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The COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins) project is a large international collaborative effort to analyze individual-level phenotype data from twins in multiple cohorts from different environments. The main objective is to study factors that modify genetic and environmental variation of height, body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and size at birth, and additionally to address other research questions such as long-term consequences of birth size. The project started in 2013 and is open to all twin projects in the world having height and weight measures on twins with information on zygosity. Thus far, 54 twin projects from 24 countries have provided individual-level data. The CODATwins database includes 489,981 twin individuals (228,635 complete twin pairs). Since many twin cohorts have collected longitudinal data, there is a total of 1,049,785 height and weight observations. For many cohorts, we also have information on birth weight and length, own smoking behavior and own or parental education. We found that the heritability estimates of height and BMI systematically changed from infancy to old age. Remarkably, only minor differences in the heritability estimates were found across cultural–geographic regions, measurement time and birth cohort for height and BMI. In addition to genetic epidemiological studies, we looked at associations of height and BMI with education, birth weight and smoking status. Within-family analyses examined differences within same-sex and opposite-sex dizygotic twins in birth size and later development. The CODATwins project demonstrates the feasibility and value of international collaboration to address gene-by-exposure interactions that require large sample sizes and address the effects of different exposures across time, geographical regions and socioeconomic status.
Background: Cervical sponylotic myelopathy (CSM) may present with neck and arm pain. This study investiagtes the change in neck/arm pain post-operatively in CSM. Methods: This ambispective study llocated 402 patients through the Canadian Spine Outcomes and Research Network. Outcome measures were the visual analogue scales for neck and arm pain (VAS-NP and VAS-AP) and the neck disability index (NDI). The thresholds for minimum clinically important differences (MCIDs) for VAS-NP and VAS-AP were determined to be 2.6 and 4.1. Results: VAS-NP improved from mean of 5.6±2.9 to 3.8±2.7 at 12 months (P<0.001). VAS-AP improved from 5.8±2.9 to 3.5±3.0 at 12 months (P<0.001). The MCIDs for VAS-NP and VAS-AP were also reached at 12 months. Based on the NDI, patients were grouped into those with mild pain/no pain (33%) versus moderate/severe pain (67%). At 3 months, a significantly high proportion of patients with moderate/severe pain (45.8%) demonstrated an improvement into mild/no pain, whereas 27.2% with mild/no pain demonstrated worsening into moderate/severe pain (P <0.001). At 12 months, 17.4% with mild/no pain experienced worsening of their NDI (P<0.001). Conclusions: This study suggests that neck and arm pain responds to surgical decompression in patients with CSM and reaches the MCIDs for VAS-AP and VAS-NP at 12 months.
Background: Buprenorphine/naloxone (bup/nal) is a partial opioid agonist/antagonist and recommended first line treatment for opioid use disorder (OUD). Emergency departments (EDs) are a key point of contact with the healthcare system for patients living with OUD. Aim Statement: We implemented a multi-disciplinary quality improvement project to screen patients for OUD, initiate bup/nal for eligible individuals, and provide rapid next business day walk-in referrals to addiction clinics in the community. Measures & Design: From May to September 2018, our team worked with three ED sites and three addiction clinics to pilot the program. Implementation involved alignment with regulatory requirements, physician education, coordination with pharmacy to ensure in-ED medication access, and nurse education. The project is supported by a full-time project manager, data analyst, operations leaders, physician champions, provincial pharmacy, and the Emergency Strategic Clinical Network leadership team. For our pilot, our evaluation objective was to determine the degree to which our initiation and referral pathway was being utilized. We used administrative data to track the number of patients given bup/nal in ED, their demographics and whether they continued to fill bup/nal prescriptions 30 days after their ED visit. Addiction clinics reported both the number of patients referred to them and the number of patients attending their referral. Evaluation/Results: Administrative data shows 568 opioid-related visits to ED pilot sites during the pilot phase. Bup/nal was given to 60 unique patients in the ED during 66 unique visits. There were 32 (53%) male patients and 28 (47%) female patients. Median patient age was 34 (range: 21 to 79). ED visits where bup/nal was given had a median length of stay of 6 hours 57 minutes (IQR: 6 hours 20 minutes) and Canadian Triage Acuity Scores as follows: Level 1 – 1 (2%), Level 2 – 21 (32%), Level 3 – 32 (48%), Level 4 – 11 (17%), Level 5 – 1 (2%). 51 (77%) of these visits led to discharge. 24 (47%) discharged patients given bup/nal in ED continued to fill bup/nal prescriptions 30 days after their index ED visit. EDs also referred 37 patients with OUD to the 3 community clinics, and 16 of those individuals (43%) attended their first follow-up appointment. Discussion/Impact: Our pilot project demonstrates that with dedicated resources and broad institutional support, ED patients with OUD can be appropriately initiated on bup/nal and referred to community care.
