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Laboratory-identified bloodstream infections (LAB-ID BSIs) in recently discharged patients are likely to be classified as healthcare-associated community-onset (HCA-CO) infections, even though they may represent hospital-onset (HO) infections. A review of LAB-ID BSIs among patients discharged within 14 days revealed that 109 of 756 cases (14.4%) were HO infections. The BSI risk being misclassified as HCA CO may underestimate the hospital infection risk.
The rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic have been long studied. Our focus is from Gibraltar to Norway plus the Azores and Iceland. Phylogeographic processes shape biogeographic patterns of biodiversity. Long-term and broadscale studies have shown the responses of biota to past climate fluctuations and more recent anthropogenic climate change. Inter- and intra-specific species interactions along sharp local environmental gradients shape distributions and community structure and hence ecosystem functioning. Shifts in domination by fucoids in shelter to barnacles/mussels in exposure are mediated by grazing by patellid limpets. Further south fucoids become increasingly rare, with species disappearing or restricted to estuarine refuges, caused by greater desiccation and grazing pressure. Mesoscale processes influence bottom-up nutrient forcing and larval supply, hence affecting species abundance and distribution, and can be proximate factors setting range edges (e.g., the English Channel, the Iberian Peninsula). Impacts of invasive non-native species are reviewed. Knowledge gaps such as the work on rockpools and host–parasite dynamics are also outlined.
Background: Cervical sponylotic myelopathy (CSM) may present with neck and arm pain. This study investiagtes the change in neck/arm pain post-operatively in CSM. Methods: This ambispective study llocated 402 patients through the Canadian Spine Outcomes and Research Network. Outcome measures were the visual analogue scales for neck and arm pain (VAS-NP and VAS-AP) and the neck disability index (NDI). The thresholds for minimum clinically important differences (MCIDs) for VAS-NP and VAS-AP were determined to be 2.6 and 4.1. Results: VAS-NP improved from mean of 5.6±2.9 to 3.8±2.7 at 12 months (P<0.001). VAS-AP improved from 5.8±2.9 to 3.5±3.0 at 12 months (P<0.001). The MCIDs for VAS-NP and VAS-AP were also reached at 12 months. Based on the NDI, patients were grouped into those with mild pain/no pain (33%) versus moderate/severe pain (67%). At 3 months, a significantly high proportion of patients with moderate/severe pain (45.8%) demonstrated an improvement into mild/no pain, whereas 27.2% with mild/no pain demonstrated worsening into moderate/severe pain (P <0.001). At 12 months, 17.4% with mild/no pain experienced worsening of their NDI (P<0.001). Conclusions: This study suggests that neck and arm pain responds to surgical decompression in patients with CSM and reaches the MCIDs for VAS-AP and VAS-NP at 12 months.
The excellent fossil record of the past few million years, combined with the overwhelming similarity of the biota to extant species, provides an outstanding opportunity for understanding paleoecological and macroevolutionary patterns and processes within a rigorous biological framework. Unfortunately, this potential has not been fully exploited because of lack of well-sampled time series and adequate statistical analysis. Nevertheless, four basic patterns appear to be of general significance. First, a major pulse of extinction occurred 1–2 m.y. ago in many ocean basins, more or less coincident with the intensification of glaciation in the Northern Hemisphere. Rates of origination also increased greatly but were more variable in magnitude and timing. The fine-scale correlation of these evolutionary events with changes in climate is poorly understood. Similar events probably occurred on land but have not been tested adequately. Second, rates of origination and extinction in the oceans waned after the pulse of extinction, especially during the past 1 m.y. Thus, most marine species originated long before the Pleistocene under very different environmental circumstances, suggesting that they are “exapted” rather than adapted to their present ecological circumstances. The same may be true for many terrestrial groups, but not for the mammals or fresh-water fishes that have continued to undergo speciation throughout the Pleistocene. Third, community membership of late Pleistocene coral reef communities was more stable than expected by chance. These are the only paleoecological data adequate to test hypotheses of community stability, so that we do not know whether community structure involving other taxa or environments typically reflects more than the collective behavior of individual species distributions. Regardless, the strong evidence for nearly universal exaptation of ecological characteristics argues strongly against ideas of coevolution of species in communities. Finally, ecological communities were profoundly altered by human activities long before modern ecological studies began. Holocene paleontological, archeological, and historical data constitute the only ecological baseline for “pristine” ecological communities before significant human disturbance. Holocene records should be much more extensively used as a baseline for Recent ecological studies and for conservation and management.
