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Reproductive aging is a natural and universal process. Women frequently overestimate the age at which a significant decline in fertility occurs as well as overestimate the success of assisted reproductive technologies to circumvent age-related infertility. Yet there is much that modern medicine can do to improve conception rates in women who delay childbearing and to manage subsequent pregnancies. This book offers guidance on winning strategies for maximizing the live-birth rate and limiting the risk for women trying to conceive later in life. It is intended to assist in navigating this challenging journey and lead to peace of mind that women have been seen, heard, and treated as individuals in the process. Written by leading experts addressing medical options of applying advanced reproductive technologies, psychological, nutritional, lifestyle, systematic approaches to optimizing fertility care for the most challenging demographic of women in a practical, clinically orientated, and most importantly, positive way.
The 'data revolution' offers many new opportunities for research in the social sciences. Increasingly, social and political interactions can be recorded digitally, leading to vast amounts of new data available for research. This poses new challenges for organizing and processing research data. This comprehensive introduction covers the entire range of data management techniques, from flat files to database management systems. It demonstrates how established techniques and technologies from computer science can be applied in social science projects, drawing on a wide range of different applied examples. This book covers simple tools such as spreadsheets and file-based data storage and processing, as well as more powerful data management software like relational databases. It goes on to address advanced topics such as spatial data, text as data, and network data. This book is one of the first to discuss questions of practical data management specifically for social science projects.
Christianity has understood the environment as a gift to nurture and steward, a book of divine revelation disclosing the divine mind, a wild garden in need of cultivation and betterment, and as a resource for the creation of a new Eden. This Cambridge Companion details how Christianity, one of the world's most important religions, has shaped one of the existential issues of our age, the environment. Engaging with contemporary issues, including gender, traditional knowledge, and enchantment, it brings together the work of international scholars on the subject of Christianity and the Environment from a diversity of fields. Together, their work offers a comprehensive guide to the complex relationship between Christianity and the environment that moves beyond disciplinary boundaries. To do this, the volume explains the key concepts concerning Christianity and the environment, outlines the historical development of this relationship from antiquity to the present, and explores important contemporary issues.
From his first fifteen years in Chile, to his nine years in Mexico City from 1968 to 1977, to the quarter of a century he lived and worked in the Blanes-Barcelona area on the Costa Brava in Spain through his death in 2003, Roberto Bolaño developed into an astonishingly diverse, prolific writer. He is one of the most consequential and widely read of his generation in any language. Increasingly recognized not only in Latin America, but as a major figure in World Literature, Bolaño is an essential writer for the 21st century world. This volume provides a comprehensive mapping of the pivotal contexts, events, stages, and influences shaping Bolaño's writing. As the wide-ranging investigations of this volume's 28 distinguished scholars show, Bolaño's influence and impact will shape literary cultures worldwide for years to come.
W. E. B. Du Bois was one of the most significant American political thinkers of the twentieth century. This volume collects 24 of his essays and speeches on international themes, spanning the years 1900-1956. These key texts reveal Du Bois's distinctive approach to the problem of empire and demonstrate his continued importance in our current global context. The volume charts the development of Du Bois's anti-imperial thought, drawing attention to his persistent concern with the relationship between democracy and empire and illustrating the divergent inflections of this theme in the context of a shifting geopolitical terrain; unprecedented political crises, especially during the two world wars; and new opportunities for transnational solidarity. With a critical introduction and extensive editorial notes, W.E.B. Du Bois: International Thought conveys both the coherence and continuity of Du Bois's international thought across his long life and the tremendous range and variety of his preoccupations, intellectual sources, and interlocutors.
What is a genre? How do genres differ between cultures and languages? How do generic texts get translated, and how does the specific genre affect the act of translation? This Element surveys the concept of genre itself, a number of different genres, and what happens to these genres through translation, while also providing an overview of research into these topics along with research-based approaches for translating work that can perhaps be labelled as generic.