The degree of crystallinity and unit cell parameters have been determined using WAXS on a number of compression molded high-density polyethylene (HDPE) plaques processed at widely varying conditions of crystallization and annealing times and temperatures. Changes in unit cell parameters with variations in processing conditions can be explained in terms of increases in lamellar thickness of polyethylene crystals with increasing thermal treatments. Concomitant increases in the degree of crystallinity of these samples can also be explained in terms of lamellar thickening and other changes in polyethylene morphology. Crystallinity determinations using XRD data are also compared with values determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Comparisons of crystallinity values obtained by these three different techniques can reveal details of the morphology of HDPE including the presence of an interfacial zone in addition to the crystalline and amorphous components of the system.
The intent of this study was to determine whether there are differences in disaster preparedness between urban and rural community hospitals across New York State.
Descriptive and analytical cross-sectional survey study of 207 community hospitals; thirty-five questions evaluated 6 disaster preparedness elements: disaster plan development, on-site surge capacity, available materials and resources, disaster education and training, disaster preparedness funding levels, and perception of disaster preparedness.
Completed surveys were received from 48 urban hospitals and 32 rural hospitals.There were differences in disaster preparedness between urban and rural hospitals with respect to disaster plan development, on-site surge capacity, available materials and resources, disaster education and training, and perception of disaster preparedness. No difference was identified between these hospitals with respect to disaster preparedness funding levels.
The results of this study provide an assessment of the current state of disaster preparedness in urban and rural community hospitals in New York. Differences in preparedness between the two settings may reflect differing priorities with respect to perceived threats, as well as opportunities for improvement that may require additional advocacy and legislation. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:424-428)
Children of parents with major mood and psychotic disorders are at increased risk of psychopathology, including psychotic symptoms. It has been suggested that the risk of psychosis may be more often transmitted from parent to opposite-sex offspring (e.g., from father to daughter) than to same-sex offspring (e.g., from father to son). To test whether sex-specific transmission extends to early manifestations of psychosis, we examined sex-specific contributions to psychotic symptoms among offspring of mothers and fathers with depression, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. We assessed psychotic symptoms in 309 offspring (160 daughters and 149 sons) aged 8–24 years (mean=13.1, s.d.=4.3), of whom 113 had a mother with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or major depression and 43 had a father with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or major depression. In semi-structured interviews, 130 (42%) offspring had definite psychotic symptoms established and confirmed by psychiatrists on one or more assessments. We tested the effects of mental illness in parents on same-sex and opposite-sex offspring psychotic symptoms in mixed-effect logistic regression models. Psychotic symptoms were more prevalent among daughters of affected fathers and sons of affected mothers than among offspring of the same sex as their affected parent. Mental illness in the opposite-sex parent increased the odds of psychotic symptoms (odds ratio (OR)=2.65, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.43–4.91, P=0.002), but mental illness in the same-sex parent did not have a significant effect on psychotic symptoms in offspring (OR=1.13, 95% CI 0.61–2.07, P=0.697). The opposite-sex-specific parent-of-origin effects may suggest X chromosome-linked genetic transmission or inherited chromosomal modifications in the etiology of psychotic symptoms.
Background: We aimed to identify preoperative predictors of survival in Metastatic Epidural Spinal Cord Compression (MESCC) patients surgically treated, examine how these predictors relate to eight prognostic models, and to perform the first full external validation of these models in accordance with the TRIPOD statement. Methods: 142 surgically treated MESCC patients were enrolled in a prospective, multicenter cohort study and followed for 12 months or until death. Cox proportional hazards (PH) regressions were used. Non-collinear predictors with <10% missing data, ≥10 events per stratum and p<0.05 in univariable analysis were tested through a backward stepwise selection. For the original and revised Tokuhashi, Tomita, modified Bauer, van der Linden, Bartels, OSRI, Bartels and Bollen, we examined calibration and discrimination; survival stratified by risk groups with the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. Results: Primary tumor, organ metastasis and SF-36v2 PC were associated with survival in multivariable analysis; corrected discrimination was 0.68. These three predictors were common to most current prognostic models. However, calibration was poor overall while discrimation was possibly helpful. Conclusions: Primary tumor type (breast, prostate and thyroid), absence of organ metastasis, and a lower degree of physical disability are preoperative predictors of longer survival in surgical MESCC patients. Clinicians should use these 8 prognostic models with caution.
