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Over 700 photographs of the inner zodiacal light were taken from the Clementine spacecraft while it was in orbit around the Moon. These exposures were taken with the 28° x 43° field-of-view Star Tracker camera and the 4.2° x 5.6° field-of-view UV/Vis camera. The images were made while the Clementine spacecraft was on the dark side of the Moon such that the Sun was occulted. Most of the photos were taken at the highest possible sensitivity and longest exposure time (0.7 sec) in order to detect an expected weak lunar horizon glow. Consequently, many of the photos are over exposed where the zodiacal light is the brightest. However, a subset of photos were purposefully taken with a range of exposure times to reveal the entire inner zodiacal light structure, both in latitude and longitude, to within 1° of the Sun. These Star Tracker images show the lenticular shape of the inner zodiacal light. When work to correct the images to absolute photometry is concluded, the detailed structure of the entire inner zodiacal light will be derived.
The Square Kilometre Array will be an amazing instrument for pulsar astronomy. While the full SKA will be sensitive enough to detect all pulsars in the Galaxy visible from Earth, already with SKA1, pulsar searches will discover enough pulsars to increase the currently known population by a factor of four, no doubt including a range of amazing unknown sources. Real time processing is needed to deal with the 60 PB of pulsar search data collected per day, using a signal processing pipeline required to perform more than 10 POps. Here we present the suggested design of the pulsar search engine for the SKA and discuss challenges and solutions to the pulsar search venture.
Novel free boundary magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium states with spontaneous three-dimensional (3-D) deformations of the plasma–vacuum interface are computed. The structures obtained look like saturated ideal external kink/peeling modes. Large edge pressure gradients yield toroidal mode number
distortions when the edge bootstrap current is large and higher
corrugations when this current is small. Linear ideal MHD stability analyses confirm the nonlinear saturated ideal kink equilibrium states produced and we can identify the Pfirsch–Schlüter current as the main linear instability driving mechanism when the edge pressure gradient is large. The dominant non-axisymmetric component of this Pfirsch–Schlüter current drives a near resonant helical parallel current density ribbon that aligns with the near vanishing magnetic shear region caused by the edge bootstrap current. This current ribbon is a manifestation of the outer mode previously found on JET (Solano 2010). We claim that the equilibrium corrugations describe structures that are commonly observed in quiescent H-mode tokamak discharges.
The Wisconsin Plasma Astrophysics Laboratory (WiPAL) is a flexible user facility designed to study a range of astrophysically relevant plasma processes as well as novel geometries that mimic astrophysical systems. A multi-cusp magnetic bucket constructed from strong samarium cobalt permanent magnets now confines a
, fully ionized, magnetic-field-free plasma in a spherical geometry. Plasma parameters of
provide an ideal testbed for a range of astrophysical experiments, including self-exciting dynamos, collisionless magnetic reconnection, jet stability, stellar winds and more. This article describes the capabilities of WiPAL, along with several experiments, in both operating and planning stages, that illustrate the range of possibilities for future users.
A large area nanogap electrode fabrication method combinig conventional lithography patterning with the of focused ion beam (FIB) is presented. Lithography and a lift-off process were used to pattern 50 nm thick platinum pads having an area of 300 μm × 300 μm. A range of 30-300 nm wide nanogaps (length from 300 μm to 10 mm ) were then etched using an FIB of Ga+ at an acceleration voltage of 30 kV at various beam currents. An investigation of Ga+ beam current ranging between 1-50 pA was undertaken to optimise the process for the current fabrication method. In this study, we used Monte Carlo simulation to calculate the damage depth in various materials by the Ga+. Calculation of the recoil cascades of the substrate atoms are also presented. The nanogap electrodes fabricated in this study were found to have empty gap resistances exceeding several hundred MΩ. A comparison of the gap length versus electrical resistance on glass substrates is presented. The results thus outline some important issues in low-conductance measurements. The proposed nanogap fabrication method can be extended to various sensor applications, such as chemical sensing, that employ the nanogap platform. This method may be used as a prototype technique for large-scale fabrication due to its simple, fast and reliable features.
Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy has beensuccessfully applied to the analysis of the ionic domain microstructure inzinc and rubidium neutralized ionomers. In dehydrated zinc neutralizedionomers, the zinc cation was found to be tetrahedrally coordinated to oxygenatoms. For ionomers with hydrocarbon backbones, these oxygen atoms mayoriginate from the sulfonate or carboxylate groups. For ionomers withperfluorinated backbones, some of the oxygen atoms may be ascribed to watercoordination as well. In fully hydrated zinc neutralized ionomers, thezinc cation exists as Zn( H2O)62+. In contrast, the fully hydrated monovalentrubidium neutralized ionomers exhibited a highly disordered environmentabout the cation.
This study evaluates variations in SiCl4 reactive ion etching (RIE) process parameters in order to optimize the fabrication of lateral quantum well arrays (QWA) used in III–V semiconductor laser and detector designs. Since fabrication involves MBE regrowth on SiCl4 etched surfaces, material quality of both the etched surface and GaAs regrowth are evaluated. The variation of RIE parameters involved power levels, DC bias and etch times (10 Watts, -30V, 8 min.; 25 Watts, -100V, 5 min.; 95 Watts,-340V, 2 min.) while material removal was held constant (400nm). Evaluation of the etched surfaces revealed that the lattice damage depth exceeded lOOnm for all power levels. The extent of disorder beneath the etched surface was less for the low power long etch time. Etching at higher power levels for shorter time periods resulted in smoother surfaces and enhanced electrical characteristics, which in turn yielded a higher quality GaAs regrowth region. For the RIE parameters examined in this study, the variation in defect densities seemed to have a lesser effect on device performance as compared to the extreme differences in surface morphologies. Thus, for the parameters evaluated in this work, we suggest that QWA fabrication is optimized via SiClif RIE at the high power level for a short time period.
We present the use of an STM to make quantitative observations of time-dependent mass flow associated with the decay of two-dimensional clusters on the Au(111) surface. When formed and observed in air, layered islands with well-defined edges located on larger terraces are generally found to decay in such a way that their areas decrease linearly in time over periods ranging from minutes to several hours depending on the island size. This is in contrast to the behavior of similar features formed and observed under ultra high vacuum conditions, which do not appear to decay over experimental periods of several days. The linear decay is consistent with models that have been used previously to describe growth of 2-dimensional clusters on surfaces. We discuss possible decay mechanisms, and the role that adsorbates may play in influencing the decay.
This paper gives some of the highlights of a panel discussion on surface diffusion held Monday, November 30, 1992 at the Fall MRS Meeting in Boston, Massachusetts. Four invited speakers discussed computer modeling techniques and scanning tunneling microscopy experiments that have been used to provide new understanding of the atomistic processes that occur at surfaces. We present a summary of each of the invited talks, indicate other presentations on surface diffusion in this proceedings, and provide a transcript of the two discussion sessions.
To understand the properties of light-sensitive compounds used in optical limiters having photoinduced charge transfer mechanisms, we have investigated the photophysics of a series of di(2-thienyl-3,3'-butyl)polyenes. Spectroscopic measurements, including UV/Vis, fluorescence, fluorescence lifetimes, fluorescence quantum yields, triplet state lifetime, solvent effects and two-photon absorption coefficient were obtained as a function of the number of double bonds(n = 1-5). Trends in the data reflected the ordering, energy gap between and mixing of 1Bu* and 1Ag* excited state configurations.
We investigate the morphological features of sputter eroded surfaces, demonstrating that while at short times ripple formation is described by the linear theory, after a characteristic time the nonlinear terms determine the surface morphology. We also show that the morphological transitions induced by the nonlinear effects can be detected by monitoring the surface width and the erosion velocity.
We have investigated the growth of Co deposited on Ag(100) with ultra low energy ion beam deposition. The preferred sites of nucleation, the island densities and heights are determined with scanning tunneling microscopy. Submonolayers of Co were ion beam deposited at 300 K using energies between 5 and 30 eV. Preferential growth of islands on the upper side of the mono-atomic Ag steps (i.e. step decoration) is observed for deposition energies of 5 and 15 eV. In addition, 3–4 ML deep holes are formed in the Ag substrate for deposition at 5 eV. At higher deposition energies, the number of holes per surface area decreases. The results are compared with experiments on thermal deposition of Co on Ag(100) as a function of substrate temperature, performed in a previous study.
