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Most studies underline the contribution of heritable factors for psychiatric disorders. However, heritability estimates depend on the population under study, diagnostic instruments, and study designs that each has its inherent assumptions, strengths, and biases. We aim to test the homogeneity in heritability estimates between two powerful, and state of the art study designs for eight psychiatric disorders.
We assessed heritability based on data of Swedish siblings (N = 4 408 646 full and maternal half-siblings), and based on summary data of eight samples with measured genotypes (N = 125 533 cases and 208 215 controls). All data were based on standard diagnostic criteria. Eight psychiatric disorders were studied: (1) alcohol dependence (AD), (2) anorexia nervosa, (3) attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), (4) autism spectrum disorder, (5) bipolar disorder, (6) major depressive disorder, (7) obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and (8) schizophrenia.
Heritability estimates from sibling data varied from 0.30 for Major Depression to 0.80 for ADHD. The estimates based on the measured genotypes were lower, ranging from 0.10 for AD to 0.28 for OCD, but were significant, and correlated positively (0.19) with national sibling-based estimates. When removing OCD from the data the correlation increased to 0.50.
Given the unique character of each study design, the convergent findings for these eight psychiatric conditions suggest that heritability estimates are robust across different methods. The findings also highlight large differences in genetic and environmental influences between psychiatric disorders, providing future directions for etiological psychiatric research.
The [CII] 158 μm line is typically the brightest far-IR emission line from star-forming galaxies. As such, this line is a possible tracer of star-formation, but to do so we need the relative contributions of different ISM phases. Using high physical resolution observations of the [CII] 158 μm line from Herschel PACS in five 3'×3' field in M 31 and optical IFU spectra from PPaK and ancillary IR data, we are able to spatially separate out the ISM phases Kapala. We find that a large fraction of [CII] emission in M 31 arises from diffuse gas (~20–90), with a sub-linear relation of [CII]–SFR at ~50 pc scales. However, on ~kpc scales, the observed empirical [CII]–SFR relation is in agreement with other extragalactic studies.
We have carried out a detailed modelling of the dust heating and emission in the nearby, starbursting dwarf galaxy NGC 4214. Due to its proximity and the great wealth of data from the UV to the millimeter range (from GALEX, HST, Spitzer, Herschel, Planck and IRAM) it is possible to separately model the emission from HII regions and their associated photodissociation regions (PDRs) and the emission from diffuse dust. Furthermore, most model parameters can be directly determined from the data leaving very few free parameters. We can fit both the emission from HII+PDR regions and the diffuse emission in NGC 4214 with these models with “normal” dust properties and realistic parameters.
We describe our efforts to control the grain boundary alignment in polycrystalline thin films of silicon by using a biaxially textured template layer of CaF2 for photovoltaic device applications. We have chosen CaF2 as a candidate material due to its close lattice match with silicon and its suitability as an ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) material. We show that the CaF2 aligns biaxially at a thickness of ~10 nm and, with the addition of an epitaxial CaF2 layer, has an in-plane texture of ~15°. Deposition of a subsequent layer of Si aligns on the template layer with an in-plane texture of 10.8°. The additional improvement of in-plane texture is similar to the behavior observed in more fully characterized IBAD materials systems. A germanium buffer layer is used to assist in the epitaxial deposition of Si on CaF2 template layers and single crystal substrates. These experiments confirm that an IBAD template can be used to biaxially orient polycrystalline Si.
This study shows that biaxially textured SmxZr1−xOy (SZO) with a wide range of compositions (0.06 < x < 0.75) can be grown directly on ion-beam-assisted deposition (IBAD) MgO template using reactive cosputtering. The SZO crystal structure can be changed, and the lattice parameter can be tailored (from 5.23 to 5.49 Å) by changing the composition. We have developed a simplified high-temperature superconducting coated conductor using SZO as the buffer layer. YBa2Cu3O7−δ (YBCO) films grown by pulsed laser deposition on the SZO buffered IBAD MgO have self-field critical current densities (Jc) in the 2–4 MA/cm2 range. The in-field measurements demonstrate that high-quality YBCO films can be grown on SZO buffered IBAD MgO. The present results are especially important because they were obtained on coated conductors with the simpler architecture by eliminating the additional homoepitaxial layer of MgO. This translates in faster production and lower manufacturing cost.
The AMA's Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs' position
statement on “Disaster Preparedness and Response” is a welcome
discussion of an important issue: the extent to which physicians have a
responsibility to treat people affected by disasters in which the nature,
source, and cause of the harm is unclear and where the risk is largely
unknown.All authors contributed fully to
drafting and shaping this paper.
