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Important differences exist between various databases in the digestibility of ruminant feed ingredients (INRA, 1989; MAFF, 1992). The objective of this experiment was to measure the digestibility of some the more important ruminant feed ingredients and the variation associated with them.
Immature fruit fly stages of the family Tephritidae are commonly intercepted on breadfruit from Pacific countries at the New Zealand border but are unable to be identified to the species level using morphological characters. Subsequent molecular identification showed that they belong to Bactrocera xanthodes, which is part of a species complex that includes Bactrocera paraxanthodes, Bactrocera neoxanthodes and an undescribed species. To establish a more reliable molecular identification system for B. xanthodes, a reference database of DNA barcode sequences for the 5’-fragment of COI gene region was constructed for B. xanthodes from Fiji, Samoa and Tonga. To better understand the species complex, B. neoxanthodes from Vanuatu and B. paraxanthodes from New Caledonia were also barcoded. Using the results of this analysis, real-time TaqMan polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for the detection of B. xanthodes complex and for the three individual species of the complex were developed and validated. The assay showed high specificity for the target species, with no cross-reaction observed for closely related organisms. Each of the real-time PCR assays is sensitive, detecting the target sequences at concentrations as low as ten copies µl−1 and can be used as either singleplex or multiplex formats. This real-time PCR assay for B. xanthodes has been successfully applied at the borders in New Zealand, leading to the rapid identification of intercepted Tephritidae eggs and larvae. The developed assays will be useful biosecurity tools for rapid detection of species in the B. xanthodes complex worldwide.
Coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and viral hepatitis is associated with high morbidity and mortality in the absence of clinical management, making identification of these cases crucial. We examined characteristics of HIV and viral hepatitis coinfections by using surveillance data from 15 US states and two cities. Each jurisdiction used an automated deterministic matching method to link surveillance data for persons with reported acute and chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections, to persons reported with HIV infection. Of the 504 398 persons living with diagnosed HIV infection at the end of 2014, 2.0% were coinfected with HBV and 6.7% were coinfected with HCV. Of the 269 884 persons ever reported with HBV, 5.2% were reported with HIV. Of the 1 093 050 persons ever reported with HCV, 4.3% were reported with HIV. A greater proportion of persons coinfected with HIV and HBV were males and blacks/African Americans, compared with those with HIV monoinfection. Persons who inject drugs represented a greater proportion of those coinfected with HIV and HCV, compared with those with HIV monoinfection. Matching HIV and viral hepatitis surveillance data highlights epidemiological characteristics of persons coinfected and can be used to routinely monitor health status and guide state and national public health interventions.
Higher dry matter intakes (DMI) have been reported in dairy cows fed maize silage than in dairy cows fed grass silage. The objective of this experiment was to investigate this phenomenon by the measurement of digestibility and the determination of rumen outflow rates for both forages. The response in milk production of late lactation dairy cows to grass or maize silage was also measured.
Fourteen late lactation multiparous dairy cows (n = 7) were fed diets containing either grass silage (GS) (DM: 197g/kg; pH: 4.05; NDF: 642g/kg DM) or high starch maize silage (MS) (DM: 339g/kg; pH: 3.94; starch: 360g/kg DM; NDF: 442g/kg DM) ad-libitum plus 4kgs/hd/day of a dairy concentrate (233g CP/kg DM). Urea (460g N/kg DM) was used as a source of degradable protein (10g/kg DM) for the MS diet which also included straw (40g/kg DM). Dietary NDF equalled 542 and 423g/kg DM for the GS and MS diet.
Pig producers are under pressure from cost production and are having to become increasingly environmentally aware. Phase-feeding has been suggested as an alternative feeding strategy, which may have the potential to improve productivity and reduce nitrogen excretion in the growing-finishing period. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of mono- versus tri-phase feeding on pig performance and nitrogen balance.
Big bale silage has become increasingly popular on many livestock farms in Ireland yet there is limited information on its use for sheep. The objective of this experiment was to compare the effects of feeding chopped or unchopped big bale silage, pit silage and hay when supplemented with either a barley or a molassed sugar beet pulp based concentrate when fed to ewes in late pregnancy on feed intake, ewe weight and body condition score changes, gestation length, lamb birth weight and colostrum yield.
Sixty four mature lowland cross ewes (8/treatment) were oestrus synchronised in October and mated to terminal sire breeds (Suffolk, Texel or Charollais). The ewes were housed, winter shorn and pregnancy scanned in December, following which twin bearing animals were allocated to a 4 x 2 factorial experiment and individually fed either un-chopped or chopped big bale silage which had been wilted for 36-48 hours as is usual for this type of forage, pit silage, which had been wilted for 18-24 hours or hay.
The Molonglo Observatory Synthesis Telescope (MOST) is an 18000 m2 radio telescope located 40 km from Canberra, Australia. Its operating band (820–851 MHz) is partly allocated to telecommunications, making radio astronomy challenging. We describe how the deployment of new digital receivers, Field Programmable Gate Array-based filterbanks, and server-class computers equipped with 43 Graphics Processing Units, has transformed the telescope into a versatile new instrument (UTMOST) for studying the radio sky on millisecond timescales. UTMOST has 10 times the bandwidth and double the field of view compared to the MOST, and voltage record and playback capability has facilitated rapid implementaton of many new observing modes, most of which operate commensally. UTMOST can simultaneously excise interference, make maps, coherently dedisperse pulsars, and perform real-time searches of coherent fan-beams for dispersed single pulses. UTMOST operates as a robotic facility, deciding how to efficiently target pulsars and how long to stay on source via real-time pulsar folding, while searching for single pulse events. Regular timing of over 300 pulsars has yielded seven pulsar glitches and three Fast Radio Bursts during commissioning. UTMOST demonstrates that if sufficient signal processing is applied to voltage streams, innovative science remains possible even in hostile radio frequency environments.
A long standing issue in Astronomy is the amount of unseen matter in the Galactic disk. This has been addressed many times since Oort (1960) showed that about half the local disk mass is in unseen material. Oort's method infers the disk mass via the vertical change in density and velocity dispersion of appropriate tracer stars. Recently, Kuijken and Gilmore (1989) analysed a sample of K dwarfs at the South Galactic Pole and found in fact no compelling evidence for dark matter in the disk — a conclusion also reached by Bienaymé, Robin and Crézé (1987) based on faint star count data. However, Bahcall, Flynn and Gould (BFG, 1992), analysed K giants at the South Galactic Pole, and while they corroborated the Oort result, they could state at only the 85% confidence level that at least some disk matter is ‘missing’. Here we describe the Flynn and Fuchs (1994) analysis of a sample of nearby K-giants, which they combine with the BFG sample. The combined sample can be well fit without dark matter in the disk. The fit can be improved using a small amount of disk dark matter: our best fit has a disk surface density of Σ⊙ = 53 ± 13 M⊙ pc−2, compared to Σ⊙ = 49 ± 9 M⊙ pc−2 for the known disk matter. We conclude the disk is relatively light and the dark halo makes a significant contribution to the rotation curve at the sun.