Recent analysis pointed towards visual imaging analysis (VIA), which yields pig body size measures and shape indices from two-dimensional visual images of living pigs, as a potential technique for estimating fat and lean content in pig carcasses (Doeschl et al., 2004). The present analysis further explored the potential of using VIA body size and shape indices as indicators of the proportion of lean and fat in various carcass joints, either alone or in combination with ultrasonic backfat depth of the live animal. Due to increasing interest in the shape of retail cuts in the meat industry, the association between VIA size measures and the dimensions of the longissimus dorsi and gluteobiceps muscles is also assessed.
Adolescent psychotic experiences increase risk for schizophrenia and other severe psychopathology in adulthood. Converging evidence implicates urban and adverse neighborhood conditions in the etiology of adolescent psychotic experiences, but the role of young people's personal perceptions of disorder (i.e., physical and social signs of threat) in their neighborhood is unknown. This was examined using data from the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally representative birth cohort of 2,232 British twins. Participants were interviewed at age 18 about psychotic phenomena and perceptions of disorder in the neighborhood. Multilevel, longitudinal, and genetically sensitive analyses investigated the association between perceptions of neighborhood disorder and adolescent psychotic experiences. Adolescents who perceived higher levels of neighborhood disorder were significantly more likely to have psychotic experiences, even after accounting for objectively/independently measured levels of crime and disorder, neighborhood- and family-level socioeconomic status, family psychiatric history, adolescent substance and mood problems, and childhood psychotic symptoms: odds ratio = 1.62, 95% confidence interval [1.27, 2.05], p < .001. The phenotypic overlap between adolescent psychotic experiences and perceptions of neighborhood disorder was explained by overlapping common environmental influences, rC = .88, 95% confidence interval [0.26, 1.00]. Findings suggest that early psychological interventions to prevent adolescent psychotic experiences should explore the role of young people's (potentially modifiable) perceptions of threatening neighborhood conditions.
Visual imaging systems provide daily plan (overhead) measurements of pigs. These allow monitoring and control of pig growth, as is essential to production efficiency. Schofield et al., 1999 suggest that size measurements can provide accurate estimates of live weight, but a description of growth in terms of size and shape may also give a direct quantification of body form and value. This report presents analyses of the growth of pigs of two commercial breed types in terms of live weight, body plan area and ham width, and examines the relationship between observed body shapes of living pigs and their dissected body composition.
In the past, several empirical firn-densification models have been developed fitted to measured density–depth profiles from Greenland and Antarctica. These models do not specifically deal with refreezing of meltwater in the firn. Ice lenses are usually indirectly taken into account by choosing a suitable value of the surface snow density. In the present study, a simple densification model is developed that specifically accounts for the content of ice lenses in the snowpack. An annual layer is considered to be composed of an ice fraction and a firn fraction. It is assumed that all meltwater formed at the surface in one year will refreeze in the corresponding annual layer, and that no additional melting or refreezing occurs in deeper layers. With this assumption, further densification is solely controlled by compaction of the firn fraction of the annual layer. Comparison of modelled and observed depth–density profiles from Canadian Arctic ice-core sites with large melting–refreezing percentages shows good agreement. The model is also used to estimate the long-term surface elevation change in interior Greenland that will result from temperature-driven changes of density–depth profiles. These surface elevation changes reflect a volume change of the ice sheet with no corresponding change of mass, i.e. a volume change that does not influence global sea level.
Psychotic symptoms are common in children and adolescents and may be early manifestations of liability to severe mental illness (SMI), including schizophrenia. SMI and psychotic symptoms are associated with impairment in executive functions. However, previous studies have not differentiated between ‘cold’ and ‘hot’ executive functions. We hypothesized that the propensity for psychotic symptoms is specifically associated with impairment in ‘hot’ executive functions, such as decision-making in the context of uncertain rewards and losses.
In a cohort of 156 youth (mean age 12.5, range 7–24 years) enriched for familial risk of SMI, we measured cold and hot executive functions with the spatial working memory (SWM) task (total errors) and the Cambridge Gambling Task (decision-making), respectively. We assessed psychotic symptoms using the semi-structured Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia interview, Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes, Funny Feelings, and Schizophrenia Proneness Instrument – Child and Youth version.
