationship between surface acting at home and (actor and partner) satisfaction with the relationship. Participants filled in a survey and a diary booklet during five consecutive working days (N = 80 couples, N = 160 participants x 5 days, N = 800 occasions). The hypotheses were tested with multilevel analyses, using the actor–partner interdependence model. Results showed that daily work-related exhaustion partially mediated the relationship between daily surface acting at work and at home. As hypothesized, daily surface acting at home influenced own and partner’s daily relationship satisfaction through reduced daily emotional energy. These findings offer support for COR theory, and have important implications for organizations that encourage emotion regulation.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The purpose of this study was to examine factors associated with Latina immigrant mothers’ hesitancy in having their 9-12 year old daughters vaccinated against HPV despite a physician recommendation. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The data analyzed for this study was from a previous effort that examined the efficacy of an intervention to promote HPV vaccination among daughters (9-12 years of age) of Latina immigrants (N=317) through a randomized trial. Baseline data among Latina immigrant mothers with unvaccinated daughters was collected prior to this intervention. Participants were surveyed on sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge and perceptions of cervical cancer and HPV, and intention to vaccinate their daughters with the HPV vaccine if recommended by the daughter’s physician. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Out of 317 participants, 205 reported willingness to vaccinate following a physician recommendation (64.7%) while 112 reported hesitancy (defined as an answer of “maybe”) to vaccinate their daughters (35.3%). None of the participants indicated “no”. No sociodemographic factors were significantly associated with vaccine hesitancy except for the daughter’s health insurance status (p = 0.03). A significant difference existed in the mother’s perceived risk of cervical cancer in herself based on hesitancy and willingness to vaccination (p < 0.001). Mother’s awareness of HPV (p < 0.0001), knowledge of HPV (p < 0.01), her perceived risk of HPV infection in herself (p < 0.01) and in her daughter (p < 0.0001), and her worry about her daughter being infected with HPV (p = 0.02) were also significant. Finally, there were differences among mothers in confidence of being able to have their daughters complete all three doses of the vaccine (p < 0.0001), and having the time (p < 0.0001) and the money (p < 0.0001) to complete the vaccination series. Factors that were significant in the univariate analysis were then incorporated into a binary logistic multivariable regression. HPV knowledge score was excluded from this analysis due to its limited sample size (n = 169). The five variables that were strongly associated with the outcome of vaccine hesitancy included: HPV awareness, mother’s perceived risk of HPV infection in their daughter, confidence in the ability to receive all three shots in vaccine series, confidence in being able to afford the vaccine series, and daughter’s health insurance. All were positively correlated with intention to vaccinate except for daughter’s health insurance status. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Despite research showing Latinos are pro-vaccination and the association between HCP provider recommendation and vaccine acceptability among parents, over 35% of Latina immigrant mothers in our study were still hesitant about having their daughters vaccinated against HPV following a physician recommendation. Factors that strongly contributed to this hesitancy included HPV awareness, mother’s perceived risk of their daughter being infected with HPV, self-efficacy (ability to receive all required shots and finding time to complete the HPV vaccination series), and daughter’s health insurance status. These results indicate that HCP recommendation may be not enough of a driving factor to motivate Latina immigrant mothers to vaccinate their daughters against HPV. Further research efforts should focus on heightening perceived risk of HPV infection, improving knowledge of HPV, and boosting their self-efficacy to get their children vaccinated against HPV.
Although food from grazed animals is increasingly sought by consumers because of perceived animal welfare advantages, grazing systems provide the farmer and the animal with unique challenges. The system is dependent almost daily on the climate for feed supply, with the importation of large amounts of feed from off farm, and associated labour and mechanisation costs, sometimes reducing economic viability. Furthermore, the cow may have to walk long distances and be able to harvest feed efficiently in a highly competitive environment because of the need for high levels of pasture utilisation. She must, also, be: (1) highly fertile, with a requirement for pregnancy within ~80 days post-calving; (2) ‘easy care’, because of the need for the management of large herds with limited labour; (3) able to walk long distances; and (4) robust to changes in feed supply and quality, so that short-term nutritional insults do not unduly influence her production and reproduction cycles. These are very different and are in addition to demands placed on cows in housed systems offered pre-made mixed rations. Furthermore, additional demands in environmental sustainability and animal welfare, in conjunction with the need for greater system-level biological efficiency (i.e. ‘sustainable intensification’), will add to the ‘robustness’ requirements of cows in the future. Increasingly, there is evidence that certain genotypes of cows perform better or worse in grazing systems, indicating a genotype×environment interaction. This has led to the development of tailored breeding objectives within countries for important heritable traits to maximise the profitability and sustainability of their production system. To date, these breeding objectives have focussed on the more easily measured traits and those of highest relative economic importance. In the future, there will be greater emphasis on more difficult to measure traits that are important to the quality of life of the animal in each production system and to reduce the system’s environmental footprint.
