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The radiocarbon (14C) calibration curve so far contains annually resolved data only for a short period of time. With accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) matching the precision of decay counting, it is now possible to efficiently produce large datasets of annual resolution for calibration purposes using small amounts of wood. The radiocarbon intercomparison on single-year tree-ring samples presented here is the first to investigate specifically possible offsets between AMS laboratories at high precision. The results show that AMS laboratories are capable of measuring samples of Holocene age with an accuracy and precision that is comparable or even goes beyond what is possible with decay counting, even though they require a thousand times less wood. It also shows that not all AMS laboratories always produce results that are consistent with their stated uncertainties. The long-term benefits of studies of this kind are more accurate radiocarbon measurements with, in the future, better quantified uncertainties.
Therapeutic Writing ist not yet commonly used in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy although it seems to be a promising supportive and well accepted therapeutic tool. Over the last years we have implemented group therapy for Therapeutic Writing at four psychiatric clinics.
Exclusion criteria were insufficiant knowledge of language, illiteracy or insufficiant ability to participate in therapeutic groups. We treated in-patients in a secure environment, on general psychiatric wards and in a day-clinic setting from adolescence to seniority mainly with Schizophrenia, Depression, Bipolar Disorders, Personality Disorders, Anxiety Disorders,and Eating Disorders.
This poster outlines our theoretical framework as well as practical aspects of implementing Therapeutic Writing as a group therapy in a psychiatric/psychotherapeutic setting.
The influence of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on mood in healthy people is uncertain, as former studies show divergent results. Previous studies in healthy volunteers focused exclusively on the immediate effect of a single session of rTMS on mood.
The aim of this study was to analyse the influence on mood of a series of 9 High Frequency (HF) rTMS stimulations of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC).
44 young healthy male volunteers were randomly assigned to receive 9 sessions of active HF-rTMS (n = 22) or sham rTMS (n = 22) over the left DLPFC. Each session in the active group consisted of 15 trains of 25 Hz starting with 100% of motor threshold. Sham stimulation was performed following the same protocol, but using a sham coil. The variables of interest were the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Visual Analogue Scales (VAS) which quantified “mood”, “enjoyment” and “energy”.
We found a significant reduction of the BDI score in the active group (GLM, p < 0.001) whereas no significant changes of the BDI score were caused by sham stimulation (GLM, p = 0.109). We did not find significant differences caused by active or sham stimulation in VAS scales except for the VAS labelled lively/gloomy immediately after stimulation. The active group was found to be more “gloomy” (p = 0.001).
Our data support the hypothesis that a 9-day long series of HF-rTMS of the left DLPFC improves mood, analysed by BDI in healthy young men.
Depression is among the main risk factors for suicide. The Geriatric Depressions Scale (GDS-30, GDS-15) is depression screening instrument specifically developed for the elderly.
Objectives and aims
To provide a systematic review of the screening accuracy of both GDS versions.
An electronic search was performed using Medline, Embase, Cinahl, Psyndex and Cochrane library. The selection and examination of papers was done by two reviewers independently. The following studies were excluded: number of depression cases less than 10, no clear case criterion, phone version, psychiatric samples.
Of 173 papers which were read and examined, only 42 papers were included. For both GDS versions similar mean validity indices were found (GDS-30: sensitivity 0.753, specificity 0.770; GDS-15: sensitivity 0.805, specificity 0.750). Using pooled samples we could not find significant differences between the two versions of the GDS. Using comparative studies based on identical samples, both GDS versions showed significantly better validity indices than the “Yale-1-question” screen, but did not differ from the CES-D. Frequently, essential information about research methods was not given. When methods were reported, the differing methods (e.g. concerning blinding, cut-off values, sampling procedures) limit the comparability of primary studies.
In general, the GDS seems to be sufficient for depression screening. While early recognition of depression is essential for identifying persons at risk for suicide, the GDS does not explicitly focus on this problem.
Alcohol dependence is a complex psychiatric disorder.
To investigate the role of temperament on the course of alcohol dependence.
To further investigate the role of temperaments in alcohol dependent patients and to analyse the differences in relevant clinical features in correlation with the different temperament distributions.
The patients‘case files of 116 alcohol dependent patients, according to ICD-10 and DSM-IV-TR, admitted to the Vienna General Hospital between 02/08 and 03/09, were examined retrospectively. The brief-TEMPS-M auto-questionnaire was used to assess the temperamental distribution. The dimensions of alcohol dependence have been assessed using the Lesch Alcoholism Typology, a computerized structured interview. The potential effect of temperamental scores on various outcomes describing the course of illness is investigated using multi-variable regression models.
Cyclothymic score was the only temperament which significantly influenced the age of onset of alcohol abuse and age of onset of alcohol dependence. Backward selection among temperaments exhibits depressive temperament as most important effect regarding the likelihood of suicide-attempts in the patient‘s case history and anxious temperament as most important effect regarding having psychiatric treatment focusing on alcohol dependence prior to current in- or outpatient stay.
Dominant cyclothymic, but also depressive and anxious temperament, seem to be negative predictors for the course of illness in alcohol dependence.