Zero-sum thinking and aversion to trade pervade our society, yet fly in the face of everyday experience and the consensus of economists. Boyer & Petersen's (B&P's) evolutionary model invokes coalitional psychology to explain these puzzling intuitions. I raise several empirical challenges to this explanation, proposing two alternative mechanisms – intuitive mercantilism (assigning value to money rather than goods) and errors in perspective-taking.
Knowledge of the effects of burial depth and burial duration on seed viability and, consequently, seedbank persistence of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson) and waterhemp [Amaranthus tuberculatus (Moq.) J. D. Sauer] ecotypes can be used for the development of efficient weed management programs. This is of particular interest, given the great fecundity of both species and, consequently, their high seedbank replenishment potential. Seeds of both species collected from five different locations across the United States were investigated in seven states (sites) with different soil and climatic conditions. Seeds were placed at two depths (0 and 15 cm) for 3 yr. Each year, seeds were retrieved, and seed damage (shrunken, malformed, or broken) plus losses (deteriorated and futile germination) and viability were evaluated. Greater seed damage plus loss averaged across seed origin, burial depth, and year was recorded for lots tested at Illinois (51.3% and 51.8%) followed by Tennessee (40.5% and 45.1%) and Missouri (39.2% and 42%) for A. palmeri and A. tuberculatus, respectively. The site differences for seed persistence were probably due to higher volumetric water content at these sites. Rates of seed demise were directly proportional to burial depth (α=0.001), whereas the percentage of viable seeds recovered after 36 mo on the soil surface ranged from 4.1% to 4.3% compared with 5% to 5.3% at the 15-cm depth for A. palmeri and A. tuberculatus, respectively. Seed viability loss was greater in the seeds placed on the soil surface compared with the buried seeds. The greatest influences on seed viability were burial conditions and time and site-specific soil conditions, more so than geographical location. Thus, management of these weed species should focus on reducing seed shattering, enhancing seed removal from the soil surface, or adjusting tillage systems.
Small perturbations to a steady uniform granular chute flow can grow as the material moves downslope and develop into a series of surface waves that travel faster than the bulk flow. This roll wave instability has important implications for the mitigation of hazards due to geophysical mass flows, such as snow avalanches, debris flows and landslides, because the resulting waves tend to merge and become much deeper and more destructive than the uniform flow from which they form. Natural flows are usually highly polydisperse and their dynamics is significantly complicated by the particle size segregation that occurs within them. This study investigates the kinematics of such flows theoretically and through small-scale experiments that use a mixture of large and small glass spheres. It is shown that large particles, which segregate to the surface of the flow, are always concentrated near the crests of roll waves. There are different mechanisms for this depending on the relative speed of the waves, compared to the speed of particles at the free surface, as well as on the particle concentration. If all particles at the surface travel more slowly than the waves, the large particles become concentrated as the shock-like wavefronts pass them. This is due to a concertina-like effect in the frame of the moving wave, in which large particles move slowly backwards through the crest, but travel quickly in the troughs between the crests. If, instead, some particles on the surface travel more quickly than the wave and some move slower, then, at low concentrations, large particles can move towards the wave crest from both the forward and rearward sides. This results in isolated regions of large particles that are trapped at the crest of each wave, separated by regions where the flow is thinner and free of large particles. There is also a third regime arising when all surface particles travel faster than the waves, which has large particles present everywhere but with a sharp increase in their concentration towards the wave fronts. In all cases, the significantly enhanced large particle concentration at wave crests means that such flows in nature can be especially destructive and thus particularly hazardous.