It may be possible for dairy farms to improve profitability and reduce environmental impacts by selecting for higher feed efficiency and lower methane (CH4) emission traits. It remains to be clarified how CH4 emission and feed efficiency traits are related to each other, which will require direct and accurate measurements of both of these traits in large numbers of animals under the conditions in which they are expected to perform. The ranking of animals for feed efficiency and CH4 emission traits can differ depending upon the type and duration of measurement used, the trait definitions and calculations used, the period in lactation examined and the production system, as well as interactions among these factors. Because the correlation values obtained between feed efficiency and CH4 emission data are likely to be biased when either or both are expressed as ratios, therefore researchers would be well advised to maintain weighted components of the ratios in the selection index. Nutrition studies indicate that selecting low emitting animals may result in reduced efficiency of cell wall digestion, that is NDF, a key ruminant characteristic in human food production. Moreover, many interacting biological factors that are not measured directly, including digestion rate, passage rate, the rumen microbiome and rumen fermentation, may influence feed efficiency and CH4 emission. Elucidating these mechanisms may improve dairy farmers ability to select for feed efficiency and reduced CH4 emission.
Herbivores are found in a variety of ecosystems all over the world. Permanent pastures and meadows cover about 25% of global land. We currently count one domesticated herbivore for two people in the world and the number is growing. Production systems and products are highly diverse. This high diversity is the result of thousands of years of natural selection and human-controlled breeding, as well as migration and trade. Because of the high diversity of domestic herbivore genetic resources, herders have been able to live in regions where no alternative for income generation exists. Meat and milk from domestic herbivores provide 16% and 8% of the global protein and kilocalorie consumption, respectively. They also provide a variety of essential micronutrients but can contribute to overweight and obesity when consumed in excess. Domestic herbivores also make significant contribution to food security through the production of manure, draught power and transport and the generation of income at household and national level. They have a key role to play in women’s empowerment and gender equality, both in rural and urban areas.
Demand for meat and milk is increasing because of population growth, rising incomes and urbanisation. This trend is expected to continue, especially in Latin America, South Asia and China. The sustainable development of domestic herbivore production needs to address the feed/food and the efficiency of herbivores in turning forages into protein. It also needs to address the contribution of herbivores to greenhouse gas emissions, especially of ruminants through enteric fermentation, and their mitigation potential, including through carbon sequestration. Animal genetic resources have a key role to play in mitigating and adapting to climate change. The role of ruminants in the circular bioeconomy needs to be enhanced, promoting the use of by-products and waste as livestock feed and the recycling of manure for energy and nutrients. Finally, the role of domestic herbivores in providing secure livelihoods and economic opportunities for millions of smallholder farmers and pastoralists needs to be enhanced. The sustainable development of the sector therefore requires adequate policies, and there are already a variety of mechanisms available, including regulations, cross-compliance systems, payments for environmental services and research and development. Priority areas for policy makers should be aligned with the global framework of the Sustainable Development Goals and include: (i) food security and nutrition, (ii) economic development and livelihoods, (iii) animal and human health and finally, (iv) environment, climate and natural resources.
Clear policies regarding sexual expression, sexual behaviour and related decision-making assist in ensuring that the rights of people with mental disorder or intellectual disability are upheld, and that staff know how to react to situations consistently and lawfully without interfering on the basis of their own moral judgements or personal beliefs. Sensitive and holistic planning of care that complies with domestic law, international human rights law and statutory guidance is necessary to complement such policies. Non-intimate physical contact, masturbation, sexual relationships, contraception, sterilisation and vasectomy, pregnancy, termination of pregnancy, sexual dysfunction, parenthood, marriage and civil partnership, divorce, prostitution, pornography, and sex aids and toys are all matters that may properly be part of care planning.