We describe the DR14 APOGEE-TGAS catalogue, a new SDSS value-added catalogue that provides precise astrophysical parameters, chemical abundances, astro-spectro- photometric distances and extinctions, as well as orbital parameters for ~30, 000 APOGEE-TGAS stars, among them ~5, 000 high-quality giant stars within 1 kpc.
Vitamin D has an important role in calcium homeostasis and is known to have various health-promoting effects. Moreover, potential interactions between vitamin D and physical activity have been suggested. This study aims to investigate the relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and exercise capacity quantified by cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). For this, 1377 participants from the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-1) and 750 participants from the independent SHIP-TREND cohort were investigated. Standardised incremental exercise tests on a cycle ergometer were performed to assess exercise capacity by VO2 at anaerobic threshold, peakVO2, O2 pulse and peak power output. Serum 25(OH)D levels were measured by an automated chemiluminescence immunoassay. In SHIP-1, 25(OH)D levels were positively associated with all considered parameters of cardiopulmonary exercise capacity. Subjects with high 25(OH)D levels (4th quartile) showed an up to 25 % higher exercise capacity compared with subjects with low 25(OH)D levels (1st quartile). All associations were replicated in the independent SHIP-TREND cohort and were independent of age, sex, season and other interfering factors. In conclusion, significant positive associations between 25(OH)D and parameters of CPET were detected in two large cohorts of healthy adults.
We recently showed that the mRNA expression of genes encoding for specific nutrient sensing receptors, namely the free fatty acid receptors (FFAR) 1, 2, 3, and the hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor (HCAR) 2, undergo characteristic changes during the transition from late pregnancy to lactation in certain adipose tissues (AT) of dairy cows. We hypothesised that divergent energy intake achieved by feeding diets with either high or low portions of concentrate (60% v. 30% concentrate on a dry matter basis) will alter the mRNA expression of FFAR 1, 2, 3, as well as HCAR2 in subcutaneous (SCAT) and retroperitoneal AT (RPAT) of dairy cows in the first 3 weeks postpartum (p.p.). For this purpose, 20 multiparous German Holstein cows were allocated to either the high concentrate ration (HC, n=10) or the low concentrate ration (LC, n=10) from day 1 to 21 p.p. Serum samples and biopsies of SCAT (tail head) and RPAT (above the peritoneum) were obtained at day −21, 1 and 21 relative to parturition. The mRNA abundances were measured by quantitative PCR. The concentrations of short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) in serum were measured by gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector. The FFAR1 and FFAR2 mRNA abundance in RPAT was higher at day −21 compared to day 1. At day 21 p.p. the FFAR2 mRNA abundance was 2.5-fold higher in RPAT of the LC animals compared to the HC cows. The FFAR3 mRNA abundance tended to lower values in SCAT of the LC group at day 21. The HCAR2 mRNA abundance was neither affected by time nor by feeding in both AT. On day 21 p.p. the HC group had 1.7-fold greater serum concentrations of propionic acid and lower concentrations of acetic acid (trend: 1.2-fold lower) compared with the LC group. Positive correlations between the mRNA abundance of HCAR2 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ-2 (PPARG2) indicate a link between HCAR2 and PPARG2 in both AT. We observed an inverse regulation of FFAR2 and FFAR3 expression over time and both receptors also showed an inverse mRNA abundance as induced by different portions of concentrate. Thus, indicating divergent nutrient sensing of both receptors in AT during the transition period. We propose that the different manifestation of negative EB in both groups at day 21 after parturition affect at least FFAR2 expression in RPAT.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently persists into adulthood. Family and twin studies delineate a disorder with strong genetic influences among children and adolescents based on parent- and teacher-reported data but little is known about the genetic and environmental contribution to DSM-IV ADHD symptoms in adulthood. We therefore aimed to investigate the impact of genetic and environmental influences on the inattentive and hyperactive–impulsive symptoms of ADHD in adults.
Twin methods were applied to self-reported assessments of ADHD symptoms from a large population-based Swedish twin study that included data from 15 198 Swedish male and female twins aged 20 to 46 years.
The broad heritability [i.e. A + D, where A is an additive genetic factor and D (dominance) a non-additive genetic factor] was 37% (A = 11%, D = 26%) for inattention and 38% (A = 18%, D = 20%) for hyperactivity–impulsivity. The results also indicate that 52% of the phenotypic correlation between inattention and hyperactivity–impulsivity (r = 0.43) was explained by genetic influences whereas the remaining part of the covariance was explained by non-shared environmental influences. These results were replicated across age strata.
Our findings of moderate broad heritability estimates are consistent with previous literature on self-rated ADHD symptoms in older children, adolescents and adults and retrospective reports of self-rated childhood ADHD by adults but differ from studies of younger children with informant ratings. Future research needs to clarify whether our data indicate a true decrease in the heritability of ADHD in adults compared to children, or whether this relates to the use of self-ratings in contrast to informant data.