Professional money management appears to require little skill, yet its practitioners command astronomical salaries. Singh's theory of shamanism provides one possible explanation: Financial professionals are the shamans of the global economy. They cultivate the perception of superhuman traits, maintain grueling initiation rituals, and rely on esoteric divination rituals. An anthropological view of markets can usefully supplement economic and psychological approaches.
The Southern Hemisphere VLBI Experiment (or SHEVE) was a joint US-Australian-South African venture with both astronomy and geodesy goals. The principle astronomy goal was to make models or maps of the following sources: at 2.3 GHz (with six antennas and 9 usable baselines) – Centaurus A (the nearest active galaxy), Circinus X-1 (a flaring binary), the VELA pulsar, and 26 other active galactic nuclei and quasars; at 8.4 GHz (only one baseline) – Centaurus A and the galactic center.
Six radio telescopes were operated as the first southern hemisphere VLBI array in April and May 1982. Observations were made at 2.3 and 8.4 Ghz. This array produced VLBI images of 28 southern hemisphere radio sources, high accuracy VLBI geodesy between southern hemisphere sites, and subarcsecond radio astrometry of celestial sources south of declination −45 degrees. This paper discusses only the astrophysical aspects of the experiment.
After the NEEM (Greenland) deep ice-core drilling was declared terminated with respect to developing stratigraphic climate reconstructions, efforts were turned toward collecting basal ice-sheet debris and, if possible, drilling into the bedrock itself. In 2010, several meters of banded debris-rich ice were obtained under normal ice-drilling operations with the NEEM version of the Hans Tausen (HT) drill, but further penetration was obstructed by a rock in the path of the drill head at 2537.36 m. During short campaigns in 2011 and 2012, attempts were made to penetrate further using various reinforced ice cutters mounted on the HT drill head, tailored to cut through rock. These had some success in penetrating coarse material, but produced severely damaged cutters. Additionally a 51 mm diameter diamond cutting tipped rock drill was adapted to fit the NEEM drill. With this device, several additional meters of core containing subglacial sediments, rocks and rock fragments were collected. With these tools 1.39m of additional material were obtained during the 2011 field season, and 7.1 m during 2012. Subglacial water refreezing into the newly formed borehole hindered further penetration, and the bedrock interface was not reached before final closure of the NEEM Camp.
From June 15 to 28, 1991 the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) observed the radio-loud quasar 3C 273. All four CGRO instruments detected radiation from this quasar in their relevant energy range (from 20 keV to 5 GeV). Simultaneous and quasi-simultaneous observations (spanning the time period May 27 – July 25, 1991) by instruments sensitive at other wavelengths have also been obtained. The data from all these observations spanning the frequency range from ∼ 109 Hz to ∼ 1026 Hz were collected and analysed. The resulting energy-density spectrum is shown in the figure below. It shows two maxima, one in the UV, another one at low-energy γ-rays which have nearly the same strength (the corresponding luminosities per decade of frequency for H0 = 60(km/s)/Mpc are 3.2·1046 erg/s and 2.7·1046 erg/s, respectively). A break of the spectrum at low-energy γ-rays is evident. From a detailed analysis a break energy of (2±1.5) MeV could be derived corresponding to a frequency of (4.8±3.6)·1020 Hz. The observed spectral break between X- and γ-rays is ∼ 0.8, much higher than the value of 0.5 predicted by some models. A more detailed paper on this topic is in preparation (Lichti et al.).
We present details of the database from a large Cycle 7 HST project to study the formation and evolution of rich star clusters in the LMC (see Elson et al., this volume). Our data set, which includes NICMOS, WFPC2 and STIS images of 8 clusters, will enable us to derive deep luminosity functions for the clusters and to investigate the universality of the stellar IMF. We will look for age spreads in the youngest clusters, quantify the population of binary stars in the cores of the clusters and at the half-mass radii, and follow the development of mass segregation.
Color-magnitude diagrams reaching from the giant branches to Vlim ~ 27.0, or about three magnitudes fainter than the turnoff, have been obtained in V and I with WFPC2 on HST for NGC 2419, Pal 3, Pal 4 and Eridanus, whose relative ages are discussed.