•Understand the limited legal basis for the formulation of policies and rules concerning sexual expression, sexual behaviour and related decision-making by people with mental disorder or intellectual disability
•Be able to formulate policies concerning sexual matters as they relate to people with mental disorder or intellectual disability
•Be able to plan care for psychiatric patients and community service users balancing their rights to sexual fulfilment with the protection of their own welfare and the protection of others
There is growing evidence on the extent to which projected changes in climate, including increases in atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide, higher temperatures, changes in amount, seasonality and variability of precipitation and increases in extreme weather events, may affect future availability of ruminant animal products. Elements of climate change affect livestock systems through direct impacts on animal physiology, behaviour, production and welfare and indirectly through feed availability, composition and quality. These impacts may be positive or negative and will vary across geographical regions, animal species and with adaptive capacity. However, adverse impacts are likely to be greatest in tropical and sub-tropical regions including countries where both current need and future growth in demand for nutrition is greatest. The complexity of effects means that effective adaptation strategies to mitigate negative impacts on ruminant production systems to climate changes will need to be multi-dimensional. Although predictions of future climate, particularly on regional and local scales, have a degree of uncertainty, adaptation planning is starting to be informed by changes already being observed and adjustments in management being made by farmers to maintain productivity and profitability. Regional case studies illustrate the benefits and limitations of adaptive management: potential mitigation through heightened awareness of heat stress-related mortality in French cattle; evidence of a drop in milk production in south-eastern Australian dairies during a January 2014 heat wave, from the theoretical potential of 53% to only 10% across the state; and limitations in response options to climate-induced thermal, nutritional and water stress for sheep and goat farmers in northern Ethiopia. Review of research on climate change impacts on ruminant livestock and effective adaptation together with evidence of practical adaptive management provide insights into potential strategies and gaps in knowledge to address challenges and improve future decisions.
Livestock farming systems provide multiple benefits to humans: protein-rich diets that contribute to food security, employment and rural economies, capital stock and draught power in many developing countries and cultural landscape all around the world. Despite these positive contributions to society, livestock is also the centre of many controversies as regards to its environmental impacts, animal welfare and health outcomes related to excessive meat consumption. Here, we review the potentials of sustainable intensification (SI) and agroecology (AE) in the design of sustainable ruminant farming systems. We analyse the two frameworks in a historical perspective and show that they are underpinned by different values and worldviews about food consumption patterns, the role of technology and our relationship with nature. Proponents of SI see the increase in animal protein demand as inevitable and therefore aim at increasing production from existing farmland to limit further encroachment into remaining natural ecosystems. Sustainable intensification can thus be seen as an efficiency-oriented framework that benefits from all forms of technological development. Proponents of AE appear more open to dietary shifts towards less animal protein consumption to rebalance the whole food system. Agroecology promotes system redesign, benefits from functional diversity and aims at providing regulating and cultural services. We analyse the main criticisms of the two frameworks: Is SI sustainable? How much can AE contribute to feeding the world? Indeed, in SI, social justice has long lacked attention notably with respect to resource allocation within and between generations. It is only recently that some of its proponents have indicated that there is room to include more diversified systems and food-system transformation perspectives and to build socially fair governance systems. As no space is available for agricultural land expansion in many areas, agroecological approaches that emphasise the importance of local production should also focus more on yield increases from agricultural land. Our view is that new technologies and strict certifications offer opportunities for scaling-up agroecological systems. We stress that the key issue for making digital science part of the agroecological transition is that it remains at a low cost and is thus accessible to smallholder farmers. We conclude that SI and AE could converge for a better future by adopting transformative approaches in the search for ecologically benign, socially fair and economically viable ruminant farming systems.
Livestock plays an important role in the global economy. Climate change effects are not only limited to crop production, but also affect livestock production, for example reduced milk yields and milk quality, reduced meat production and reduced fertility. Therefore, livestock-based food security is threatened in many parts of the world. Furthermore, multiple stressors are a common phenomenon in many environments, and are likely to increase due to climate change. Among these stresses, heat stress appears to be the major factor which negatively influences livestock production. Hence, it is critical to identify agro-ecological zone-specific climate resilient thermo-tolerant animals to sustain livestock production. Livestock responds to the changing environments by altering their phenotypic and physiological characters. Therefore, survivability of the animal often depends on its ability to cope with or adapt to the existing conditions. So to sustain livestock production in an environment challenged by climate change, the animals must be genetically suitable and have the ability to survive in diversified environments. Biological markers or biomarkers indicate the biological states or alterations in expression pattern of genes or state of protein that serve as a reference point in breeding for the genetic improvement of livestock. Conventionally, identification of animals with superior genetic traits that were economically beneficial was the fundamental reason for identifying biomarkers in animals. Furthermore, compared with the behavioural, morphological or physiological responses in animals, the genetic markers are important because of the possibility of finding a solution to animal adaptability to climate change.
