To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
As in all other areas of the viva examinations, knowing basic definitions gives you an easy starting point when answering questions and gives the impression to the examiners that you have both a logical and clear thought process, and are in command of the subject matter.
A growth or swelling, which enlarges by cellular proliferation more rapidly than surrounding normal tissue and continues to enlarge after the initiating stimuli cease. Usually lacks structural organization and functional coordination with normal tissues and serves no useful purpose to the host.
Background: Buprenorphine/naloxone (bup/nal) is a partial opioid agonist/antagonist and recommended first line treatment for opioid use disorder (OUD). Emergency departments (EDs) are a key point of contact with the healthcare system for patients living with OUD. Aim Statement: We implemented a multi-disciplinary quality improvement project to screen patients for OUD, initiate bup/nal for eligible individuals, and provide rapid next business day walk-in referrals to addiction clinics in the community. Measures & Design: From May to September 2018, our team worked with three ED sites and three addiction clinics to pilot the program. Implementation involved alignment with regulatory requirements, physician education, coordination with pharmacy to ensure in-ED medication access, and nurse education. The project is supported by a full-time project manager, data analyst, operations leaders, physician champions, provincial pharmacy, and the Emergency Strategic Clinical Network leadership team. For our pilot, our evaluation objective was to determine the degree to which our initiation and referral pathway was being utilized. We used administrative data to track the number of patients given bup/nal in ED, their demographics and whether they continued to fill bup/nal prescriptions 30 days after their ED visit. Addiction clinics reported both the number of patients referred to them and the number of patients attending their referral. Evaluation/Results: Administrative data shows 568 opioid-related visits to ED pilot sites during the pilot phase. Bup/nal was given to 60 unique patients in the ED during 66 unique visits. There were 32 (53%) male patients and 28 (47%) female patients. Median patient age was 34 (range: 21 to 79). ED visits where bup/nal was given had a median length of stay of 6 hours 57 minutes (IQR: 6 hours 20 minutes) and Canadian Triage Acuity Scores as follows: Level 1 – 1 (2%), Level 2 – 21 (32%), Level 3 – 32 (48%), Level 4 – 11 (17%), Level 5 – 1 (2%). 51 (77%) of these visits led to discharge. 24 (47%) discharged patients given bup/nal in ED continued to fill bup/nal prescriptions 30 days after their index ED visit. EDs also referred 37 patients with OUD to the 3 community clinics, and 16 of those individuals (43%) attended their first follow-up appointment. Discussion/Impact: Our pilot project demonstrates that with dedicated resources and broad institutional support, ED patients with OUD can be appropriately initiated on bup/nal and referred to community care.
By using reductive perturbation technique we have studied the linear and non-linear properties of ion-acoustic solitary structures in a three-component plasma containing non-thermal electrons and Boltzmann positrons and a comparatively cold ion which has got a streaming motion. The Korteweg–de Vries equation has been obtained and the dependence of small amplitude solitary structures on various plasma parameters such as streaming velocity (v0), non-thermal parameter (β), reciprocal of electron temperature (χ), positron density (p), Mach number (M), and ion density (δ) have been studied. The possibility of formation of enveloping soliton and its characteristic features are further investigated by deriving the non-linear Schrödinger equation.
Using reductive perturbation technique, small-amplitude ion-acoustic solitary wave has been investigated in multi-component dense plasma, in which an electron beam propagates along the general streaming motion. The electrons in plasma have the q-exponential distribution. The positive and negative ions follow a regular Maxwellian distribution. It has been found that the positive and negative ion densities as well as the beam concentration have significant effect on the formation and properties of solitary structures. The streaming velocities of corresponding particles also have pronounced effect on the features of the solitons.
