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Disease surveillance in wildlife populations presents a logistical challenge, yet is critical in gaining a deeper understanding of the presence and impact of wildlife pathogens. Erinaceus coronavirus (EriCoV), a clade C Betacoronavirus, was first described in Western European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) in Germany. Here, our objective was to determine whether EriCoV is present, and if it is associated with disease, in Great Britain (GB). An EriCoV-specific BRYT-Green® real-time reverse transcription PCR assay was used to test 351 samples of faeces or distal large intestinal tract contents collected from casualty or dead hedgehogs from a wide area across GB. Viral RNA was detected in 10.8% (38) samples; however, the virus was not detected in any of the 61 samples tested from Scotland. The full genome sequence of the British EriCoV strain was determined using next generation sequencing; it shared 94% identity with a German EriCoV sequence. Multivariate statistical models using hedgehog case history data, faecal specimen descriptions and post-mortem examination findings found no significant associations indicative of disease associated with EriCoV in hedgehogs. These findings indicate that the Western European hedgehog is a reservoir host of EriCoV in the absence of apparent disease.
Neutron powder diffraction techniques have been used to characterize the pseudo-macro (PM) residual stresses in ZrO2(CeO2)/Al2O3 ceramic composites as a function of ZrO2(CeO2) volume fraction and fabrication procedures. The diffraction data were analyzed using the Rietveld structure refinement technique. From the refinement, we found that the CeO2 stabilized tetragonal ZrO2 particles were in tension and the Al2O3 matrix was in compression. Different sintering time had little impact on the PM stresses. On the other hand, the magnitude of the PM stresses in both ZrO2 and Al2O3 decreased linearly with the increase of their volume fractions.
Laser-based compact MeV X-ray sources are useful for a variety of applications such as radiography and active interrogation of nuclear materials. MeV X rays are typically generated by impinging the intense laser onto ~mm-thick high-Z foil. Here, we have characterized such a MeV X-ray source from 120 TW (80 J, 650 fs) laser interaction with a 1 mm-thick tantalum foil. Our measurements show X-ray temperature of 2.5 MeV, flux of 3 × 1012 photons/sr/shot, beam divergence of ~0.1 sr, conversion efficiency of ~1%, that is, ~1 J of MeV X rays out of 80 J incident laser, and source size of 80 m. Our measurement also shows that MeV X-ray yield and temperature is largely insensitive to nanosecond laser contrasts up to 10−5. Also, preliminary measurements of similar MeV X-ray source using a double-foil scheme, where the laser-driven hot electrons from a thin foil undergoing relativistic transparency impinging onto a second high-Z converter foil separated by 50–400 m, show MeV X-ray yield more than an order of magnitude lower compared with the single-foil results.
Measurements in the infrared wavelength domain allow direct assessment of the physical state and energy balance of cool matter in space, enabling the detailed study of the processes that govern the formation and evolution of stars and planetary systems in galaxies over cosmic time. Previous infrared missions revealed a great deal about the obscured Universe, but were hampered by limited sensitivity.
SPICA takes the next step in infrared observational capability by combining a large 2.5-meter diameter telescope, cooled to below 8 K, with instruments employing ultra-sensitive detectors. A combination of passive cooling and mechanical coolers will be used to cool both the telescope and the instruments. With mechanical coolers the mission lifetime is not limited by the supply of cryogen. With the combination of low telescope background and instruments with state-of-the-art detectors SPICA provides a huge advance on the capabilities of previous missions.
SPICA instruments offer spectral resolving power ranging from R ~50 through 11 000 in the 17–230 μm domain and R ~28.000 spectroscopy between 12 and 18 μm. SPICA will provide efficient 30–37 μm broad band mapping, and small field spectroscopic and polarimetric imaging at 100, 200 and 350 μm. SPICA will provide infrared spectroscopy with an unprecedented sensitivity of ~5 × 10−20 W m−2 (5σ/1 h)—over two orders of magnitude improvement over what earlier missions. This exceptional performance leap, will open entirely new domains in infrared astronomy; galaxy evolution and metal production over cosmic time, dust formation and evolution from very early epochs onwards, the formation history of planetary systems.
Metamaterials offer the possibility to control and manipulate electromagnetic radiation. Spoof surface plasmon metamaterials are the focus of this Element of the Metamaterials Series. The fundamentals of spoof surface plasmons are reviewed, and advances on plasmonic metamaterials based on spoof plasmons are presented. Spoof surface plasmon metamaterials on a wide range of geometries are discussed: from planar platforms to waveguides and localized modes, including cylindrical structures, grooves, wedges, dominos or conformal surface plasmons in ultrathin platforms. The Element closes with a review of recent advances and applications such as Terahertz sensing or integrated devices and circuits.