Aluminum Nitride (AIN) is a promising material for a variety of technological applications because it has many exceptional properties, such as wide band gap (WBG) and negative electron affinity (NEA). AIN thin films were prepared by Reactive Ion Beam Coating. The properties of the AIN thin films may be a function of one of the preparation conditions: the beam energy. We used the non-Rutherford backscattering (non-RBS) and Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) results to analyze the composition of the AIN thin films. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was applied to study the morphology of films. On the other hand, electron field emission properties were also studied to find the relationship between the compositional, morphological and electron field emission properties of the AIN thin films.
The principal interests in this work are energetic-beam control of carbon-film properties and the roles of doping and surface morphology in field emission. Carbon films with variable sp3-bonding fraction were deposited on n-type Si substrates by ArF (193 nm) pulsed-laser ablation (PLA) of a pyrolytic graphite target, and by direct metal ion beam deposition (DMIBD) using a primary Cs+ beam to generate the secondary C- deposition beam. The PLA films are undoped while the DMIBD films are doped with Cs. The kinetic energy (KE) of the incident C atoms/ions was controlled and varied over the range from ∼25 eV to ∼175 eV. Earlier studies have shown that C films' sp3-bonding fraction and diamond-like properties can be maximized by using KE values near 90 eV. The films' surface morphology, sp3–bonding fraction, and Cs-content were determined as a function of KE using atomic force microscopy, TEM/EELS, Rutherford backscattering and nuclear reaction measurements, respectively. Field emission (FE) from these very smooth undoped and Cs-containing films is compared with the FE from two types of deliberately nanostructured carbon films, namely hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HF-CVD) carbon and carbon nanotubes grown by plasma-enhanced CVD. Electron field emission (FE) characteristics were measured using ∼25-μm, ∼5-μm and ∼1-μm diameter probes that were scanned with ∼75 nm resolution in the x-, y-, and z-directions in a vacuum chamber (∼5 × 10-7 torr base pressure) equipped with a video camera for viewing. The hydrogen-free and very smooth a-D or a-C films (with high or low sp3 content, and with or without ∼1% Cs doping) produced by PLD and DMIBD are not good field emitters. Conditioning accompanied by arcing was required to obtain emission, so that their subsequent FE is characteristic of the arc-produced damage site. However, deliberate surface texturing can eliminate the need for conditioning, apparently by geometrical enhancement of the local electric field. But the most promising approach for producing macroscopically flat FE cathodes is to use materials that are highly nanostructured, either by the deposition process (e.g. HF-CVD carbon) or intrinsically (e.g. carbon nanotubes). HF-CVD films were found to combine a number of desirable properties for FE displays and vacuum microelectronics, including the absence of conditioning, low turn-on fields, high emission site density, and apparent stability and durability during limited long-term testing. Preliminary FE measurements revealed that vertically aligned carbon nanotubes are equally promising.
Patterning of magnetic multilayer structures of the type used for MRAMs (e.g. NiFeCo/CoFe/Cu/CoFe/NiFeCo) is generally performed with ion milling, but this can degrade the coercivity of small (micron-size) MRAM elements and lead to sidewall redeposition. In high ion density reactive plasmas (Cl2/Ar) it is possible to produce ion-enhanced desorption of otherwise involatile halogenated reaction products, and achieve practical etch rates (∼600 Å/min) for the multilayers. However, removal of the chlorinated etch products from the feature sidewalls is critically important to avoid corrosion. We have used de-ionized water rinsing or in-situ exposure to H2, O2 or SF6 plasmas for removal of these etch residues. Some slight degradation in magnetization was observed in O2 plasma treated structures, but the other cleaning procedures produced no change in magnetic properties and excellent long-term stability. UV illumination of the sample surface during etching is also found to enhance etch rates, as has been reported previously for room temperature etching of Cu.
Glancing-angle deposition (GLAD) is a fabrication method capable of producing thin films with variable porosity. The GLAD process exploits substrate shadowing and limited adatom diffusion to create isolated columns of material that collectively comprise a highly porous thin film. GLAD can be used to create chiral or helical structures with a wide range of porosity through variation of the substrate tilt angle and controlled substrate rotation. We present the effect of the deposition angle on the selective transmittance of circularly polarized light in helical thin films fabricated with the GLAD process. Transmission measurements of titanium dioxide helical films reveal two regimes of enhanced selective transmittance: one corresponding to a substrate tilt angle that produces a maximum circular birefringence and another corresponding to strong anisotropic scattering.