Large outbreaks of giardiasis caused by person-to-person transmission, or a combination of transmission routes, have not previously been reported. A large, prolonged giardiasis outbreak affected families belonging to a country club in a suburb of Boston, Massachusetts, during June–December 2003. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to determine the source of this outbreak. Giardiasis-compatible illness was experienced by 149 (25%) respondents to a questionnaire, and was laboratory confirmed in 97 (65%) of these cases. Of the 30 primary cases, exposure to the children's pool at the country club was significantly associated with illness (risk ratio 3·3, 95% confidence interval 1·7–6·5). In addition, 105 secondary cases probably resulted from person-to-person spread; 14 cases did not report an onset date. This outbreak illustrates the potential for Giardia to spread through multiple modes of transmission, with a common-source outbreak caused by exposure to a contaminated water source resulting in subsequent prolonged propagation through person-to-person transmission in the community. This capacity for a common-source outbreak to continue propagation through secondary person-to-person spread has been reported with Shigella and Cryptosporidium and may also be a feature of other enteric pathogens having low infectious doses.
The 2005 articles by Stoltman et al. and Flannery et al. to which Neff et al. (this issue) have responded are not an indictment of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) but, rather, of the way Blomster et al. (2005) misuse it and of the hyperbolic culture-historical claims they have made from their INAA results. It has long been acknowledged that INAA leads not to sources but to chemical composition groups. Based on composition groups derived from an extremely unsystematic collection of sherds from only seven localities, Blomster et al. claim that the Olmec received no carved gray or kaolin white pottery from other regions; they also claim that neighboring valleys in the Mexican highlands did not exchange such pottery with each other. Not only can one not leap directly from the elements in potsherds to such sweeping culture-historical conclusions, it is also the case that other lines of evidence (including petrographic analysis) have for 40+ years produced empirical evidence to the contrary. In the end, it was their commitment to an unfalsifiable model of Olmec superiority that led Blomster et al. to bypass the logic of archaeological inference.
We sought to determine the source of a norovirus outbreak among attendees of 46 weddings taking place during a single weekend. Norovirus-compatible illness was experienced by 332 (39%) of wedding guests surveyed; the outbreak affected up to 2700 persons. Illness was associated with eating wedding cake provided by a bakery common to the weddings (adjusted RR 4·5, P<0·001). A cake requiring direct hand contact during its preparation accounted for the majority of illness. At least two bakery employees experienced norovirus-compatible illness during the week preceding the weddings. Identical sequence types of norovirus were detected in stool specimens submitted by two wedding guests, a wedding hall employee, and one of the ill bakery employees. It is likely that one or more food workers at the bakery contaminated the wedding cakes through direct and indirect contact. These findings reinforce the necessity of proper food-handling practices and of policies that discourage food handlers from working while ill.
High velocity shocks may provide an important source of ionizing radiation in the NLR of active galaxies. Here we present preliminary results of a new grid of MAPPINGS III shock models for shock velocities up to 1000 km s−1. This grid significantly extends the parameter space covered by the previous models, and will serve as an important component in building multi-process models of the NLR.To search for other articles by the author(s) go to: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html
We present results of a self-consistent model of the spectral energy distribution (SED) of starburst galaxies. Two parameters control the IR SED, the mean pressure in the ISM and the destruction timescale of molecular clouds. Adding a simplified AGN spectrum provides mixing lines on IRAS color : color diagrams. This reproduces the observed colors of both AGNs and starbursts.To search for other articles by the author(s) go to: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html
Natural resource management has moved from a single disciplinary and one resource management approach to an interdisciplinary and ecosystem-based approach. Many conceptual models are being developed to understand and implement ecosystem management and forest certification initiatives that require an integration of data from both the social and natural systems (Vogt et al., 1997, 1999a,b). These changed approaches to natural resource management arose from a perception that variables critical in controlling the health and functioning of an ecosystem could only be determined by integrating information from both the social and the natural sciences (Vogt et al., 1997). However, it has been difficult to take many of the theoretical discussions and the frameworks or conceptual models that they have produced and to operationalize or put them into practice on the ground.
Despite these discussions and the recognition of their importance, social and natural science data have been ineffectively incorporated into the management and trade-off assessments of natural resources (Berry and Vogt, 1999).We hypothesize that some of this has occurred because of the distinct spatial scales being used by different disciplines which have not allowed for integration of information to occur at a causal level. The complexity and uncertainty of data needed to understand ecosystems by both social and natural scientists have also made it difficult for managers to recognize when the wrong indicators are being monitored or whether a system could degrade due to management (Larson et al., 1999; Vogt et al., 1999c). The need to link data causally from both disciplines as part of ecosystem management has given greater impetus to develop practical tools that would allow this integration to be accomplished.