In the UK, 11.8% of expectant mothers undergo an elective caesarean section (ELCS) representing 92 000 births per annum. It is not known to what extent this procedure has an impact on mental well-being in the longer term.
To determine the prevalence and postpartum progression of anxiety and depression symptoms in women undergoing ELCS in Wales.
Prevalence of depression and anxiety were determined in women at University Hospital Wales (2015–16; n = 308) through completion of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS; ≥13) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI; ≥40) questionnaires 1 day prior to ELCS, and three postpartum time points for 1 year. Maternal characteristics were determined from questionnaires and, where possible, confirmed from National Health Service maternity records.
Using these criteria the prevalence of reported depression symptoms was 14.3% (95% CI 10.9–18.3) 1 day prior to ELCS, 8.0% (95% CI 4.2–12.5) within 1 week, 8.7% (95% CI 4.2–13.8) at 10 weeks and 12.4% (95% CI 6.4–18.4) 1 year postpartum. Prevalence of reported anxiety symptoms was 27.3% (95% CI 22.5–32.4), 21.7% (95% CI 15.8–28.0), 25.3% (95% CI 18.5–32.7) and 35.1% (95% CI 26.3–44.2) at these same stages. Prenatal anxiety was not resolved after ELCS more than 1 year after delivery.
Women undergoing ELCS experience prolonged anxiety postpartum that merits focused clinical attention.
People with mental disorder and intellectual disability have the same rights to sexual expression as other people, albeit that in some cases a lack of capacity may require curtailment of those rights and regard must be had to protecting the vulnerable. Furthermore, the formation or maintenance of sexual relations, or the attainment of sexual fulfilment, may assist in the maintenance or restoration of mental health or well-being. This article demonstrates how the courts in England and Wales, applying statute law and judicial precedent, are largely supportive of the rights of people with mental disorder or intellectual disability to make decisions about sexual expression, sexual relationships and related matters, notwithstanding some societal and staff attitudes that act to prevent them fulfilling their sexual needs and making decisions about sexual and reproductive matters.
•Understand the underlying principles that apply to the exercise of their sexual rights by people with mental disorder or intellectual disability
•Understand some of the obstacles to the exercise of sexual rights by people with mental disorder or intellectual disability
•Understand the statute and case law that apply to the exercise of sexual rights by people with mental disorder or intellectual disability
Ondansetron is increasingly administered to children suffering from concussion-associated nausea/vomiting. We examined the association between ondansetron administration and post-concussion symptoms in children at 1 week and 1 month following the concussion.
This was a secondary analysis of data collected prospectively in a cohort study conducted in nine pediatric emergency departments (EDs) (5P study). Participants were children ages between 5 and 17.99 years who sustained a concussion in the previous 48 hours. For the current study, only 5P participants who reported nausea and/or vomiting in the ED were eligible. The exposure of interest was ondansetron administration; the comparison group included all other participants. The primary outcome was an increase in at least three symptoms of the Post-Concussion Symptom Inventory score at 1 week and 1 month following trauma.
Among the 3,063 children included in the 5P study, 1805 (59%) reported nausea and provided data at 1 week and/or 1 month. Among them, 132 (7%) received ondansetron. Multivariable logistic regression adjusted for confounders did not show an association between ondansetron use and the risk of persistent post-concussion symptoms at 1 week (OR: 1.13 [95% CI: 0.86-1.49]), but it was associated with a higher risk at 1 month (OR: 1.33 [95% CI: 1.05-1.97]).
In children presenting to the ED with an acute concussion, ondansetron use was associated with a higher risk of persistent post-concussion symptoms at 1 month. Although this may be related to the limitations of the design, it highlights the importance of evaluating this association using a randomized clinical trial.