Most nutritional studies on the development of children focus on mother–infant interactions. Maternal nutrition is critically involved in the growth and development of the fetus, but what about the father? The aim is to investigate the effects of paternal methyl-group donor intake (methionine, folate, betaine, choline) on paternal and offspring global DNA (hydroxy)methylation, offspring IGF2 DMR DNA methylation, and birth weight. Questionnaires, 7-day estimated dietary records, whole blood samples, and anthropometric measurements from 74 fathers were obtained. A total of 51 cord blood samples were collected and birth weight was obtained. DNA methylation status was measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (global DNA (hydroxy)methylation) and pyrosequencing (IGF2 DMR methylation). Paternal betaine intake was positively associated with paternal global DNA hydroxymethylation (0.028% per 100 mg betaine increase, 95% CI: 0.003, 0.053, P=0.03) and cord blood global DNA methylation (0.679% per 100 mg betaine increase, 95% CI: 0.057, 1.302, P=0.03). Paternal methionine intake was positively associated with CpG1 (0.336% per 100 mg methionine increase, 95% CI: 0.103, 0.569, P=0.006), and mean CpG (0.201% per 100 mg methionine increase, 95% CI: 0.001, 0.402, P=0.049) methylation of the IGF2 DMR in cord blood. Further, a negative association between birth weight/birth weight-for-gestational age z-score and paternal betaine/methionine intake was found. In addition, a positive association between choline and birth weight/birth weight-for-gestational age z-score was also observed. Our data indicate a potential impact of paternal methyl-group donor intake on paternal global DNA hydroxymethylation, offspring global and IGF2 DMR DNA methylation, and prenatal growth.
Nonlinear amplitude modulation of ion-acoustic waves (IAWs) in a fully relativistic unmagnetized two-fluid plasma has been theoretically studied by using complete set of fully relativistic dynamic equations. To describe the nonlinear evolution of the wave envelope a nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation is derived by using standard multiple scale perturbation technique. Using this equation it is shown that the wave becomes modulationally unstable as the wavenumber exceeds certain critical value. This critical wavenumber is found to decrease with increase in relativistic effect. The instability growth rate has also been calculated numerically for different values of plasma drift velocity. The growth rate is shown to decrease with increase in the relativistic effect.
This study developed a fast and high throughput dot-blot technique to evaluate the presence of Entamoeba in stool samples (n = 643) followed by a PCR-based method to validate and differentiate the two species E. histolytica and E. dispar. The prevalence rate of the parasite has been detected in a cross-sectional study carried out in the population of the Eastern and Northern parts of India. Of the various demographic features, prevalence was highest in the monsoon season (P = 0·017), in the <15 years age group (P = 0·015). In HIV-positive individuals, the prevalence rate was significantly high (P = 0·008) in patients with a CD4 cell count <200 as well as in patients without antiretroviral therapy (ART) (P = 0·011). Our analysis further confirmed that risk factors such as toilet facilities, living conditions, hygienic practices, drinking water source, occupation and level of education are important predictors as they were found to contribute significantly in the prevalence of the parasite.
Using high resolution powder neutron diffraction data, we show that there is a distinct anomaly in the structural noncentrosymmetry around the magnetic transition point TN for bulk and nanoscale BiFeO3. It appears that the structural noncentrosymmetry - which gives rise to the ferroelectric polarization - is suppressed anomalously by ~1% (of the average noncentrosymmetry at above the magnetic transition) in the bulk sample and by ~12% in the nanoscale sample as the magnetic transition is approached from higher temperature. This observation shows that the multiferroic coupling improves in the nanoscale sample which is expected to brighten the application prospects of nanoscale BiFeO3 in nanospintronics-based sensor devices.
In this work, we report the effect of high energy ball milling (HEBM) on Nb doped R2Fe16Nb1 (R= Gd, Er) compounds. The focus of the work is to bring enhancement in magnetic properties of R2Fe17 (2:17) compounds with the ball milling. Specifically, we find that the ball milling increases saturation magnetization, coercivity, and Curie temperature. The increase in the magnetization and Curie temperature upon ball milling is related to the lattice expansion and microstrains while the increase in coercivity is related to the grain refinement.
In this paper, we report new phase of crystalline silicon, quasicrystalline silicon thin-film on glass substrate. The surface topography of these films reveal simultaneous existence of sixfold and fivefold symmetry. We found an array of quasi-unit cell in 2-D that formed quasicrystalline solid. This is first time demonstration of quasicrystalline for single element, silicon (Si). Raman spectra suggests that we found crystalline silicon structure on glass substrate that is not single-crystal silicon (c-Si) but very close to c-Si.