The present study aimed to (i) assess the appetitive drives evoked by the visual cues of ultra-processed food and drink products and (ii) investigate whether text warnings reduce appetitive drives and consumers’ reported intentions to eat or drink ultra-processed products.
In Study I, a well-established psychometric tool was applied to estimate the appetitive drives associated with ultra-processed products using sixty-four image representations. Sixteen product types with four exemplars of a given product were included. Pictures from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) served as controls. The two exemplars of each product type rated as more appetitive were selected for investigation in the second study. Study II assessed the impact of textual warnings on the appetitive drive towards these thirty-two exemplars. Each participant was exposed to two picture exemplars of the same product type preceded by a text warning or a control text. After viewing each displayed picture, the participants reported their emotional reactions and their intention to consume the product.
Controlled classroom experiments
Undergraduate students (Study I: n 215, 135 women; Study II: n 98, 52 women).
In Study I, the pictures of ultra-processed products prompted an appetitive motivation associated with the products’ nutritional content. In Study II, text warnings were effective in reducing the intention to consume and the appetitive drive evoked by ultra-processed products.
This research provides initial evidence favouring the use of text warnings as a public policy tool to curb the powerful influence of highly appetitive ultra-processed food cues.
The mid-infrared range contains many spectral features associated with large molecules and dust grains such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and silicates. These are usually very strong compared to fine-structure gas lines, and thus valuable in studying the spectral properties of faint distant galaxies. In this paper, we evaluate the capability of low-resolution mid-infrared spectroscopic surveys of galaxies that could be performed by SPICA. The surveys are designed to address the question how star formation and black hole accretion activities evolved over cosmic time through spectral diagnostics of the physical conditions of the interstellar/circumnuclear media in galaxies. On the basis of results obtained with Herschel far-infrared photometric surveys of distant galaxies and Spitzer and AKARI near- to mid-infrared spectroscopic observations of nearby galaxies, we estimate the numbers of the galaxies at redshift z > 0.5, which are expected to be detected in the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon features or dust continuum by a wide (10 deg2) or deep (1 deg2) blind survey, both for a given observation time of 600 h. As by-products of the wide blind survey, we also expect to detect debris disks, through the mid-infrared excess above the photospheric emission of nearby main-sequence stars, and we estimate their number. We demonstrate that the SPICA mid-infrared surveys will efficiently provide us with unprecedentedly large spectral samples, which can be studied further in the far-infrared with SPICA.
Many snow models have been developed for various applications such as hydrology, global atmospheric circulation models and avalanche forecasting. The degree of complexity of these models is highly variable, ranging from simple index methods to multi-layer models that simulate snow-cover stratigraphy and texture. In the framework of the Snow Model Intercomparison Project (SnowMIP), 23 models were compared using observed meteorological parameters from two mountainous alpine sites. The analysis here focuses on validation of snow energy-budget simulations. Albedo and snow surface temperature observations allow identification of the more realistic simulations and quantification of errors for two components of the energy budget: the net short- and longwave radiation. In particular, the different albedo parameterizations are evaluated for different snowpack states (in winter and spring). Analysis of results during the melting period allows an investigation of the different ways of partitioning the energy fluxes and reveals the complex feedbacks which occur when simulating the snow energy budget. Particular attention is paid to the impact of model complexity on the energy-budget components. The model complexity has a major role for the net longwave radiation calculation, whereas the albedo parameterization is the most significant factor explaining the accuracy of the net shortwave radiation simulation.
We describe the DR14 APOGEE-TGAS catalogue, a new SDSS value-added catalogue that provides precise astrophysical parameters, chemical abundances, astro-spectro- photometric distances and extinctions, as well as orbital parameters for ~30, 000 APOGEE-TGAS stars, among them ~5, 000 high-quality giant stars within 1 kpc.