Milk and dairy products are important iodine sources and contribute about 30–40 % of total iodine in the Swiss diet. Information about variation in milk iodine concentration (MIC) in Switzerland is limited. We examined MIC and its potential determinants in milk from organic and conventional farms. We collected bulk milk samples at 3-month intervals over 1 year from thirty-two farms throughout Switzerland and Aosta valley, North-West Italy. We sampled all feed components including tap water, collected information on farm characteristics, feeding and teat disinfection practices by questionnaire and estimated the cows’ winter and summer iodine intake. Iodine in milk and feed components was measured using inductively coupled plasma MS. The overall median MIC was 87 (range 5–371) µg/l. In multivariate analysis, predictors of MIC were as follows: (1) farm type: median MIC from organic and conventional farms was 55 and 93 µg/l (P=0·022); (2) season: 53, 97 and 101 µg/l in September, December and March (P<0·002); and (3) teat dipping: 97 µg/l with v. 56 µg/l without (P=0·028). In conclusion, MIC varied widely between farms because of diverse farming practices that result in large differences in dairy cow exposure to iodine via ingestion or skin application. Standardisation of MIC is potentially achievable by controlling these iodine exposures. In order for milk to be a stable iodine source all year round, dietary iodine could be added at a set level to one feed component whose intake is regular and controllable, such as the mineral supplement, and by limiting the use of iodine-containing teat disinfectants.
The present study aimed to (i) assess the appetitive drives evoked by the visual cues of ultra-processed food and drink products and (ii) investigate whether text warnings reduce appetitive drives and consumers’ reported intentions to eat or drink ultra-processed products.
In Study I, a well-established psychometric tool was applied to estimate the appetitive drives associated with ultra-processed products using sixty-four image representations. Sixteen product types with four exemplars of a given product were included. Pictures from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) served as controls. The two exemplars of each product type rated as more appetitive were selected for investigation in the second study. Study II assessed the impact of textual warnings on the appetitive drive towards these thirty-two exemplars. Each participant was exposed to two picture exemplars of the same product type preceded by a text warning or a control text. After viewing each displayed picture, the participants reported their emotional reactions and their intention to consume the product.
Controlled classroom experiments
Undergraduate students (Study I: n 215, 135 women; Study II: n 98, 52 women).
In Study I, the pictures of ultra-processed products prompted an appetitive motivation associated with the products’ nutritional content. In Study II, text warnings were effective in reducing the intention to consume and the appetitive drive evoked by ultra-processed products.
This research provides initial evidence favouring the use of text warnings as a public policy tool to curb the powerful influence of highly appetitive ultra-processed food cues.
Fe fortification of wheat flour was proposed in Haiti to combat Fe deficiency, but Fe bioavailability from fortificants has never been investigated in Haitian women or preschool children, two key target groups. We aimed to investigate the bioavailability of ferrous fumarate (FeFum), NaFeEDTA and their combination from fortified wheat flour. We recruited twenty-two healthy mother–child pairs in Port au Prince, Haiti, for an Fe-absorption study. We administered stable Fe isotopes as FeFum or NaFeEDTA individually in low-extraction wheat flour bread rolls consumed by all participants in a randomised, cross-over design. In a final, identical meal, consumed only by the women, FeFum+NaFeEDTA was administered. We measured Fe absorption by using erythrocyte incorporation of stable isotopes 14 d after consumption of each meal, and determined Fe status, inflammatory markers and Helicobacter pylori infection. Fe absorption (geometric mean was 9·24 (95 % CI 6·35, 13·44) and 9·26 (95 % CI 7·00, 12·31) from FeFum and 13·06 (95 % CI 9·23, 19·10) and 12·99 (95 % CI 9·18, 18·39) from NaFeEDTA in mothers and children, respectively (P<0·05 between compounds). Fe absorption from FeFum+NaFeEDTA was 11·09 (95 % CI 7·45, 17·34) and did not differ from the other two meals. H. pylori infection did not influence Fe absorption in children. In conclusion, in Haitian women and children, Fe absorption from NaFeEDTA was 40 % higher than from FeFum, and the combination FeFum+NaFeEDTA did not significantly increase Fe absorption compared with FeFum alone. In the context of Haiti, where the high costs of NaFeEDTA may not be affordable, the use of FeFum at 60 mg Fe/kg flour may be a preferable, cost-effective fortification strategy.
