Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), Auger spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were applied to study Au, Cu, Ti, Ti-W, Cr, Al-Cu, and Al metal films deposited on both Si and ceramic substrates.
SIMS analysis of as-deposited metal films was used to characterize impurity levels, both metallic and gaseous, incorporated during deposition. The results revealed that the levels varied under generally accepted deposition conditions. As-deposited and annealed films were examined with SIMS, Auger, and TEM to study interdiffusion, grain growth, and impurity segregation as a function of processing conditions. Metallic impurities were observed to modify Au/Ti interdiffusion. Large variations in residual H, C, O, and N were observed in as-deposited Al and Al-Cu films.
Hydrogen, incorporated during deposition of Ti films, was observed to redistribute after thermal annealing in N2 or thermal cycling in forming gas (N2-10% H2). Samples thermally cycled in forming gas absorbed additional H into the Ti layer. SIMS/ion imaging was used to study the incorporation and segregation of H. Differences in H behavior were observed to be dependent upon metal structure, composition, and substrate material.