This book is written to introduce experimental magnetism in a comprehensive manner to advanced undergraduate, postgraduate, and doctoral students pursuing studies in physics, material sciences, and engineering. It is an excellent resource providing an overview of the various experimental techniques in magnetism and magnetic materials. The text is partitioned into three parts. Part I deals with a brief history of magnetism and magnetic materials along with their role in modern society. A concise account of their current technological applications is also provided. Part II focusses on the basic phenomena of magnetism. Part III consists of chapters discussing a variety of experimental practices needed to study the microscopic as well as macroscopic aspects of different kinds of magnetic phenomena and materials.
In American Indian terms, “survival” (or the more frequently cited Derridean term “survivance,” commandeered by Anishinaabe writer and critic Gerald Vizenor to denote active tribal presencing) implies a willed immunity to the geographical, political, and economic coordinates that define the settler state and overwrite tribal precedence. Such invocations of sovereignty function mainly as intellectual or artistic aspirations rather than lived conditions. The bracing distinctiveness of the South is its magnification of racial separatism and intersectionality all at once – a clash that further highlights the anomalous position of the Indian, banished strategically from an intimate biracial order, and yet locked permanently and in fact produced within those genealogies. Put another way, the primal site of the US plantation, and with it the birth of racial capitalism in the American context, fundamentally relies on the irrelevance and erasure of Indians – and yet it continues to implicate, resurrect, indict, and appropriate their substance at nearly every turn, making them an indelible (if functionally illegible) component of a racialized economy. As a result, “Indians” are simply everywhere and nowhere in the southern narrative.
Health services in most European countries were developed to meet the needs of demand-led health care. Although they still focus mostly on treatment, cure and care (Beaglehole & Dal Poz, 2003), the growing burden of noncommunicable diseases, along with newly emerging communicable diseases and increasing antimicrobial resistance, create strong and shifting demands on these services. At the same time, the growing prevalence of multimorbidity and the widening health inequalities pose additional threats to health systems that do not give enough attention to the factors that produce health. To address these challenges, it is necessary to reorient health services towards more preventive, people-centred and community-based approaches, with a more prominent role for disease prevention and health promotion, integrated within the wider health system.
Worldwide, countries are seeking strategies to strengthen their health workforce to ensure health systems are sustainable and resilient and to reach universal health coverage (World Health Organization, 2016). In Europe, a 2019 expert opinion focused on task shifting, which is one – among several – examples of skill-mix innovations (European Commission, 2019). However, to date, a systematic analysis of skill-mix innovations and their effects on outcomes has been missing. Skill-mix changes have been suggested to be of high relevance to respond to changing patient needs (for example, for patients with chronic conditions and multimorbidity), unequal access to services (for example, for vulnerable groups), skill gaps (for example, in long-term and palliative care) and changes among the health workforce (shortages and maldistribution) (see Chapter 1).
This chapter analyses the role of policies and financing and their implications for the uptake of skill-mix changes in routine care. In particular, it addresses if and how regulatory or nonregulatory policies can facilitate the skill-mix innovation shift (and so act as a facilitator) or rather hinder the shift from taking place (and so act as a barrier). Further, this chapter addresses the role of financing and payment policies and identifies related common barriers and facilitators to skill-mix reforms. The chapter first presents the evidence from the overview of reviews, and then complements these findings by presenting trends and country examples from different sources.
Access to and the quality of health services are closely linked to the density and skill-mix of a country’s health workforce (OECD, 2016; World Health Organization, 2006, 2016). High rates of chronic conditions and multimorbidity, new treatment options, and technological advances and economic pressure have led to fundamental changes to health systems and have impacted on the daily work of health professionals. Many countries worldwide are experiencing a shortage of primary care providers, particularly in rural or socially deprived urban areas (OECD, 2016; World Health Organization, 2013). Primary care systems face the challenge of ensuring a sustainable workforce to allow timely access to services, high-quality care and person-centred services (Kringos et al., 2015a, 2015b).