A Q fever outbreak was declared in February 2016 in a company that manufactures hoists and chains and therefore with no apparent occupational-associated risk. Coxiella burnetii infection was diagnosed by serology in eight of the 29 workers of the company; seven of them had fever or flu-like signs and five had pneumonia, one requiring hospitalisation. A further case of C. burnetii pneumonia was diagnosed in a local resident. Real-time PCR (RTi–PCR) showed a widespread distribution of C. burnetii DNA in dust samples collected from the plant facilities, thus confirming the exposure of workers to the infection inside the factory. Epidemiological investigations identified a goat flock with high C. burnetii seroprevalence and active shedding which was owned and managed by one of the workers of the company as possible source of infection. Genotyping by multispacer sequence typing (MST) and a 10-loci single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discrimination using RTi–PCR identified the same genotype (MST18 and SNP type 8, respectively) in the farm and the factory. These results confirmed the link between the goat farm and the outbreak and allowed the identification of the source of infection. The circumstances and possible vehicles for the bacteria entering the factory are discussed.
To search for studies on tongue–lip adhesion and tongue repositioning used as isolated treatments for obstructive sleep apnoea in children with Pierre Robin sequence.
A systematic literature search of PubMed/Medline and three additional databases, from inception through to 8 July 2016, was performed by two authors.
Seven studies with 90 patients (59 tongue–lip adhesion and 31 tongue repositioning patients) met the inclusion criteria. Tongue–lip adhesion reduced the mean (± standard deviation) apnoea/hypopnoea index from 30.8 ± 22.3 to 15.4 ± 18.9 events per hour (50 per cent reduction). The apnoea/hypopnoea index mean difference for tongue–lip adhesion was −15.28 events per hour (95 per cent confidence interval = −30.70 to 0.15; p = 0.05). Tongue–lip adhesion improved the lowest oxygen saturation from 75.8 ± 6.8 to 84.4 ± 7.3 per cent. Tongue repositioning reduced the apnoea/hypopnoea index from 46.5 to 17.4 events per hour (62.6 per cent reduction). Tongue repositioning improved the mean oxygen saturation from 90.8 ± 1.2 to 95.0 ± 0.5 per cent.
Tongue–lip adhesion and tongue repositioning can improve apnoea/hypopnoea index and oxygenation parameters in children with Pierre Robin sequence and obstructive sleep apnoea.
A bioeconomic model is used to estimate how managing glyphosate resistance to horseweed affects short- and long-run profits in corn, soybean, and corn-soybean rotation systems. Model results found that resistance management reduces profits in the first year of implementation, but increases profits in the second and subsequent 18 yr. In all three systems, long run gains begin to outweigh short-run costs (and resistance management “pays for itself”) by the second year. Over a 20-yr horizon, the estimated annual average profit advantage from managing resistance exceeded $158 ha–1 ($64/acre) for corn, $137 ha–1 ($55/acre) for corn-soybean, and $55 ha–1 ($22/acre) for soybean. Seed immigration from a neighbor's field can reduce these gains, but this reduction is negligible if the neighbor also practices resistance management. If the neighbor did not manage resistance, however, the grower's estimated annual profit advantage fell to roughly $123 ha–1 ($50/acre) for corn, $60 ha–1 ($24/acre) for the corn-soybean rotation, and virtually zero for soybean. Methods applied in this study identify corn and corn-soybean rotations as cases where resistance management “pays for itself' quickly and significantly, even if the neighbor does not manage resistance. Continuous soybean presents a more challenging case that may require additional programs and incentives to encourage collective resistance management among growers. Even for continuous soybean, however, joint grower–neighbor resistance management can pay for itself within 2 yr.
Emerging evidence highlights the far-reaching consequences of high-fat diet (HFD) and obesity on kidney morphological and functional disorders. In the present study, we aim to evaluate the effects of early HFD intake on renal function and morphology in maternal protein-restricted offspring (LP). LP and normal protein-intake offspring (NP) were fed HFD (LPH and NPH, respectively) or standard rodent (LPN and NPN) diet from the 8th to 13th week of age. Blood pressure, kidney function, immunohistochemistry and scanning electron microscopy were analyzed. Increased total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein serum levels were observed in LPH offspring. The adiposity index was reduced in the (LPN) group and, conversely, increased in the NPH and LPH groups. Blood pressure was higher beyond the 10th week of age in the LPH group compared with the other groups. Decreased urinary sodium excretion was observed in LP offspring, whereas the HFD-treated groups presented a decreased urine pH in a time-dependent fashion. The LPN, NPH and LPH groups showed increased expression of type 1 angiotensin II (AngII) receptor (AT1R), TGF-β1, collagen and fibronectin in the kidneys. Moreover, the adult fetal-programmed offspring showed pronounced effacement of the podocyte foot process associated with the rupture of cell membranes and striking urinary protein excretion, exacerbated by HFD treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating that young fetal-programmed offspring submitted to long-term HFD intake have increased susceptibility to renal structural and functional disorders associated with an accentuated stage of fibrosis and tubular dysfunction.