We show a novel, bioengineered, moldable platform for bone regeneration composed of porous bionanocomposite scaffolds made of components that are normally found in bone tissue (calcium, collagen, carbonate, sodium, and phosphorous). To accommodate high- or low-stress environments, the hardness and modulus (stiffness) of these scaffolds can be tuned in a wide range in Megapascal (MPa) to Gigapascal (GPa) regions, while maintaining the required viscoelasticity. Our approach to control the mechanical properties is based on a new formulation of mineralized bioscaffolds by incorporation of calcium carbonate in which, calcium and phosphorous are in the form of calcite, calcium polyphosphate (CPP) and hydroxyapatite (HAP). The variation in the calcium carbonate concentration allows tuning of calcite/CPP contents in the bioscaffold to tailor the degree of mineralization and mechanical and viscoelastic properties that closely match those of natural bone. Our results demonstrate an ideal framework for new bone scaffold designs for advanced bone substitute applications.
A single crystal aluminum nitride (AlN) wafer surface was investigated via the use of a novel software-based, Charge-based Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (Q-DLTS) apparatus, both before and after surface bond termination with hydrogen plasma. The sample was cleaned and metalized with a thermoresistive evaporator to create electrical contacts and then annealed in a helium atmosphere at 825 °C. Current-voltage (I-V) measurements were performed to investigate the nature of the metal/substrate contacts. The effect of hydrogen termination was investigated and Arrhenius plots were produced from Q-DLTS spectra at temperatures ranging from −15.9 °C to 136.0 °C. Activation energies and capture cross-section values were calculated from the Q-DLTS spectra for traps existing in the AlN substrate surface. Prior to hydrogen termination, four charge traps were observed with activation energies of 0.31 eV, 0.61 eV, 0.56 eV, and 0.18 eV and capture cross sections 5.6 × 10−21 cm2, 1.1 × 10−16 cm2, 3.5 × 10−19 cm2, and 1.3 × 10−21 cm2, respectively After hydrogen termination, five charge traps were observed with activation energies of 0.31 eV, 0.61 eV, 0.52 eV, 0.19 eV, and 0.40 eV, and capture cross sections 4.9 × 10−21 cm2, 1.3 × 10−16 cm2, 2.9 × 10−19 cm2, 3.1 × 10−19 cm2, and 4.7 × 10−19 cm2, respectively. Four of these peaks after termination are matched with the peaks prior to termination and the fifth peak appears to be the result of the hydrogen termination.
Magnetically separable and reusable core-shell CoFe2O4-ZnO photocatalyst nanospheres were prepared via hydrothermal synthesis technique using glucose derived carbon nanospheres as template. The morphology and phase of core-shell hybrid structure of CoFe2O4-ZnO was assessed via TEM, and XRD. The UV-vis photocatalytic activity of the composite was assessed via measuring the degradation rate of modeled pollutant methylene blue in water. The magnetic composite showed high UV photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methylene blue. The photocatalytic activity was found to be ZnO shell thickness dependent. Thicker ZnO shells lead to higher rate of photocatalytic activity. Hybrid nanospheres recovered using external magnetic field demonstrated good repeatability of photocatalytic activity. These results promise the reusability of hybrid nanospheres for photocatalytic activity.
The interaction between turbulence in a minimal supersonic channel and radiative heat transfer is studied using large-eddy simulation. The working fluid is pure water vapour with temperature-dependent specific heats and molecular transport coefficients. Its line spectra properties are represented with a statistical narrow-band correlated-k model. A grey gas model is also tested. The parallel no-slip channel walls are treated as black surfaces concerning thermal radiation and are kept at a constant temperature of 1000 K. Simulations have been performed for different optical thicknesses (based on the Planck mean absorption coefficient) and different Mach numbers. Results for the mean flow variables, Reynolds stresses and certain terms of their transport equations indicate that thermal radiation effects counteract compressibility (Mach number) effects. An analysis of the total energy balance reveals the importance of radiative heat transfer, compared to the turbulent and mean molecular heat transport.