In total 69 (44.23%) youth reported psychotic symptoms on one or more assessments. Cold executive functioning, indexed with SWM errors, was not significantly related to psychotic symptoms [odds ratio (OR) 1.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.85–2.17, p = 0.204). Poor hot executive functioning, indexed as decision-making score, was associated with psychotic symptoms after adjustment for age, sex and familial clustering (OR 2.37, 95% CI 1.25–4.50, p = 0.008). The association between worse hot executive functions and psychotic symptoms remained significant in sensitivity analyses controlling for general cognitive ability and cold executive functions.
Impaired hot executive functions may be an indicator of risk and a target for pre-emptive early interventions in youth.
A compilation of mean values of the oxygen-isotope ratio relative to
standard mean ocean water (δ18O, in ‰) for 22 siIes
representative of conditions in northeastern Canada is complemented with
data on mean annual surface temperature, latitude, surface elevation, and
mean annual shortest distance to open ocean denoted by the 10% sea-ice
concentration boundary. Stepwise regression analysis is used to develop a
multivariate model suitable to inter the distribution of δ18O in
an area of complex topography and possibly mixed sourcing of advected water
vapor. The best model is produced by a run in the backward mode at the 95%
confidence level in which only temperature, latitude and distance to the
open ocean remain in the model (the correlation coefficient is 0.915, the
adjusted coefficient of determination is 0.809, the root mean square
residual is 1.62). This model is similar to the best δ18O
predictive model derived elsewhere for Greenland, suggesting a common
principal source of advected moisture.
The science and practice of poultry nutrition has changed greatly over the last hundred years, moving from a backyard enterprise to the modern computer-controlled production of whole diets formulated to specific nutrient compositions. This has become possible as a result of the identification of individual nutrients and their metabolic roles. Although the word ‘protein’ was first used in 1834, it was not until the 1950s that the avalanche of research on protein and amino acid requirements of poultry started. Energy content of feeds did not become a consideration until the 1940s when the concept of metabolisable energy was introduced. The term ‘vitamin’ was first proposed in 1912 to describe the essentiality of thiamine. The term was later extended to cover other essential compounds needed in small quantities. By the 1940s all the remaining 12 vitamins had been identified, and in the 1970s the importance of the vitamin D metabolites was discovered. The importance of calcium and phosphorus for both growing and laying birds was identified in the early stages of poultry keeping and requirements and dietary ratios were established. More recently, the introduction of feed phytase has allowed lowering of both phosphorus and calcium concentrations. Carbohydrase enzymes have also been development for addition to feeds. The importance of sodium, phosphorus and chloride in maintaining electrolyte balance was identified. Trace minerals were usually supplemented in diets as inorganic salts but organic chelates or proteinates have been found in recent years to be absorbed more efficiently. Antibiotics were widely used as growth promoters but their banning, especially in Europe, has led to the search for alternative additives with growth or health benefits. Poultry nutrition is now a scientifically mature subject but changes in industrial practice can be expected to continue, though probably at a slower pace than in recent years.
We examined functional outcomes and quality of life of whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) with integrated fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy boost (FSRT) for brain metastases treatment. Methods Eighty seven people with 1-3 brain metastases were enrolled on this Phase II trial of WBRT (30Gy/10)+simultaneous FSRT, (60Gy/10). Results Mean (Min-Max) baseline KPS, Mini Mental Status Exam (MMSE) and FACT-BR quality of life were 83 (70-100), 28 (21-30) and 143 (98-153). Lower baseline MMSE (but not KPS or FACT-Br) was associated with worse survival after adjusting for age, number of metastases, primary and extra-cranial disease status. Crude rates of deterioration (>10 points decrease from baseline for KPS and FACT-Br, MMSE fall to<27) ranged from 26-38% for KPS, 32-59% for FACT-Br and 0-16%for MMSE depending on the time-point assessed with higher rates generally noted at earlier time points (<6months post-treatment). Using a linear mixed models analysis, significant declines from baseline were noted for KPS and FACT-Br (largest effects at 6 weeks to 3 months) with no significant change in MMSE. Conclusions The effects on function and quality of life of this integrated treatment of WBRT+simultaneous FSRT were similar to other published series combining WBRT+SRS.
The following is a partial list of samples of archaeological interest processed between February 1981 and October 1985 at the Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS) Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory. The list contains samples from west-central Illinois that were related to projects conducted by current or former researchers at the Center for American Archeology (CAA) (formerly Foundation for Illinois Archaeology) and Northwestern University, Department of Anthropology, or, as noted, by colleagues from other institutions. Although some of the samples reported here came from non-cultural contexts and are primarily of geological significance, all were from or related to archaeological investigations.