The possibilities of Ni as contact material in electronic applications has motivated the interest on the intermetallic phases of the Ni-Sb system, in relation to their use in lead free micro-soldering processes. In this work, a detailed theoretical study of the cohesive and thermodynamic properties of the compound Ni3Sb in the (cF16) Fm-3m structure is reported. To this aim, the Full Potential Linearized Augmented Plane Waves method, within the framework of the Density Functional Theory and both Generalized Gradient and Local Density approximations, has been applied. The structural parameters, cohesive and elastic properties of this compound and its constituent elements have been determined. In particular, the equilibrium structural properties are determined through the minimization of the energy, including the full relaxation of the internal degrees of freedom of the cell. It is shown that the calculated properties agree well with the available experimental data. Moreover, various contributions to the electronic density of sates are studied. On this basis, a discussion is presented of the bonding characteristics of this compound, in the framework of the current ideas about cohesion in p-d bonded intermetallics.
Chemical and isotopic analyses have been made of pigment samples from two separate rock art sites in Argentina. The purpose of the study has been to establish the feasibility of extracting carbonaceous material from the samples which will permit reliable radiocarbon dates for the time of painting. The two sites, Catamarca and Rio Negro, present quite different problems. Most of the paper is concerned with Catamarca, and here we have shown that the paint pigments contain very little or no organic binder; but they do contain calcium oxalate derived from local cacti, and calcium carbonate derived probably from local plant ash. We describe a method to purify carbon extracted from the calcium oxalate, and present the dates obtained on both components. We show that, though rare, natural deposits containing both calcium oxalate and calcite do occur, but that they are very distinct in both 13C and 14C compositions; and we argue that they are very unlikely to contaminate the pigments to such an extent that the 14C dates are altered. For the Rio Negro site we show that the ground for the paint pigments contains carbon derived from fires burnt inside the cave, and discuss how analytical methods provide information to develop a strategy for extracting material, from both ground and pigment, for more reliable dating.
A 26-day trial with 18 Pietrain×(Landrace×Duroc) pigs was conducted to investigate the effect of two dose levels of a specifically selected Bacillus spp. direct-fed microbial (DFM) product, on the emission of environmentally harmful gasses (methane, ammonia and hydrogen sulphide) from manure. Pigs were assigned to one of three treatments in a randomized complete block design according to their sex and initial BW. Each treatment contained three replications with two pigs per pen. The test treatments included a Bacillus spp. DFM containing 3×108 colony-forming unit/g, added at a low (250 mg/kg) and high (500 mg/kg) dose to an antibiotic free high fibre-based diet, and a non-supplemented control diet. Manure from pigs fed with the supplemented diets emitted lower amounts of atmospheric contaminants. The most significant reduction was observed with low DFM supplementation, in which methane and ammonia volatilization decreased (P<0.05) by >40% and 50%, respectively, on fresh weight basis in relation to the control. Microbiome analysis of manure by high through put sequencing techniques on eubacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes highlighted the complex interactions between indigenous gut microflora and inoculated Bacillus spp. The tested Bacillus DFM could be considered as a best available technique in reducing the environmental impacts of growing pigs fed with high fibre-based diets.
We report the discovery of the first low–mass pre–main sequence eclipsing binary among a sample of double-lined spectroscopic binaries in the Orion star forming region found in a previous high-resolution spectroscopic investigation on ROSAT–discovered weak-T Tauri stars. Here we present the preliminary results from the combined analysis of the spectroscopic orbit and B and V light–curves, using data available till spring 2000. We then compare the fundamental stellar parameters derived from the orbital solution with those inferred from some widely used theoretical evolutionary models.
The δ Scuti stars are pulsating variables located in the lower part of the Cepheid instability strip with spectral types from A2 to F0 on the main sequence, and from A3 to F5 at luminosity class III. These variables show short periods (< 0.3day) and luminosity amplitudes ranging from a few thousandths of a magnitude to several tenths. Over the last few years, significant progress has been made in the detection of pulsating modes in the framework of the multisite campaigns, e.g. STACC (Frandsen et al. 1996), DSN (Breger et al. 1998), STEPHI (Michel et al. 2000). For the 1998 STEPHI IX photometry campaign, the δ Scuti star V534 Tau of the Pleiades cluster (see Table 1) was monitored during a three week, three continent run. Preliminary results are reported here.