Leishmaniasis are diseases caused by parasites of the genus Leishmania and transmitted to humans by the bite of infected insects of the subfamily Phlebotominae. Current drug therapy shows high toxicity and severe adverse effects. Recently, two oligopeptidases (OPBs) were identified in Leishmania amazonensis, namely oligopeptidase B (OPB) and oligopeptidase B2 (OPB2). These OPBs could be ideal targets, since both enzymes are expressed in all parasite lifecycle and were not identified in human. This work aimed to identify possible dual inhibitors of OPB and OPB2 from L. amazonensis. The three-dimensional structures of both enzymes were built by comparative modelling and used to perform a virtual screening of ZINC database by DOCK Blaster server. It is the first time that OPB models from L. amazonensis are used to virtual screening approach. Four hundred compounds were identified as possible inhibitors to each enzyme. The top scored compounds were submitted to refinement by AutoDock program. The best results suggest that compounds interact with important residues, as Tyr490, Glu612 and Arg655 (OPB numbers). The identified compounds showed better results than antipain and drugs currently used against leishmaniasis when ADMET in silico were performed. These compounds could be explored in order to find dual inhibitors of OPB and OPB2 from L. amazonensis.
The onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD) affects couples’ relationship. We investigated the perception of change and sexual satisfaction in spouse-caregivers and their partners diagnosed with AD.
We compared 74 dyads of people with Alzheimer's disease (PwAD)/spouse-caregivers and 21 elderly dyads control. We assessed sexual satisfaction with Questionnaire on Sexual Experience and Satisfaction (QSES), cognition using a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), disease severity using a Clinical Dementia Rating scale (CDR), awareness of disease with Assessment Scale of Psychosocial Impact of the Diagnosis of Dementia (ASPIDD), functionality with Pfeffer Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ), depressive symptoms with Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD), quality of life using a Quality of Life in Alzheimer's Disease Scale (QoL-AD), and burden using a Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI).
We found differences between the perception and no perception of change in sexual activity of PwAD (p < 0.001), spouse-caregivers (p < 0.01), and controls (p < 0.05). Moderate to severe sexual dissatisfaction was observed in 36.5% of PwAD, 65% of spouse-caregivers, and 31% of controls. PwAD sexual satisfaction was related to cognitive impairment (p < 0.05). Spouse-caregivers sexual satisfaction was related to gender (p < 0.05) and the presence of sexual activity (p < 0.001).
The perception of change with higher sexual dissatisfaction, were significant in PwAD and their spouse-caregivers, in comparison with couples of elderly without dementia.
We performed a detailed spectroscopic analysis of the fullerene C60-containing planetary nebula (PN) Lin49 in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). Lin49 is a C-rich and metal-deficient PN (Z~0.0006) and its nebular abundances are in agreement with the AGB model for the initially 1.25 M⊙ stars with the metallicity Z = 0.001. By stellar absorption fitting with TLUSTY, we derived stellar abundances, effective temperature, and surface gravity. We constructed the photoionization model with CLOUDY in order to investigate physical conditions of Lin49. The model with the 0.005-0.1 μm radius graphite and a constant hydrogen density shell could not fit the ~1-5 μm spectral energy distribution (SED) owing to the strong near-IR excess. We propose that the near-IR excess indicates (1) the presence of extremely small carbon molecules or (2) the presence of high-density structure surrounding the central star.
Objective: Prospective memory (PM) is a cognitive function defined as the ability to perform an intention at an appropriate moment in the future. In the aging population, PM is essential for maintaining independent daily living. Introduced as a simple and quick way to assess PM in clinical settings, the envelope task has to date received very limited empirical and practical interest. Methods: The present study investigated the task’s clinical utility in detecting PM impairment in a sample composed of 49 healthy older adults (OA), 41 patients with Alzheimer’s disease, and 64 individuals with amnestic and nonamnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) of heterogeneous etiology: 17 of idiopathic nature, 20 presenting an idiopathic rapid-eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, and 27 patients diagnosed with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease. Results: The envelope task was highly sensitive and specific in discriminating Alzheimer’s disease patients from OA. Although it was specific in distinguishing MCI individuals from OA, its sensitivity was modest, especially in patients presenting a nonamnestic MCI subtype. Conclusions: Given its high specificity and simple low-cost administration procedure, the envelope task is a promising instrument for clinicians who seek to rapidly assess PM impairment in their daily practice.