The implementation of SiC based sensors and electronics for operation in chemically harsh, high temperature environments depends on understanding the SiO2/SiC interface in field effect devices. We have developed a technique to fabricate wedge polished samples (angle ∼ 1×10−4 rad) that provides access to the SiO2/SiC interface via a surface sensitive probe such as xray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Lateral scanning along the wedge is equivalent to depth profiling. Spatially resolved XPS images of the O 1s and Si 2p core levels were obtained of the interfacial region. Samples consist of device-quality thermally grown oxides on 4H-SiC single crystal substrates. The C 1s spectrum suggests the presence of a graphitic layer on the nominally bare SiC surface following thermal oxidation.
The electrostatic surface potential of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of aliphatic and aromatic thiols has been measured using electrostatic force microscopy. The variation of the surface potential of chemisorbed alkanethiols, with respect to bare Au(111), is observed to increase with increasing chain length. The trend is similar to that observed in the literature. A preliminary theoretical model, based on treating the monolayer as a sheet of dipoles, has been used to calculate the surface potential of alkanethiols. Similar measurements on several aromatic thiols, with a symmetric and non-symmetric molecular structure, reveal that non-symmetric systems have significantly higher potential (≥ 170mV) than the symmetric molecules.
Vapor phase synthesis approaches were employed to produce laminated microstructures with high temperature phases alternated with ductile phase layers for toughness enhancement. Microlaminates of alternating layers of Mo and cosputtered Mo-Si were deposited on a Si substrate using direct current (DC) and radio frequency (RF) sputtering technique. Microstructural evolution and phase formation after diffusion annealing (900°C, 2 hr) was evaluated using cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Heat treating the microlaminates resulted in the growth of a Mo3Si interface phase between Mo and cosputtered layer and conversion of the amorphous cosputtered layer into crystalline Mo5Si3. A higher Si/Mo ratio in the cosputtered layer caused the formation of dispersed Mo5Si3 grains in Mo layer. The residual stress state was measured by monitoring the curvature change of the microlaminates using a laser beam. By decreasing the bilayer thickness to 1/3, the residual stress is reduced by ∼50%.
In an effort to understand dislocation mobility in stoichiometric NiAl single crystals, in-situ tensile deformation experiments have been performed in a transmission electron microscope. Commercially pure and high purity single crystals with <001> and <110> orientations have been examined. Two different thermal treatments were adopted in order to effect the mechanical response. Dislocation motion was observed in all samples. Pre-existing dislocations, either isolated or tangled, were not observed to move at any point leading up to sample failure. Cross-slip of the mobile dislocations was observed in some cases. In commercially pure single crystals, dislocations were found to move at a much slower rate and uniform manner in contrast to motion in high purity single crystals which occurs by rapid jumps.
Gas desorption and positron annihilation techniques have been employed to study the evolution of nitrogen associated defects in nitrogen irradiated metals: Fe, Ni, Mo and W. Nitrogen in these metals has a rather high affinity to vacancy type defects. The results obtained for low irradiation dose show that substitutional nitrogen (NV; with V=vacancy) is formed. The nitrogen vacancy complex dissociates at temperatures ranging from 350 K for Ni to 900K for Mo and 1100 K for W. At high doses defects are formed which can be characterized as nitrogen saturated vacancy clusters. These defects, as observed by helium probing, disappear during annealing for nickel at 800K, and for Mo at 1100 K. The direct observation of the desorbing nitrogen for nickel and molybdenum reveals a very fast desorption transient at the dissociation temperature of the clusters. This is the characteristic desorption transient of a small nitride cluster, e.g., by shrinkage with constant rate. For iron the nitrogen desorption is complicated because of a general background that continuously rises with temperature. With the positron beam technique depth information was obtained for defects in iron and the defect character could be established with the help of the information provided on annihilation with conduction and core electrons of the defect trapped positrons.
Diamond-like carbon films (DLC) 10–40 nm thick were deposited on quartz substrates on an interdigitated planar array of 20 μm Ni electrodes already prepared by lithographic techniques. The influence of the adsorbed molecules onte electrical properties of the thin DLC films was investigated. Current and capacitance-voltage characteristics were examined. Charge-based deep level transient spectroscopy (Q-DLTS) was used for study of adsorption and desorption processes. The strong sensitivity of Q-DLTS spectra to the presence of the vapor water and isopropyl alcohol was found. For example, the Q-DLTS signal for some deposited DLC film was changed more then in order in presence of the water vapor. Such strong surface phenomena of the thin DLC films may be exploited in novel gas sensor devices.