Each process used to deposit or make the bi-axially textured template, buffer layer(s), and the superconductor in a coated conductor creates interfaces along which defects or interfacial reactions may result. These defects can be additive and propagate through the entire film structure to affect the growth and properties of the superconducting film. Defects within the films and their corresponding transport properties have been correlated with the differences in the thickness of the underlying buffer layer material. This knowledge can be used to control and engineer the structure of the coated conductor to maximize critical current densities.
Tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5) films were formed by oxidizing thin tantalum (Ta) films on bare and NO-nitrided silicon substrates. The 43-400 Å thick Ta films were deposited using physical vapor deposition (PVD) and oxidized using O2 for 2-60 min at 550-800 C in a furnace or single wafer tool. Uniform and stoichiometric Ta2O5 films were successfully produced as determined from XRD, AES depth profiling, XTEM, and ellipsometric analysis. The nitridation pretreatment was found to minimize the interfacial Ta-Si reactions which occur during the oxidation. Well-behaved CV and IV curves were obtained from mercury probe measurements. No CV hysteresis was observed. An equivalent oxide thickness of 38 Å and a leakage current of 7×10−9 A/cm2 at +1V were obtained for a 120 Å thick Ta2O5 film on a 15 Å interfacial SiO2 layer.
We successfully deposited high quality biaxially oriented BaxSr1-xTiO3 thin films on polycrystalline yttrium iron garnet substrates using both the metal-organic chemical liquid deposition and pulsed laser deposition methods with biaxially oriented MgO and yttriumstabilized- zirconia buffer layers. The dielectric losses of the films range from 0.005 to 0.015 while 25% of dielectric constant change was observed with 40V bias voltage up to 10 MHz. Both the dissipation and dielectric constant of the films remained nearly constants over a wide temperature range. A dual-tuning microwave phase shifter using a BST film grown on an MgO buffered polycrystalline YIG substrate was fabricated. A significant phase shift was observed in a wide frequency range when an electric bias or a magnetic field was applied to the device.
Within the microelectronics industry, there is an ongoing trend toward miniaturization coupled with higher performance. The scaling of transitors toward smaller dimensions, higher speeds, and lower power has resulted in an urgent need for low dielectric constant interlevel insulators. Low dielectric constant interlevel dielectrics have already been identified as being critical to the realization of high performance integrated circuits in the SLA Roadmap. Thus, there exists a need in the microelectronics industry for a thermally stable, noncorrosive low dielectric constant polymer with good solvent resistance, high glass transition temperature, good mechanical performance and good adhesive properties, particularly to copper. In addition, the desired dielectric material should be capable of being processed in environmentally friendly solvents, and the final thermal and electrical performance should not be affected by manufacturing or post environmental conditions. High glass transition temperature polynorbornenes are being developed which provide many of these desired features. This polymer family is produced via a new transition metal catalyzed polymerization. Attributes which make polynorbornene particularly attractive in microelectronics include: (i) excellent thermal performance, (ii) adhesion to conductors without the use of adhesion promoters or barrier layers, (iii) very low moisture absorption (< 0.1 wt %), and (iv) low dielectric constant (2.2 – 2.6). Side groups which have been added to the polynorbornene backbone improve adhesion, dielectric properties and mechanical properties.
In the period 1970–85, tree-ring research in Europe had resulted in the production of long oak chronologies for both Ireland and Germany going back over 7000 years (e.g. Brown et al. 1986; Leuschner & Delorme 1984). In England, there was a network of regional chronologies covering the historic period, and almost no chronological coverage for the prehistoric. For the archaeologist this meant that, provided a site from the historic period produced a replicated site chronology, the chances of dating by dendrochronology were very high. The chances of this happening for a prehistoric site were poor by comparison, although some sites were successfully dated, for example the Iron Age causeway from Fiskerton in Liricolnshire and the Hasholme log boat found in North Humberside (Hillam 1987).
The period 1985–88 saw an intense effort to outline a prehistoric oak tree-ring chronology in England (Baillie & Brown 1988). This work centred on sub-fossil oaks from East Anglia and Lancashire and built on a previous chronology from Swan Carr, near Durham which spanned 1155–381 BC (Baillie et al. 1983). The approach to chronology-building was to produce wellreplicated chronology units which could be located precisely in time against the existing Irish (Pilcher et al. 1984) and North German (Leuschner & Delorme 1984) chronologies.