The interaction between turbulence in a minimal supersonic channel and radiative heat transfer is studied using large-eddy simulation. The working fluid is pure water vapour with temperature-dependent specific heats and molecular transport coefficients. Its line spectra properties are represented with a statistical narrow-band correlated-k model. A grey gas model is also tested. The parallel no-slip channel walls are treated as black surfaces concerning thermal radiation and are kept at a constant temperature of 1000 K. Simulations have been performed for different optical thicknesses (based on the Planck mean absorption coefficient) and different Mach numbers. Results for the mean flow variables, Reynolds stresses and certain terms of their transport equations indicate that thermal radiation effects counteract compressibility (Mach number) effects. An analysis of the total energy balance reveals the importance of radiative heat transfer, compared to the turbulent and mean molecular heat transport.
The prototype mini carbon dating system (MICADAS) at ETH Zurich has been in routine operation for almost 2 yr. Because of its simple and compact layout, setting up a radiocarbon measurement is fast and the system runs very reliably over days or even weeks without retuning. The stability of the instrument is responsible for the good performance in highest-precision measurements where results of single samples can be reproduced within less than 2‰. The measurements are described and the performance of MICADAS is demonstrated on measured data.
The IntCal04 and Marine04 radiocarbon calibration curves have been updated from 12 cal kBP (cal kBP is here defined as thousands of calibrated years before AD 1950), and extended to 50 cal kBP, utilizing newly available data sets that meet the IntCal Working Group criteria for pristine corals and other carbonates and for quantification of uncertainty in both the 14C and calendar timescales as established in 2002. No change was made to the curves from 0–12 cal kBP. The curves were constructed using a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) implementation of the random walk model used for IntCal04 and Marine04. The new curves were ratified at the 20th International Radiocarbon Conference in June 2009 and are available in the Supplemental Material at www.radiocarbon.org.
The Supernova Working Group was re-established at the IAU XXV General Assembly in Sydney, 21 July 2003, sponsored by Commissions 28 (Galaxies) and 47 (Cosmology). Here we report on some of its activities since 2005.
We are developing Colossal Magnetoresistive (CMR) manganite thin film bolometric sensors to be employed as total energy detectors for beam diagnostics of the Linear Coherent Light Source (LCLS) Free Electron Laser (FEL) (at the Stanford Linear Accelerator). LCLS is an ultra bright, ultra short coherent x-ray source whose peak brightness will exceed that of third generation x-ray sources by about ten orders of magnitude and average brightness by three orders of magnitudes. It is expected to produce 1012 x-rays per 200 fs pulse with a repeat frequency of 120 Hz through self-amplified stimulated emission. In characterizing the beam, it will be necessary to measure the total energy of the FEL pulse. The Advanced Detector Group at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory has developed a scheme for FEL total energy measurements based on bolometric detection and are collaborating with Towson University to implement such a detector using CMR manganite thin films. Here we discuss the basic scheme, results of simulations of the thermal response and the materials development efforts towards fabricating the thin film detectors.
The radiocarbon calibration curve IntCal04 extends back to 26 cal kyr B P. While several high-resolution records exist beyond this limit, these data sets exhibit discrepancies of up to several millennia. As a result, no calibration curve for the time range 26–50 cal kyr BP can be recommended as yet, but in this paper the IntCal04 working group compares the available data sets and offers a discussion of the information that they hold.
New radiocarbon calibration curves, IntCal04 and Marine04, have been constructed and internationally ratified to replace the terrestrial and marine components of IntCal98. The new calibration data sets extend an additional 2000 yr, from 0–26 cal kyr BP (Before Present, 0 cal BP = AD 1950), and provide much higher resolution, greater precision, and more detailed structure than IntCal98. For the Marine04 curve, dendrochronologically-dated tree-ring samples, converted with a box diffusion model to marine mixed-layer ages, cover the period from 0–10.5 cal kyr BP. Beyond 10.5 cal kyr BP, high-resolution marine data become available from foraminifera in varved sediments and U/Th-dated corals. The marine records are corrected with site-specific 14C reservoir age information to provide a single global marine mixed-layer calibration from 10.5–26.0 cal kyr BP. A substantial enhancement relative to IntCal98 is the introduction of a random walk model, which takes into account the uncertainty in both the calendar age and the 14C age to calculate the underlying calibration curve (Buck and Blackwell, this issue). The marine data sets and calibration curve for marine samples from the surface mixed layer (Marine04) are discussed here. The tree-ring data sets, sources of uncertainty, and regional offsets are presented in detail in a companion paper by Reimer et al. (this issue).
This 2002 book was the first English translation of Friedrich Schleiermacher's mature ethical theory. Situated between the better-known positions of Kant and Hegel, Schleiermacher's ethics represents an under-explored and singular option within the rich and creative tradition of German idealism. Schleiermacher is known to English readers primarily as a theologian and hermeneuticist, but many German scholars have argued that it is in fact his philosophical work in ethics that constitutes his most outstanding intellectual achievement. The lectures, which were not published in his lifetime, are thought to span the years 1812–17 and address such topics as ethics as a descriptive science, ethics as a study of the action of reason on nature, and doctrines of goods, virtue, and duties. This volume presents them in an accessible new translation by Louise Adey Huish, together with an introduction by Robert Louden that sets them in context and assesses their achievement.