HST V, I color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) of four outer-halo clusters, NGC 2419, Pa13, Pal4 and Eridanus, provide insight into the relative ages of old star clusters throughout the 200 kpc diameter volume sampled, and thus into the formation epoch of the Milky Way galaxy.
On May 22, 1989 the Japanese Ginga Team discovered a new X-ray source that was cataloged as GS 2023+338. This source was subsequently identified as coincident in position with a previously known nova cataloged as V404 Cygni. Its last recorded outburst was in 1938 when it rose to about 12th mag. Spectroscopic data were obtained and confirmed the nature of the outburst. Additional ground based data were obtained by us at CTIO and the VLA. The X-ray behavior of this object has been reported to be very unusual and it reached a peak of about 17 crab about one week after discovery. Since then it has varied widely in magnitude at all wavelengths at which it has been studied. We present a brief summary of the observations that have been obtained up to the time of the meeting and shortly thereafter.
The late Neogene was a time of major environmental change in Tropical America. Global cooling and associated oceanographic reorganization and the onset and intensification of glaciation in the Northern Hemisphere during the past ten million years coincided with the uplift of the Central American isthmus and resulting changes in regional oceanographic conditions. Previous analyses of patterns of taxonomic turnover and the shifting abundances of major ecological guilds indicated that the regional shallow-water marine biota responded to these environmental changes through extinction and via a restructuring of local benthic food webs, but it is not clear whether this ecological response had an effect on the diversity of molluscan assemblages in the region. Changes in regional and local diversity are often used as proxies for similar ecological response to environmental change in large-scale paleontological studies, but a clear relationship between diversity and ecological function has rarely been demonstrated in marine systems dominated by mollusks. To explore this relationship, we have compiled a data set of the stratigraphic and environmental distribution of genera of mollusks in large new collections of fossil specimens from the late Neogene and Recent of the southwestern Caribbean. Analysis of a selection of ecological diversity measures indicates that within shelf depths, assemblages from deeper water (51–200 m) were more diverse than shallow-water (<50 m) assemblages in the Pliocene. Lower diversity for shallow-water assemblages is caused by increased dominance of a few superabundant taxa in each assemblage. This implies that studies of diversity of shelf benthos need to control for relatively fine scaled environmental conditions if they are to avoid interpreting artifacts of uneven sampling as true change of diversity. For shallow-water assemblages only, there was significant increase in local and regional diversity of bivalve assemblages after the late Pliocene. No parallel increase in gastropods could be detected, but this likely is because sample size was inadequate for documenting the diversity of gastropod assemblages following a steep post-Pliocene decline of average gastropod abundance. Both the increasing bivalve diversity and the decrease in average abundance of gastropod taxa correspond to an interval of increasing carbonate deposition and reef building in the region, and are likely a result of increased fine-scale habitat heterogeneity controlled by the local distribution of carbonate buildups. Each of these results demonstrates that documenting the ecological response of tropical marine ecosystems to regional environmental change requires a large volume of fine-scaled samples with detailed paleoenvironmental control. Such data sets are rarely available from the fossil record.
Non-compliance with food record submission can induce bias in nutritional epidemiological analysis and make it difficult to draw inference from study findings. We examined the impact of demographic, lifestyle and psychosocial factors on such non-compliance during the first 3 years of participation in a multidisciplinary prospective paediatric study.
The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study collects a 3 d food record quarterly during the first year of life and semi-annually thereafter. High compliance with food record completion was defined as the participating families submitting one or more days of food record at every scheduled clinic visit.
Three centres in the USA (Colorado, Georgia/Florida and Washington) and three in Europe (Finland, Germany and Sweden).
Families who finished the first 3 years of TEDDY participation (n 8096).
High compliance was associated with having a single child, older maternal age, higher maternal education and father responding to study questionnaires. Families showing poor compliance were more likely to be living far from the study centres, from ethnic minority groups, living in a crowded household and not attending clinic visits regularly. Postpartum depression, maternal smoking behaviour and mother working outside the home were also independently associated with poor compliance.
These findings identified specific groups for targeted strategies to encourage completion of food records, thereby reducing potential bias in multidisciplinary collaborative research.