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This article provides a new account of employers' advantages over employees in federal employment discrimination cases. We analyze the effects of judicial deference, in which judges use institutionalized employment structures to infer nondiscrimination without scrutinizing those structures in any meaningful way. Using logistic regression to analyze a representative sample of judicial opinions in federal EEO cases during the first thirty‐five years after the passage of the 1964 Civil Rights Act, we find that when judges uncritically use the presence of organizational structures to reason about whether discrimination occurred, employers are much more likely to prevail. This pattern is especially pronounced in opinions written by liberal judges. In light of these findings, we offer recommendations for judges, lawyers, and policy makers—including legal academics—who seek to improve the accuracy and efficacy of employment discrimination adjudications.
Anaerobic digestion systems can reduce greenhouse gas emissions while turning waste products into energy. Past U.S. economic research on anaerobic digesters has studied dairy farms, but limited economic information is available on anaerobic digestion systems for swine. Net present values (NPVs) were calculated for biodigesters and covered lagoons under different coproduct and policy scenarios. With no government intervention, covered lagoons are more promising for swine operations than more capital-intensive biodigesters. As there is interest in subsidizing anaerobic digestion systems, subsidies equal to a $38/t social cost of carbon would provide positive NPVs.
To describe the pattern of blood culture utilization in an academic university hospital setting.
Retrospective cohort study.
A 789-bed tertiary-care university hospital that processes 40,000+blood cultures annually.
We analyzed blood cultures collected from adult inpatients at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania between July 1, 2014, and June 30, 2015. Descriptive statistics and regression models were used to analyze patterns of blood culture utilization: frequency of blood cultures, use of repeat cultures following a true-positive culture, and number of sets drawn per day.
In total, 38,939 blood culture sets were drawn during 126,537 patient days (incidence rate, 307.7 sets per 1,000 patient days). The median number of blood culture sets drawn per hospital encounter was 2 (range, 1–76 sets). The median interval between blood cultures was 2 days (range, 1–71 days). Oncology services and cultures with gram-positive cocci were significantly associated with greater odds of having repeat blood cultures drawn the following day. Emergency services had the highest rate of drawing single blood-culture sets (16.9%), while oncology services had the highest frequency of drawing ≥5 blood culture sets within 24 hours (0.91%). Approximately 10% of encounters had at least 1 true-positive culture, and 89.2% of those encounters had repeat blood cultures drawn. The relative risk of a patient having repeat blood cultures was lower for those in emergency, surgery, and oncology services than for those in general medicine.
Ordering practices differed by service and culture results. Analyzing blood culture utilization can contribute to the development of guidelines and benchmarks for appropriate usage.
The term ‘mood stabiliser’ is ill-defined and lacks clinical utility. We propose a framework to evaluate medications and effectively communicate their mood stabilising properties – their acute and prophylactic efficacy across the domains of mania and depression. The standardised framework provides a common definition to facilitate research and clinical practice.
Declaration of interest
The Treatment Algorithm Group (TAG) was supported logistically by Servier who provided financial assistance with travel and accommodation for those TAG members travelling interstate or overseas to attend the meeting in Sydney (held on 18 November 2017). None of the committee were paid to participate in this project and Servier have not had any input into the content, format or outputs from this project.
Isochronal layers in firn detected with ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and dated using results from ice-core analyses are used to calculate accumulation rates along a 100 km across-flow profile in West Antarctica. Accumulation rates are shown to be highly variable over short distances. Elevation measurements from global positioning system surveys show that accumulation rates derived from shallow horizons correlate well with surface undulations, which implies that wind redistribution of snow is the leading cause of this variability. Temporal changes in accumulation rate over 25–185 year intervals are smoothed to along-track length scales comparable to surface undulations in order to identify trends in accumulation that are likely related to changes in climate. Results show that accumulation rates along this profile have decreased in recent decades, which is consistent with core-derived time series of annual accumulation rates measured at the two ends of the radar profile. These results suggest that temporal variability observed in accumulation-rate records from ice cores and GPR profiles can be obscured by spatial influences, although it is possible to resolve temporal signals if the effects of local topography and ice flow are quantified and removed.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The overall goal of this project is to enhance the use of GCRA in Latina breast cancer survivors at high risk of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer to reduce disparities in GCRA uptake. The aims of the study are to (1) develop a cultural adaptation of an evidence-based TGC intervention that consists of phone genetic counseling and a booklet, (2) evaluate the impact of TGC Versus Usual Care, and (3) explore the communication patterns in TGC and genetic counseling sessions with an interpreter. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We are conducting a 2-phase, mixed methods study. In Phase I we will develop a cultural adaption of an evidence-based intervention (TGC) for high-risk Latina breast cancer survivors using the Learner Verification and Revision Framework (n=15). In Phase II we will use a cluster randomized design with four community sites randomized to Spanish TGC (n=2 sites) or usual care (n=2 sites) (n=60; 15 per site). The primary outcome is genetic counseling uptake. Among women who receive genetic counseling either through TGC (n~30) or with an interpreter (n~15), we will assess counseling quality by reviewing 20 randomly selected audiotaped sessions (10 TGC; 10 interpreters). We will evaluate women’s HBOC knowledge and satisfaction with counseling. Communication processes and outcomes will be assessed using gold standard RIAS quantitative coding system and qualitative discourse analysis. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We elicited input from transdisciplinary team members to develop an initial adaptation of a TGC print booklet and intervention protocol for use with high-risk Latina breast cancer survivors with limited English proficiency. The booklet contains low-literacy information about HBOC, risk factors, pros and cons of testing, and management strategies. Based on these materials and prior work, we anticipate TGC will consist of one 1 hour or less TGC session by phone. Participants interested in pursuing testing will receive a saliva kit and will participate in a second TGC session (30 min) to discuss test results and management options. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Given access barriers and the shortage of Spanish-speaking genetic counselors, adapting and translating TGC intervention is a promising strategy that could reduce disparities by broadening the reach and accessibility to genetic counseling while enhancing the quality of the service for Latinas with limited English proficiency.
I. De Pater, University of California, Berkeley Berkeley, California, USA,
D. P. Hamilton, University of Maryland College Park, Maryland, USA,
M. R. Showalter, SETI Institute Mountain View, California, USA,
H. B. Throop, Planetary Science Institute Tucson, Arizona, USA,
J. A. Burns, Cornell University Ithaca, New York, USA
Among African Americans, spirituality is meaning or purpose in life and a faith in God who is in control of health and there to provide support and guidance in illness situations. Using qualitative methods, we explored the use of spirituality to make sense of the end-of-life and bereavement experiences among family members of a deceased cancer patient.
Data in this report come from 19 African Americans who experienced the loss of a family member to cancer. A qualitative descriptive design was used with criterion sampling, open-ended semistructured interviews, and qualitative content analysis.
Participants made sense of the death of their loved one using the following five themes: Ready for life after death; I was there; I live to honor their memory; God's wisdom is infinite; and God prepares you and brings you through. These five themes are grounded in conceptualizations of spirituality as connectedness to God, self, and others.
Significance of results
Our findings support the results that even during bereavement, spirituality is important in the lives of African Americans. African American family members might struggle with issues related to life after death, their ability to be physically present during end-of-life care, and disentangling beliefs around God's control over the beginning and ending of life. The findings in this report can be used to inform healthcare providers to better support and address the needs for support of African American family members during end-of-life and bereavement experiences.
We obtained radiocarbon (14C) dates with accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) of vascular plant samples and a charcoal sample collected from peat deposits near the prehistoric village site informally designated CR-03 on Carlisle Island in the Islands of Four Mountains group, Alaska, to determine the eruption age of the CR-02 tephra. A fine vitric ash erupted from Okmok caldera, Umnak Island (ca. 2 ka BP) was also discovered in the bog. The ages of the CR-02 tephra and Okmok II ash are estimated to be 1050 and 2000 cal BP, respectively. Because both tephras are distinctive and widespread, these are important chronostratigraphic markers for archaeological sites in this island group. The 14C dates obtained from this bog are 800 years younger than the dates of the charcoal fragments from cultural layers in the Unit 3 of prehistoric village site CR-02 (AMK-0003).
Modern datasets provide the context necessary for accurate interpretations of isotopic data from archaeological faunal assemblages. In this study, we use the oxygen isotope ratios (δ18O) of modern small mammals from Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, to quantify expected isotopic variation in a local population. The δ18O values of local, modern small mammals encompass a broad range (−6.0‰ to 4.8‰ VPDB), which is expected given the extreme seasonal variation in the δ18O of precipitation on the Colorado Plateau (−11‰ to −3‰ VPDB). Isotopic ratios of small mammals obtained from excavated archaeological sites in Chaco Canyon (ca. AD 800 to 1200) show no significant differences with their modern counterparts, suggesting that there is no difference in the origins of the archaeological small-mammal collection and the modern, local Chaco Canyon small-mammal collection. In contrast, δ18O values of large mammals from Chaco archaeological sites are significantly different from those of modern specimens, reflecting a nonlocal, but also nonspecific, source in the past.
We present preliminary analysis of new HST observations of the transiting extrasolar planet HD 209458b. Photometric observations were obtained with the Fine Guidance Sensor (FGS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), providing milli-mag precision and high time resolution (40 Hz). The FGS photometry allows us to derive precise stellar/orbital parameters (ephemeris, inclination, limb darkening) and planetary radius, and also allows a search for the presence of planetary rings and satellites. We discuss preliminary results and two approaches to modelling the observations.
Thirteen annually resolved accumulation-rate records covering the last ~200 years from the Pine Island–Thwaites and Ross drainage systems and the South Pole are used to examine climate variability over West Antarctica. Accumulation is controlled spatially by the topography of the ice sheet, and temporally by changes in moisture transport and cyclonic activity. A comparison of mean accumulation since 1970 at each site to the long-term mean indicates an increase in accumulation for sites located in the western sector of the Pine Island–Thwaites drainage system. Accumulation is negatively associated with the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) for sites near the ice divide, and periods of sustained negative SOI (1940–42, 1991–95) correspond to above-mean accumulation at most sites. Correlations of the accumulation-rate records with sea-level pressure (SLP) and the SOI suggest that accumulation near the ice divide and in the Ross drainage system may be associated with the mid-latitudes. The post-1970 increase in accumulation coupled with strong SLP–accumulation-rate correlations near the coast suggests recent intensification of cyclonic activity in the Pine Island– Thwaites drainage system.
We track dated firn horizons within 400 MHz short-pulse radar profiles to find the continuous extent over which they can be used as historical benchmarks to study past accumulation rates in West Antarctica. The 30–40cm pulse resolution compares with the accumulation rates of most areas. We tracked a particular set that varied from 30 to 90 m in depth over a distance of 600 km. The main limitations to continuity are fading at depth, pinching associated with accumulation rate differences within hills and valleys, and artificial fading caused by stacking along dips. The latter two may be overcome through multi-kilometer distances by matching the relative amplitude and spacing of several close horizons, along with their pulse forms and phases. Modeling of reflections from thin layers suggests that the – 37 to – 50 dB range of reflectivity and the pulse waveforms we observed are caused by the numerous thin ice layers observed in core stratigraphy. Constructive interference between reflections from these close, high-density layers can explain the maintenance of reflective strength throughout the depth of the firn despite the effects of compaction. The continuity suggests that these layers formed throughout West Antarctica and possibly into East Antarctica as well.
We have recorded reflection profiles of firn through large areas of West Antarctica and part of the East Antarctic plateau using 400MHz short-pulse radar. The locations show accumulation rates that vary from well above to well below the vertical radar resolution. Most reflection horizons have extensive lateral continuity, and are composed of distinctive wavelets with a consistent phase polarity sequence within their successive half-cycles. We modeled these waveforms, and conclude that they arise from thin, double layers of ice over hoar, which is consistent with the standard model of firn stratification. In addition, we conclude that ice/hoar layers are extensive throughout West Antarctica and also present (although more sparsely) beneath the Antarctic Plateau.
An updated compilation of published and new data of major-ion (Ca, Cl, K, Mg, Na, NO3, SO4) and methylsulfonate (MS) concentrations in snow from 520 Antarctic sites is provided by the national ITASE (International Trans-Antarctic Scientific Expedition) programmes of Australia, Brazil, China, Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, New Zealand, Norway, the United Kingdom, the United States and the national Antarctic programme of Finland. The comparison shows that snow chemistry concentrations vary by up to four orders of magnitude across Antarctica and exhibit distinct geographical patterns. The Antarctic-wide comparison of glaciochemical records provides a unique opportunity to improve our understanding of the fundamental factors that ultimately control the chemistry of snow or ice samples. This paper aims to initiate data compilation and administration in order to provide a framework for facilitation of Antarctic-wide snow chemistry discussions across all ITASE nations and other contributing groups. The data are made available through the ITASE web page (http://www2.umaine.edu/itase/content/syngroups/snowchem.html) and will be updated with new data as they are provided. In addition, recommendations for future research efforts are summarized.
Chemistry data from 16, 50–115m deep, sub-annually dated ice cores are used to investigate spatial and temporal concentration variability of sea-salt (ss) SO42– and excess (xs) SO42– over West Antarctica and the South Pole for the last 200 years. Low-elevation ice-core sites in western West Antarctica contain higher concentrations of SO42– as a result of cyclogenesis over the Ross Ice Shelf and proximity to the Ross Sea Polynya. Linear correlation analysis of 15 West Antarctic ice-core SO42– time series demonstrates that at several sites concentrations of ssSO42– are higher when sea-ice extent (SIE) is greater, and the inverse for xsSO42–. Concentrations of xsSO42– from the South Pole site (East Antarctica) are associated with SIE from the Weddell region, and West Antarctic xsSO42– concentrations are associated with SIE from the Bellingshausen–Amundsen–Ross region. The only notable rise of the last 200 years in xsSO42–, around 1940, is not related to SIE fluctuations and is most likely a result of increased xsSO42– production in the mid–low latitudes and/or an increase in transport efficiency from the mid–low latitudes to central West Antarctica. These high-resolution records show that the source types and source areas of ssSO42– and xsSO42– delivered to eastern and western West Antarctica and the South Pole differ from site to site but can best be resolved using records from spatial ice-core arrays such as the International Trans-Antarctic Scientific Expedition (ITASE).